Elizabeth
June 1583, 21-30

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Institute of Historical Research

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Arthur John Butler and Sophie Crawford Lomas (editors)

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1913

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408-429

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'Elizabeth: June 1583, 21-30', Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Elizabeth, Volume 17: January-June 1583 and addenda (1913), pp. 408-429. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=78937 Date accessed: 26 July 2014.


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June 1583, 21–31

June 21.377. Cobham to Walsingham.
In respect of the service which Mr. Charles Smythe does to the Queen, and at his request, I have given this satisfaction to the bearer hereof, his son, 'as' to deliver him these letters; the rather that I hear he is very honestly inclined.
I beseech you to show such favour to my servant Benedict Barwycke, that he may, if you please, return with your next dispatch. He was so vexed here with an ague that he was constrained in May to repair into England for the better recovery of his health. If I may stand you in stead in any sort, it is in your power to dispose of me at your pleasure.—Paris, 21 June 1583.
Add. Endd. ½ p. [France IX. 127.]
June 21.378. Cobham to Walsingham.
I received, by Mr. Baker, this 'bringer' your letters, and have according to your will offered him such courtesy and honest entertainment as in this place I could for the present in any sort perform. I have at this instant dispatched Mr. Smithe with letters to you; and make account he will arrive long before this, because he takes the post.—Paris, 21 June 1583.
Add. Endd. ½ p. [Ibid. IX. 128.]
June 21.379. Cobham to Walsingham.
I would not 'leave' to advertise you of a journey which I hear the Duke of Épernon 'pretends' to undertake next September or October. He is preparing to pass on pilgrimage to 'St. Jaques de Galytia,' very well accompanied, intending to visit the Spanish king, either in his 'going forward' or his return.
They have advertised me that there has been an Englishman apprehended, by whom it has been confessed that he was sent expressly to set on fire the Spanish fleet prepared for the Terceras. They write also that the treaty of marriage between the Catholic king and his niece 'la Royue blanche,' has been renewed with hope to take place, now that the Pope has consented to give a dispensation for the nearness of blood.
Since the term for the surrendering of the towns given to those of the Religion for their assurance expires in September, they 'pretend' to make suit presently to the king that they may still hold them till what was promised on his part is accomplished.
I hear that Signor Horatio 'Palluvisino's brother has obtained license at Rome to repair hither to Paris to end his account which is between them, and perhaps to treat in according the matter of the alum for those who are now in the Pope's favour.
The Earl Morton has visited the Pope's and King of Spain's ministers; he has been in this town these six days, but I have not seen him, nor have been sent to by him.' I hear he goes to the mass. He is much 'cheered' by Glasgow. They are in great hope to alter the fashion of the State of Scotland.
They here 'suppose to learn' assuredly that Navarre's wife has been delivered, but methinks it is hard to believe, though I receive it by good means. They say this was on the 13th of this month.
They of the Religion 'pretend' to send to the Diet which 38 [qy. the Huguenots] do hold, two ministers, 'Shandin' [qy. Chandon] and 'Seares' [Serres]; and the King of Navarre sends Plessis or some other of this sort. It is wished the Queen would be content to do the like.
The King of Navarre has sent his secretary 'Vycoze' to the Duke of Alençon, to satisfy him; because he 'took unkindness' with the king because he had not sent to him before the coming of M. de Clervant.
Certain of the French king's Council have been this week with the Queen of Navarre, to show her that by order from the king they have money in readiness to deliver to her for the furnishing of her journey towards her husband when she begins to undertake it.
The king has taken a liking to a gentleman named Rouni [qy. Rosny] but the minions impeach the king's will therein. Howbeit secret favours pass.
Dr. Allen was here this week, having practised and had communication with the nuncio, and those of the Scottish faction.
Lord Hamilton is come to Moret, returned from the baths of Plombieres.
I have been certified that 'Murreval' before his death was induced to undertake 'by his means' the murder of the Duke Montmorency. It is 'verily esteemed' he runs a desperate course, full of danger.—Paris, 21 June 1583.
P.S.—They advertise me that there is come to this town out of Poland, Christophorus Coskarius Palatinus Pomaraniae, in the company of the Abbot Polliansky dwelling near Brunswick. They have almost thirty servants. The Palatine leaves his two sons here. The pretext of their coming is to receive certain sums of money which they had lent this king at his departure from Poland.
Add. Endd. 2 pp. [France IX. 129.]
June 11/21.380. The States of Zealand to Walsingham.
Announcing the appointment of Joachim Ortel as their agent in England.—Middelburg, 21 June 1583. (Signed). Vroekwels (?).
Add. Endd. Fr. 1 p. [Holl. and Fl. XIX. 61.]
June 22.381. The King of Denmark's reply to Mr. John Herbert.
After salutations: As regards the principal head of this legation to wit, the navigation to Russia by the Northern sea, although for very weighty reasons the king at the outset declined to assent to it, yet in order to gratify the Queen he has granted it, on the easy terms of a slight recognition, to English traders, and a treaty to that effect has been passed. And whereas what the king has to perform has been duly set down in a Patent under his hand and seal, he requests that the envoy will take the proper steps to have such things as by the treaty the Queen is required to perform embodied in a similar form by her minister sent for that purpose with the envoy.
As regards the complaints of the Engilsh traders sailing through the Sound, and first, the new duty imposed in '66, called Ialtgelt, the king has already written to her Majesty that nothing was further from his wish than the continuance of that impost, instituted in view of the fiscal requirements of that time, nor does he wish for its existence. But he cannot undertake to modify it until she or the other princes of Christendom have restored the duties in their own territories to their original position; then he will do it very promptly. But he desires that this should be done as soon as possible by common counsel; but in the mean time that he alone should mitigate his harbour-dues, while the other princes all over Europe are putting on new and higher duties every day, and insisting on the old ones, which have already been increased, cannot in justice be demanded of him by anyone, nor is he held bound to grant it by any kind of reason. This reply, as nothing else can be done at present, he hopes the Queen will as a friend receive with acquiescence, and so he begs her in brotherly wise to do.
Secondly, that the old imposts or harbour-dues should be brought back to a definite scale. The Queen has promised that as soon as she has entered (pervenerit) into Zealand she will give orders that definite rates of all duties, both the old and the new shall be tabulated and published, so that they may be known to everyone before beginning business (? citra negotium).
Thirdly: That the King of Denmark should refuse to take and convert to his own use any part of the merchandise or goods belonging to those traders except for temporary causes, and then after previous settlement of the value of such goods. To this the king declares that he cannot wholly renounce so important a prerogative, the ancient due of all kings; but he will give order that in all cases due regard shall be had to the traders, that no violence or injury be done to any man in his merchandise, goods, or fortunes contrary to common custom and equity.
Fourthly: As to the coinage in which the duties in the Sound are at any time to be paid he will favourably regard the traders, that they may not be restricted to any one class of currency which there may be a difficulty in obtaining. And whatever may be established in this respect shall be put up publicly on tables for everyone to see.
Fifthly: That ships be freed from giving the established caution for the payment of duties on their return, can by no means be granted unconditionally; since it is well known that traders often sell off (divendere) their ships with their goods, and go home by another route, therefore it is not clear how those cautions could conveniently be furnished. Further, other nations would do the same after the example of the English; and to grant it to one and refuse it to others would give offence, while to grant it to all alike would breed great confusion in the revenue—both which things the king deems it not beside the point to be duly cautious about. However he will order the customs officers to be approached on the subject, that regard may be had to those who are able and willing to offer fitting caution.
Sixthly and lastly: Serious orders shall be sent to the customs officers (as has often been done heretofore) that as soon as circumstances will permit, the ships shall be let go. And if the king ever learns that ships have been stayed of malice afore-thought he will do his duty by inflicting very severe punishment.
Apparently a draft. Endd. in hand like that of R. Beale Latin. 4 pp. [Denmark I. 32.]
June 22.382. “The effect of the King of Denmark's Patent in favour of the English Merchants trading to Moscovia.”
Frederick II, King of Denmark, at the motion of Mr. John Herbert, her Majesty's ambassador there, grants that during the life of the king, and of her Majesty, the Company of English merchants trading to Muscovy shall lawfully pass through the North seas to the port of St. Nicolas; and if they be compelled by tempest or other violent means, they may safely enter into any port of Norway or Iceland, even those that by former conventions between the Kings of England and Denmark were prohibited, and may there stay and depart at convenient times for their commodity, so as they do not traffic in any of the prohibited parts of Norway or Iceland without the king's special licence nor offer any injury to the inhabitants and abstain from all manner of evil-doing.
The Companies shall pay yearly to the king, into the hands of his customer of the Sound, 100 rose-nobles (nobiles rosatos) during the continuance of this grant, the first payment to begin in the spring, 1584.
If the king happen to have open war, or hostile discord with the Muscovite, the merchants shall not, under colour of this trade, transport anything to the Muscovite that may serve to furnish him in his wars, upon pain of confiscation of ships and goods.
This award shall be duly observed during the lives of both princes, but after the decease of either of them it shall be lawful to leave it, without breach of any former league.
Endd. as at head. A note on back; Write out the very Latin sentences 'themselfe' of the Treaty as this is abstracted against to-morrow. 2/3 p. [Denmark I. 33.]
June 22.383. The same in Latin. Endd. Extract. Verbatim e literis patentibus regis Danie. 1 p. [lb. I. 33a.]
June 22 (?)384. J. Jerningham to Walsingham.
The restraint of any to pass from Gravelines to Dover deferred my 'certify' to you of the practices for this present event.
Monsieur's departure from Dunkirk being forewarned, the next day after, the king's leaguer came to St. Thomas [qy. St. Omer's], and the second day presented themselves before Dunkirk, which they have now besieged.
The chief commanders of the camp present are Montigny, otherwise called the Marquis of Renty [sic], Mondragon, Count of Rues [qy. Reulx], Governor of St. Thomas, and M. de la Motte. Their number about 14,000.
It is said Alteze [Parma] will shortly come with the rest of his camp; but I think he 'attends' Cambray, with present hope of attaining it.
Their first attempt is to stop the haven, having prepared divers stratagems therefor, as yet not put into execution. Their next is to possess the sluice, which otherwise may greatly annoy with water. It is not yet 'recovered.' These two obtained, it is thought the town will soon surrender; yet by report there are 16 ensigns within it, hitherto 'expressing great value,' as shall by these appear.
There were two French horsemen of the town kept company among our horsemen, who using in this heat to wash their horses in the sea, they also accompanied them. In the end they killed one, they hurt two others; which done, they 'recovered' the town in our despite—a most villanous performance.
They have taken to-day a fort between 'Bargus' and 'Wurwick,' called 'Myllbrigge.'
There is great expectation here to possess these towns, and country next adjoining, in shorter time than 'in judgements' were possible, if there be no deceit.
Not knowing how much these occasions import, I thought it my duty to expedite the advertisement thereof to you, and by this my former messenger, who being with me at the camp, can instruct you further in particulars; a man most addicted to your service, to his power, and the aptest man I can yet find it you can vouchsafe of my advertisements, which I will perform with all loyalty.
Here are many murmurs against her Majesty and country. I dare not 'forslow' the dispatch of this messenger with any private suits to you, other than to beseech your mediation for her Majesty's favour, and of you, your pardon, and also your 'honourable direction of place' most pleasing to her for my service, and lastly to vouchsafe me your favourable letters for the passing of three geldings. In their exchange I will send from here as many young horses.—Gravelines, this Saturday.
Add. Endd. (21 June); but that was Friday. 1 ½ pp. (First leaf appears to be missing.) [Holl. and Fl. XIX. 66.]
June 23.385. Stokes to Walsingham.
My last to you was the 16th. Since then these simple speeches have passed in this town.
Four days ago, M. des Pruneaux and President Meetkerke passed through this town towards Antwerp to th Prince and States. Here they declared to the magistrates of this town and 'Free' that Monsieur departed from Dunkirk on Tuesday last into France by ship, and it is thought he will land at Boulogne; for they said that the Queen Mother wrote earnestly for him. They said withal that at his coming to France he will use such means that Cambray shall be aided and furnished with all things needful.
The Prince of Épinoy is gone to France with Monsieur, and the speech is Monsieur will make him governor of the town and castle of Cambray.
Also all the French soldiers that lay in the country about Dunkirk are gone to France with Monsieur; so there are now no French left in those parts but those that keep Dunkirk and Berghes.
A few days ago before Monsieur left Dunkirk, half a dozen of the chief burghers of Cambray were sent to him to desire him to 'sorrow' in time for the aid of that town; for the enemy prepares to lay siege to it. Monsieur gave them good words that they should want no aid.
A day before Monsieur left Dunkirk, M. des Pruneaux was almost slain by a great many French gentlemen, who used great sharp speeches to him, saying that he is the cause they are made beggars in this service. They also said to him that he is the cause that so many French gentlemen lost their lives at Antwerp. It seems this quarrel arose about some money matter, for they can get no money of Monsieur; and surely, by good report, if Monsieur had not been present, Pruneaux had been slain.
It seems there are sharp wars about Cambray, for they write from Lille that M. de Montigny and M. de Mondragon are both hurt at a skirmish before it. Their hurts are small, without danger.
This week the Malcontents have made three great forts on the chief passages to Dixmude and Ypres; and every fort has 100 good soldiers, so that they will keep those towns from victuals and other needful things, of which at present they have great want. This is a show that the enemy will be 'doing' with them ere long; which they may do very well, for there is no restriction or good government here on the States' side.
The Prince of Chimay is at Ghent suing to the Four Members of Flanders for their good will to the Prince and States to be governor of Flanders, which it is thought will be granted him.
This week was a general meeting in this town of all the commons of the town and the 'Free,' each Member of 'himself'; where the 'preposition' of Ghent, with other articles, was read to them. It was also desired of the commons to have their consent to deal with Monsieur upon those articles read to them. The commons of Bruges, who were but four at this assembly, after a faint sort gave their consent, for more than three parts of the commons would not be at it. But the commons of the 'Free,' who are all the villages in the country, they have wholly refused Monsieur, and will not have him to the last man. So the magistrates of the 'Free' have with 'fere' gentle speeches desired their commons to consider better of the matter, and to give their answer on Monday next; but it is feared the commons will not appear any more about this matter, so that this meeting will be as much as nothing. How those of Ghent and Ypres have done in this matter as yet is not known. It is much feared this matter of Monsieur will turn to some new trouble, for I see the commons will not have the French to govern them; so there is great fear here of some further trouble, if God do not prevent it in time.—Bruges, 23 June 1583.
P.S.—Even presently letters are come that Monsieur landed at Calais on Wednesday morning. He carried away with him 'a 11' ensigns of French foot.
Enclosed I send you a copy of a letter [No. 373] that Monsieur sent to the magistrates of this town at his departing from Dunkirk; also a book of the propositions now last made at Ghent, and a book of the articles that the States-General have made to deal with Monsieur. Both books are in Flemish, and sewn together; there is none here in French.
Letters are also come here that the Gentners have wholly refused Monsieur, and will meddle with him no more; so now all things go very well here. God sent it better.
Also even now there is certain advice come to the magistrates of this town, that the Malcontents, being 14 cornets of horse and 3,000 foot, came on a sudden last Friday morning before Dunkirk, and have besieged the town, to the great fear of those parts; for it seems it will be lost, since it is but slenderly victualled, and there are not 300 soldiers in it. And if that be lost, I see all the rest of the towns hereabouts will not be long in the States' hands. Surely there is like to be a great alteration here very hastily on the States' side, for they have no men of war to help them. So they are like to be clean overthrown, only by their evil government and covetousness; for all those that are in authority sought more to fill their own purses than of any care they had of the general cause.
Add. Endd. 2 ¾ pp. [Holl. and Fl. XIX. 67.]
June 23.386. Gilpin to Walsingham.
My letters of the 16th and 18th, with the enclosures, I trust are before this delivered; and cannot forbear troubling you with what I have since learned.
The States of this Island are departed without 'to confirm' the accepting of the Prince for their earl, finding the present estate of the United Provinces in such terms as will not permit to enter into any alteration of former agreements; but rather to be renewed and confirmed for the better resistance of their enemies. So the Prince and those that furthered the cause must for the time rest contented.
And whereas the letter sent by them of Holland to the States-General sounded as if Zealand had concurred with them, they have protested it to have passed without their assent or knowledge; with grief that the conjunction of the state and time was such that they could not yield, though willing, to the accepting of his Excellency for their lord and count. How this matter will be 'cast about,' time ere long will manifest; for it is thought the Prince and others mean not to leave it so, if by any good means they can compass their intent otherwise, which will be hard, for most of the commons throughout both provinces in no wise like any change or alteration whereby they might be thought willing to disjoin themselves from their friends and neighbour provinces. To enlarge the discourses I hear daily of this subject would fall out tedious and needless, knowing you can look and judge further into these matters.
Monsieur is departed for France, and Dunkirk since besieged by la Motte and others of the Malcontents, and the haven, as report goes, already shut up by two forts cast up on both sides by the enemy; so that victuals and other provisions falling out scant, the place will be in danger to be lost, if his Highness do not send present rescue. Of this many doubt greatly, fearing some intelligence between the King of Spain, and the King of France and his brother. There are ten ensigns of French in the town.
Cambray is also said to be besieged, and Herentals in danger to be taken or yielded.
Those of Ghent are reported to have resolved they will in no wise consent to deal any more with Monsieur, but rather make a state among themselves, and so continue united with these and other provinces. There was of late a little book set forth as a counter-remonstrance to a former, taken to be made by his Excellency's appointment. I send you herewith copies of one and the other.
The States-General will very shortly assemble at Antwerp.
From the camp I hear no other than I advised in my last. From Cologne I expect letters daily, and will not fail to certify you if they contain any matter that imports.—Middelburg, 23 June 1583.
P.S.—I learn this day by some that came out of Holland that most of the commons there murmur greatly against the great taxes and imposts raised on them, and were in some parts so disquieted that commissioners were sent from the States to them to pacify the matter; which is feared to be procured by some instruments wherewith the King of Spain may have secret intelligence.
I am sure it cannot be unknown to you what religion and disposition the Polonian nobleman is of, and that he has been, 'and so thought still is,' a great man with the Pope, the Emperor, and Popish princes of Italy and Germany, and among the Protestant noblemen reputed to be a dangerous personage, and altogether for the Romanists. It is marvelled of many there what moved his coming into England; which I thought it my duty to advertise, beseeching your favourable construction of my boldness in presuming to write so much of the nobleman, whose near kinsman I sometime served in France, and then also resorted daily to his house.
I should be most glad to hear of the receipt of 'divers my former,' not having heard from you since April last.
Add. Endd. 1 ¾ pp. [Holl. and Fl. XIX. 68.]
June 24.387. Gilpin to Walsingham.
Since writing and making up my packet yesterday, I received a packet from Cologne containing the 'effect' of the news written on the other side, which I have thought good to advertise, and so much as lies in me, 'instanced' the party by letters to 'commit' what he makes such difficulty to lay open. After answer had, I will not fail to certify you.—Middelburg, 24 June 1583.
On second leaf;—
June 12.388. Advertisements from Cologne.
Inasmuch as it is understood that divers ordinary letters sent in the direction of Antwerp by messenger from Cologne have been stopped on the road, especially at Maestricht, where the governor will allow none to pass but by order from his Highness of Parma, and that for the benefit of Taxis, the postmaster-general, who claims to pass all dispatches henceforward through by the direction of his subordinates (adresses de ses substitués); and that owing to this divers of my former letters have to my great regret not reached you, including my last, of the 10th inst. [sic], whereby you might have learned the advertisements of le gast de Leyster, I am unwilling not to comply with his request, and in order that She and her friends may be advertised in time of what touches them nearly. I assure you that the gast does not send you anything without assurance, or which he has not heard and seen; and that not as flying rumour (a la vollée) nor from persons of small quality, but from those who are handling the very affairs, as, if desired, he will be ready to indicate in more detail than is supposed. And be assured that he is employing all his wits therein, and not sparing honest presents to gain over and entertain the favoured persons. There is no doubt whatever of the two provinces, who are the principals in the cause, together with the merchants residing in Ci [England] and eating the bread of Ce [the Queen], who will bring on the most unexpected and dangerous changes that have been seen in our time. This is the principal reason and secret article, why the good merchant Hu. has sent his agent to Ca. [Spain] Counsellor Rocvardon to negotiate decisively (resolutivement) and absolutely with Bu [the King of Spain], and make known that decision and desire of the merchants residing in Ci [England], which is part of the bottom of his budget.
With my said last letter of the 10th inst. I sent you as a return for your news, wherein I pray you to continue, copies of the Papal fulminations disgorged by the Apostolic nuncio “Franciscus Episcopus Vercellensis et Comes,” in respect of the persons of the Count of Solms and the Baron of Winneburg, whom he has deprived of all their prebends, and ecclesiastical dignities, and has cited to appear the Count of Wittgenstein, Dean (Domprobst), who however has the good will of all the Chapter and is well supported by divers in Germany, and the Baron of Kreking, also by reason of heresies and as favourers of the excommunicated and deprived Gebhart. The said Gebhart is at Werle in Westphalia, where the more part have taken the oath to him afresh and promised not to abandon him. There is also a report (but doubtful) that the Landgrave is sending a lot of people and artillery to the succour of Bonn, which it was thought would be besieged. But they are getting on very slowly for want of the resources chiefly necessary, soldiers, artillery and money to pay for them. The gentlemen of the Chapter find it strange to pay out so much; and so the festivity has not yet begun. The Pope is advancing them 30,000 ducats, as I heard his commissioner Demutius [qy. Minutius] say. The Bavarian is going all about to take possession where he can. It seems that Count Salentin is tired of his job. There is a meeting at Spires, to decide which of the two archbishops shall be approved by the Empire. It looks like a great schism, with an anti-archbishop and Elector in Germany, which cannot fail to bring about divisions and confusions. Of the Duke of [sic] Casimir's levies, no appearance as yet.—Cologne, 12 June 1583.
Add. to Walsingham. Endd. (in later hand) on p. 2. Eng.-Fr. 7ll. + 1 p. [Holl. and Fl. XIX. 69.]
June 24.389. Cobham to Walsingham.
Since I think no occasion will happen to send an express messenger, I purpose to write as I may get opportunity, and I have resolved to send this by this merchant come from Bordeaux.
M. Lansac has come hither to prepare horses and coaches to be sent to the Queen Mother; who is to pass into Lorraine to see her young daughters, and to have a meeting with the old Duchess of Parma, as it is supposed. The king 'shoeth' that he will pass from Mézières to Lyons, which will give great cause of mistrust to Montmorency and to those of the Religion. Howbeit they hope that Monsieur's coming into France may stay the king's proceeding.
The Queen Mother, by the advertisements brought yesterday, from Mezieres, has slacked her intended course into Lorraine; purposing now, upon knowledge of her son's being at Calais to meet him first. His gentlemen are preparing themselves to set forward to him this day. The adherents to the Spanish faction whisper that he has intelligence with the Prince of Parma; as also that Marshal Biron's staying is but to weaken and dissever the States.
I hear the Queen Mother thinks to renew the treaty of marriage between the Duke of Savoy and the Duke of Lorraine's daughter, moved the rather thereto because she hears the Duke of Savoy had of late again sent a gentleman to the King of Navarre to renew his suit to the princess; which marriage Montmorency greatly solicits.
I have been certified by very good means that Earl Morton forbears to resort to Glasgow in the day-time; but that on the 19th in the evening he was conducted by Fentry to Glasgow, who feigned himself to be sick. Morton has since come to Glasgow sundry times in the night. On the 17th Morton was with the Pope's nuncio, accompanied 'by' Fentry. Yesterday afternoon there met by appointment at Morton's lodgings, where they remained long together in conference, these Jesuits: Edmund Hay, James Tyrie, John Hamilton, and two Italians with two other strangers whose names I have not learned. This much a friend of mine, of good credit, saw, being in the house; I have just cause to give him credit, by good and certain proof had of him. Lord Morton is to depart to-day or to-morrow, by post, to the French king. The ambassador of Spain has certainly had conference with him.
There is in this town Sir John Seton, second son to Lord Seton, to take his journey into Spain. In his company are Mr. Tho. Oglebe, Robert Young, John Boyd, and a Fleming, his Secretary. It seems he goes somewhat furnished with money. He has given the nuncio and the other ambassadors to understand that the Scottish king, being of late on his 'prograce,' was against his will dissuaded from his purpose by the lords about him. So he 'showed' the lords he would publish it to his subjects and to all the princes in Christendom, that they held him prisoner. And as they inform me, this Sir John Seton has order from the Scottish king to inform King Philip that his subjects held him prisoner and to demand his counsel and aid. Morton is to deliver the like commission to the French king; and Seton gives out withal that before St. Michael's Day the Scottish king will have all the lords' heads who are now about him. They say he has sent for the Earls of Argyle, Huntley, 'Egleton,' and others, and that the parliament will not hold in Scotland.
By letters of June 22 (after their account) it is written that King Philip had stayed his navy prepared for the Terceras, upon knowledge that the Viceroy of Algiers had taken a small place in Corsica, which he held; roving with his galleys along that coast towards Spain, and awaiting the approach of Occhiali Bassa with his forces; which is much 'doubted.' So King Philip had as then sent to sea only certain ships, to conduct the Indian fleets. These are shortly looked for, as the vessels of advice had brought word.
The Spanish king was accompanied 'with' a great number of his grandees and other chief nobility of title. He is in purpose to have his son sworn their prince. They were in good hope before the marriage between the Catholic king and la Royne blanche would take place; because they now 'condescended' to the marriage, conditionally on King Philip's granting her certain demands.
The Spanish king had 'propounded' to put a new imposition on the grinding of their corn, which might amount to an exceeding revenue, under the pretence to pay his debts.
It is confirmed that the Bishop of Liege was on June 2 elected Bishop of Cologne.
They cause it to be given out in this Court that Casimir is levying 10,000 'roysters' for those of the Religion.—Paris, 24 June 1583.
P.S.—I hear, to my extreme grief, of the Earl of Sussex's death. God raise to me as good and noble a friend.
I beseech you to show your favour to Mr. Edward and Mr. Henry Talbots [sic].
Add. Endd. 4 pp. [France IX. 130.]
June 24.390. The King of Denmark to the Queen.
Complimentary letter, acknowledging the mission of John Herbert and expressing confidence in him.—Hadersleben, 24 June 1583.
Add. Endd. Latin. 1 p. [Denmark I. 34.]
June 24.391. Nicolas Kaas to Walsingham.
I am glad that what has been the long-standing wish of both of us, that the occasion of future complaint touching the navigation of Englishmen to Russia might be brought to a fit understanding, has now taken place, as you will learn from your ambassador Mr. John Herbert. In the treaty whereof the king has shown himself what he ever professed to be, most studious of the Queen's Majesty and the public good. Nor indeed do I regret the advice which I contributed to that end. The occasion aforesaid being thus removed I cannot see that any is left which might hereafter diminish or overthrow the friendship between the two sovereigns. We must pray that nothing hereafter may occur, and arrange that either of them may be of their own accord most eager to beware of such. This is matter in which we, the ministers on either side, must assist by loyal advice and work. I feel persuaded of you in this respect, and will never allow any lack of it to be noted in me.
As regards the ambassador, he has left with us a real testimony to the good qualities which you commended in your letter to me, and thus has left us to go to you, yet more commended in that respect.—Hadersleben, 24 June 1583.
Add. Endd. Latin. 1 p. [Denmark I. 35.]
June 24.392. Walsingham to Cobham.
We had no knowledge at all, before the receipt of your last, of the besieging of Dunkirk; and now find this unlooked-for accident of Monsieur's departure, and of the siege that followed the next day after, without making her Majesty privy either to one or to the other, very strange. The consideration of it gives us just cause to judge that there is secret intelligence between the French and the Spanish, and that the town, after some little show of resistance, will be delivered up into the hands of the Spaniards. They are doubtless combined together against 'both' States, Prince of Orange, and all others that make profession of the Gospel. Therefore, as it behoves her Majesty now carefully to look to her own safety, you her minister will right well discharge your duty and do her very good service, in seeking by all the means you can to discover as much as you may of the purpose and intent of these hidden mysteries.
Touching the matter of your revocation, my lord your brother and I, finding her Majesty to defer her resolution therein, have agreed that he shall make suit to her that you may repair home about some very important causes of your own, and that she will make choice of a gentleman who may in the meantime supply the place in the quality of an agent; whereupon if she please to license you to come over, it will then be an easy matter to stay you here. But of this I will not fail to give you further knowledge with all speed as soon as we know her resolution in that behalf.—Greenwich, 24 June 1583.
Draft. Endd. by L. Tomson. ¾ p. [France IX. 131.]
June 27.393. Gilpin to Walsingham.
The contrary winds stayed our week's post from getting over, by whom I wrote such news as I could learn here, and also sent those from Cologne, which now will come together with these. Enclosed is one from Dr. Lobetius that only came to my hands last Thursday. I have since received advice, by letters dated 27 May stilo novo from Vienna, that Mr. Waade was arrived there, and order give 'to be entertained' at the Emperor's charges, his Majesty lying two leagues off, using the baths; so that her Majesty's letters could not be so soon delivered, nor would the Vice-chancellor receive them, or give any andience without command from the Emperor. Of this I make account you will ere long hear further from Mr. Wade, but have thought it my duty to advertise thus much the while.
Of present news, almost nothing is heard here of the States' proceedings. The enemy has drawn all his forces from Herentals and out of Brabant, and with all diligence marched, as is thought towards Dunkirk, whither those that were about Cambray have likewise come; Mondragon, Montigny, and la Motte being there already in person, so that they mean to bend all their strength to get it. Hitherto they have no artillery 'than' three or four small pieces, wherewith they annoy the entrance to the haven. They have already possessed a sluice without the town, whereby the water could be let in and set round about the country a good way. There was also a fort between the town and Winoxberghen, which is likewise lost, and 16 Frenchmen that kept it cut in pieces. This place lay between two waters, and kept the passage free. This is now cut off, to the danger of Berghes, where M. Villeneuve governs, but by report the place is slenderly provided.
The Pensionary of Dunkirk has got out since the siege and come to the Prince, to declare the state of that town and request aid; for which small haste is made. Yet report goes Monsieur's men that lay at Barrow are embarked in hoys, and lie in the river ready to come 'for' this island, to be sent to the rescuing of Dunkirk. But this people are discouraged to make ready and arm ships to put into the Frenchmen's hands; besides, other soldiers are mistrustful, and fear the loss of town, ships, and men, so that their matters here 'grow at length' and the danger by these delays far greater.
They have in both places restored all weapons to the burgesses, with agreement to stand to it, and hold out as long as possible. A speech is given out that a ship has got in from Calais with munition and more men; and that the forces which Monsieur employed to victual Cambray will come to the rescue of Dunkirk.
This siege troubles all Flanders, and will breed alteration if the enemy prevail. All the States-General are not yet at Antwerp. The Prince is of the commons daily 'worse-willed,' and however matters fall out, he bears the blame in reports and speeches.
Cologne actions go slowly forward, after the accustomed order, but will at length, in all men's opinions, breed and burst out to great wars and troubles.—Middleburgh, 27 June 1583.
Add. Endd. 1 ¼ pp. [Holl. and Fl. XIX. 70.]
June ? 17/27.394. W. Parry to Walsingham.
Since the miscarrying of my letters to you may cost me my life, I have no more to say than is said already, and that I hope shortly to hear from you. In the mean time I have desired Mr. Henry 'Umpton' (a gentleman fully furnished with all the parts of a dutiful and loyal subject) to say so much from me to you as I think you will willingly hear and I gladly remember. I will not do so great a wrong to his discretion and sufficiency as to write any news to you at this time.—Lyons, 27 June 1583.
Add. Endd. ½ p. [France IX. 132.]
June 28.395. Lord John Hamilton to Walsingham.
I have received your letter, and perceive by it the favour her Majesty has done me in travailing with the king my sovereign's ambassadors at the time they were there, to have me restored to my own; for which I think myself 'detbond' to do her all such humble service as shall be in my power.
As touching the counsel you give me at the end of your letter; I shall not fail to follow it, and shall by God's grace be in fifteen days where you ask. And whereas I am for the present but 'soberly' accompanied, I will pray you to send this other letter to my brother, that he may be in London at my coming there, or shortly after; praying you to have me excused of my 'hamely' putting you to charge.—Paris, 28 June 1583.
Add. Endd. Scot. ¾ p. [Ibid. IX. 133.]
June 29.–July 4.396. A Proclamation by the Bailiff, Burgomaster, Échevins, and Council of Antwerp, to enforce an ordinance passed June 12/22 by the States of Brabant, to the effect that all grain should be taken to the nearest town, to keep it out of the enemy's hands. None is to be taken to any town holding to the Spanish side; but to such places as Antwerp, Herentals, Bergen-op-Zoom, Steinbergen, Lilloo, Wouwe, etc. (Signed) G. Kieffel.
Printed. Flemish. 1 p. [Holl. and Fl. XIX. 72.]
June 30.397. Stokes to Walsingham.
My last was of the 23rd inst., since which time the news in these parts grow every day worse and worse on the States' side; for it is greatly feared they will lose all their towns in these parts before long, such is the evil government on their side. God send it better.
The Malcontents lie round about Dunkirk in such sort that no man can pass in nor out. The Prince of Parma is there in person and they have 'crossed' [qy. closed] up the towns with great cables and iron chains, that no ships or boats can pass out or in. The speech is also for certain that 36 double cannon and other brass pieces are brought to batter the town.
Those within Dunkirk have drawn up their sluices and let in the sea-water, which has made all the water in the country brackish, to the great hurt of the enemy.
This week letters came from Dunkirk, which came 'by Berghes away,' from the Governor of Dunkirk to the Prince and States and the magistrates of this town, wherein he writes that he does not fear the enemy, and for wine and corn, they have enough for a year, and are also reasonably well furnished with all other victuals; saving flesh, which they want. He has written for 300 or 400 pikes and 200 corslets, which as yet there is here no preparing to send them. The burghers in the town will not fight, nor take any arms in hand to defend it; for they had rather the Malcontents had it than the Frenchmen should keep it.
A great division is grown among the towns here in Flanders; some will have Monsieur for their prince and governor, and some will have Duke Casimir, and some desire to make peace with the Malcontents; so these matters have made a great discord between town and town, which will cause them the sooner to be overthrown.
It seems the Prince and States make little haste for the aid of Dunkirk, for as yet no preparations are made; so it shows they are not able to help the town. But if the town be lost, all the rest of the towns here in Flanders will not be long after out of the Malcontents' hands, for the government is so evil on the States' side that all the towns desire rather to be under the government of the Malcontents. So there is like to be a great alteration here very shortly, for the States' side cannot hold out long.
The whole camp of the Malcontents that lie in Brabant are all marching into these parts, which puts them here into great fear, which shows no less; for all those in this town that favoured Monsieur's cause begin to 'shrencke' from hence into Zealand.
The Prince of Chimay is come from Ghent to this town, to desire the good wills of the magistrates of it and the 'Free,' to be Governor of Flanders, for it seems the Gentners have granted him theirs.
Surely here is now a fearful state, for all men are in fear that all will be lost. Almost it cannot be otherwise, for there is no force on the States' side able to make any resistance but Marshal Biron, who lies in Brabant with his French and Swiss; but the commons here cannot abide them by no means. So the appearance is great that the States will lose all that they have here in Flanders; 'which I am sorry the occasions give it' so to write to you.—Bruges, 30 June 1583.
P.S.—This afternoon divers are come to this town from Nieuwport and Ostend, and they declare that from both those towns the burghers lade every day their moveables and merchandise into ships, by seven or eight ships together from thence; some to England, and some to Holland and Zealand. So it seems the people begin to abandon the towns before the enemy comes to them, which is no good token.
Also it is secretly said that the Four Members are at present in some speech together to raze the town of Meenen, and abandon it, and so to 'lee' [qy. lay] the Scots in this town, Damme, and Sluys. Truly this sudden great alteration has made the magistrates amazed and also has taken their hearts from them; for they prepare nothing for any defence against the enemy, so that I see all will be lost. God send them better comfort.
Add. Endd. 2 ¼ pp. [Holl. and Fl. XIX. 73.]
June 30/July 10.398. Pietro Bizarri to [Walsingham].
I have already written to you of the great calamity that befel me on the Rhine, six leagues from Cologne; and how, after I had been the Malcontents' prisoner for the day, the Most High miraculously delivered me from their hands, and without any ransom. Now, after this glorious deliverance, pursuing my journey towards Cologne, I finally made my way to the Landgrave Philip, half naked, and without a liard in purse. By whose Excellency I was kindly received; and besides clothing me from head to foot, he gave me 50 florins of this money, amounting to more than 25 Imperial thalers [rix-dollars] that I might betake myself to the Elector of Saxony, to whom he recommended me in a most affectionate letter, and gave me a passport for my greater security in travelling. The princess, Duke Casimir's sister, gave me with her own hands a pair of shirts. Such was the goodness and clemency of God towards me, after the afflictions and adversities that had befallen me.
Having finally reached Dresden, where is the Court of his Highness, I was received and welcomed with much kindness by his Chancellor and Councillors, especially his principal secretary, Signor 'Jenitzio,' who presented my History of Persia to his Highness, together with a column of porphyry, and other trifles of marble which I had brought with me from Antwerp. After I had been about 12 days at Court, his Highness sent me away, with an increase of 50 rix-dollars a year beyond my ordinary pension of 100, and made me a present of 100 dollars in cash, to the end that the liberality of so great a prince might shine forth the more in me. My dismissal would not have been so long delayed had not the treasurer and some of the other ministers been for the time at Leipsic Fair; because ipsis absentibus, nullae fiunt solutiones.
At my arrival in his Highness's State, musters and assemblies of his people, both cavalry and infantry, were going on in divers places, but without any other preparation. At the same time were taking place in the State the nuptials of the sons of Duke William of Saxony, son to the Elector John Frederick of good memory. His son took to wife a sister of the Duke of Würtemberg. Many personages were there, and the Elector of Saxony sent his representatives and the Italian music which is ordinarily about him. A sermon is preached every day in his Highness's chapel at 7 in the morning, the Psalms of David are chanted to music and the organ. He himself with the princess, his children and household, is often there, and he can see all who are present without being himself seen by anyone, certain lattices (gelosie) being made there for that purpose. His young son, of 20 or more, has taken to wife the daughter of the Elector of Brandenburg. He is a youth of excellent promise, brought up in the study of good literature. His instructor was and is Dr. Voghel, a learned person, endowed with many tongues. This same lord is wont sometimes to ride through the city accompanied by some halberdiers and gentlemen of the Court. But his Highness lets himself be seen very rarely. He has one very unusual convenience, namely to be able to go upon the walls of the city on foot, in a carriage, or on horseback, always under cover of trees and beautiful greenery, without being seen. All the time I was at the Court, he never went out, except one night when he rode out of the city, well-accompanied, and in a hunting dress of green colour. Not far from the city two bears were killed, partly by the dogs, partly by the halderdiers, in presence of his Highness; who I understand has slain with his own hand, besides innumerable stags, I wild boar, 50 bears. But now, being nearly 60 years old, he is advised and begged by his intimates to abstain and keep away from so great danger. The prince his son went with him, and an ambassador from Duke Casimir who had come to the Court two days before and was dismissed the day after. But I could not penetrate the purpose of his embassy, nor did I dare to do so, though I am by nature curious to know about the things of the world and the affairs of princes at first hand (a prima bocca).
The city of Dresden, though not very large is for beauty and strength on a level with any in Europe. But what shall I say of the arsenal, which is full of all kinds of arms, and cannons and artillery enough to take every fortress in the world? It is in truth astounding; and I should never have believed it, if Secretary 'Janitzio,' a most courteous gentleman, and in great favour with his Highness, had not been good enough to accompany me, and show me in detail all the beautiful and rare things there; all this for my sole satisfaction. For this favour and innumerable others I confess that I am infinitely bound to him; and after him to Herr Andreas Pauli, Councillor to his Highness, and distinguished in many honourable embassies to various princes.
After finishing my business at the Court, I went to Leipsic, and thence took my journey to Magdeburg, an Imperial city and very strong. Thence I came to Brunswick, also a free city of the Empire, seen by me 38 years ago together with others of that country, when in my youthful days I had left Italy, and came to Wittenburg, moved by the great fame of Philip Melanchthon, a very rare man in our times. This city does not yield for strength and beauty to any in Germany; and not long ago the magistrates made new walls and bastions and fortified the gate commonly called Vandalic, over which are these two verses:
En quae Vandalicis dicta est de gentibus olim
Porta, novum magnis sumptibus extat opus
.
On the other side are these two others, in large golden letters:
Ni dominus ualidam muris custodiat urbem,
Nil prodest uigilis cura laborque uiri.
On another gate are written these letters in gold:
Libertatem quam nostri Maiores pepererunt, quisque studeat pro uirili fovere. Tempore pacis cogitandum de bello.
And on the other side is written:
Nisi Dominus custodierit civitatem, frustra uigilat qui custodit eam.
I hear on good authority that the magistrates there have spent in the last three years more than 200,000 German florins on this new fortification, and they are still going on. And whereas I remember to have seen all the fortress of the Duke of Brunswick [Wolfenbüttel] on the ground, destroyed by the Landgrave and others confederate, I had a desire to see it restored; and so I betook myself thither, being not above a good league distant from the city of Brunswick. Having gone there, I saw the fortress, and the beginning of the new city which that prince is constructing there. He has recently married one of his daughters to the Count of Schaumburg, and the wedding took place with much magnificence. Among others the two princes, the duke's sons, were there, both bishops, and the prince, 20 years old, young, valorous, and well read. Through his secretary I presented him with a copy of my history and another to his Excellency, who gave me 10 dollars, and I had as much from the prince his son. To the history I appended some Latin verses in praise of the fortress, which were very well taken in that Court. For some weeks past the Duke has been indisposed with the gout, and has had himself carried, but has in no way slacked the new works, on which more than 1,000 workmen are continually employed. Great diligence is used and much is spent thereon, that the work may go forward. It is called the City of Henry his father, who at his death left three sons. Two of them died in battle, following Duke Maurice against the Margrave Albert; while the third, who is now duke, Julius by name, succeeded to the state, His uncle, Henry of Brunswick, also duke, and in the pay of Spain, is with his family and Court six leagues distant from Brunswick. He has taken to wife a sister or niece of the Duke of Lorraine, and has no legitimate heir; so that, failing any, his estate will pass to his nephews, sons of Duke Julius.
From the city of Brunswick I came to Lüneburg, where also the lord of that place is fortifying his castle, which stands on a lofty rock, with divers bulwarks, very wide ditches, and other defences. Then I came to Hamburg, a city on the sea, very fair; and the next day, which was Saturday, I agreed with a shipman called John Lucas, who brought me on the high seas, by God's grace, safe and sound to Amsterdam in the space of six days, albeit there was a great storm, which began on Wednesday morning, and lasted all that day and the next, always from the North West. And although in many sea-passages I have always remained half-dead, yet in this long and perilous navigation I felt no otherwise than on dry land, without being a whit disturbed; and I gazed always on the sea with marvellous constancy of mind, whereat both the other passengers and the mariners no less, marvelled not a little. And for this and innumerable other favours, be the Divine Majesty ever praised, in qua vivimus movemur, et sumus.
In the city of Amsterdam, which is very fair, and wholly impregnable, among the other memorable things I saw, edifices, churches, bridges, and canals in the fashion of Venice, there are three hospitals, such that the world has none more beautiful or better arranged. In the first are about 80 beds for women, and on the other side, in another place, as many for men, so neat and clean that a gentleman might be content therewith. Each has its due staff (governo) of women for its purpose, and is wide and spacious. Elsewhere is the place set apart for those infected with contagious maladies. There is likewise the kitchen, the laundry for sheets, and other necessary conveniences; and the revenues of the monastery—or abbey it may have been—are assigned to it. Likewise there is in that city a place where they put persons of unsound mind, both men and women. Each has his own chamber and attendants (qy. governo).
From that city I took my way to Haarlem, and then to Leyden, where the University is; thence to the Hague, where the States of Holland meet—the prettiest, most magnificent and most delightful place I ever saw in my life. Thence to Rotterdam, country of Erasmus, to whom the magistrates have put up a statue in the middle of the square, in memory of a man so uncommon in our times. Between the Hague and Rotterdam I saw likewise the city of Delft, also worth looking at for its beauty and magnificence. After reaching Dordrecht I finally arrived, after four months, at Antwerp, where I am ever at her Majesty's service and yours.
Since my departure the affairs of these poor countries have gone on getting ever worse, with the loss of Eyndhoven, Diest, Westerloo, and Hoogstraete, besides the damage lately received from the enemy, who they say finds himself 15,000 strong in foot, and with 3,000 or more horse, and the Prince of Parma is there in person. He is besieging Herentals, and if it be not succoured, he will easily make himself master of it, as of the other places.
His Highness left Dunkirk for Boulogne last Tuesday, leaving a garrison there of 11 or 12 ensigns of his nation, after depriving the burghers of their arms and removing every religion but his own. M. des Pruneaux came here yesterday morning from Dunkirk. After speaking with his Excellency and the States, he went to the camp to have speech of M. de Biron. The rest will be much better understood as time goes on (alla jiornata). Meantime I pray God to keep her Majesty safe and sound, with her glorious realm.
Please remember me to the Earl of Bedford, my old master and patron, and to Mr. Robert Beale; I will write to them on the first opportunity.—Antwerp, 10 July 1583.
Add. and Endd. gone. Ital. 6 pp. [Holl. and Fl. XIX. 74.]
? June.
(See Sp. Cal. under June 4. No. 339.)
399. [Antonio Guaras] to Secretary Zayas.
Mr. Roger Bodenham, the bearer of this, is the person of whom I wrote that he was going from this place to that Court with a letter from me; and because he looks to be a much honoured person, and is a resident in the city of Seville, where he has a wife and children, the Comptroller of this most serene Queen's household, to whom he is nearly related (tiene mucha razon de parentesco) and who has much confidence in him, and I being under much obligation to his lordship, he asked me to write to you about him, and let you know of the business on which he (fn. 1) goes, whereof he will give you an account. He will remain bound to repay any kindness and favour shown to the bearer, as if it were to himself; which he has so given me to understand. I write to you, that I may receive the like for my part.
William Bodenham, his son, whom you will know, accompanies him. He will give you an account of the 'manner,' and of the pitiful state I am in; and since no other offers, our lord the very illustrious person—(breaks off).
Draft: fair copy to (fn. 1) , where the hand changes, and the remainder is rough. Endd. in hand of Antonio Guaras: Minute of the letter which I wrote to Mr. Secretary Sayas about Mr. Bolnam [sic].
Span. 1 p. [Spain II. 5.]

Footnotes

1 It was evidently at first intended to send Armigill Waad over, as the instructions are headed “Memorial for Armigill Waad, sent by her Majesty to Antwerp,” and originally began “You shall repair to Antwerp and by George Gilpin you shall understand, &c,” but these lines are cancelled. Gilpin apparently went to Antwerp in 1566. Waad died in 1568.