Elizabeth
May 1585, 26-31

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Institute of Historical Research

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Sophie Crawford Lomas (editor)

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1916

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497-518

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'Elizabeth: May 1585, 26-31', Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Elizabeth, Volume 19: August 1584-August 1585 (1916), pp. 497-518. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=79098 Date accessed: 23 July 2014.


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May 1585, 26–31

May 26./June 5.M. de. L'aubespine-chasteauneuf to Walsingham.
I learn from a French gentleman whom I sent over to prepare a lodging for me, how much kindness he has received from you in my behalf, although you do not know me and he brought no letters from me, as I did not wish my communication with you to begin by demands and requests. But as your good nature has been so great, I can only try to repay you in the future, during the legation which the King my master has committed to my care. In which legation, although I regarded it as a great happiness and honour to serve my master with so great and virtuous a princess as the Queen of England, yet I feel this greatly increased in that my chief communcations will be with yourself, who have here left the reputation of a man of honour and virtue, full of courtesy and kindness, which is confirmed by the report of all those who return hither, particularly the late M. de Morvillier and M. de Limoges, my uncles, with whom when you were here, you lived in familiar friendship; and M. de Limoges having been with you one of the deputies at the treaty of alliance so solemnly sworn and since observed between our princes.
I hope to start very shortly to go to kiss her Majesty's hands and to thank you myself for your great courtesy.—Paris, 5 June, 1585.
Signed. Add. Endd. Fr. 1 p. [France XIII. 130.]
May 26./June 5.Capt. Thomas Lovell to Walsingham.
Desiring, if the Queen accept the Low Countries, to have a company or two, or one company with the place of a serjeant-major of a company or in a town. Has served in such offices in these countries and doubts not but to discharge them with credit. —The Hague, 5 June, 1585, stylo novo.
Add. Endd. 1 p. [Holland II. 23.]
May 26./June 5.The States General to the Queen.
Mr. Davison, now returning to England, has given them to understand of the continuance of her affection to them, for which they thank her very heartily. He is informed of their resolution, and they pray her to give him credit on their part. He will shortly be followed by the deputies, to give her satisfaction in what they have charge to treat of, and meanwhile, they trust that she will aid them with the provisional succours which are so necessary for the preservation of Antwerp and Mechlin.—The Hague, 5 June, 1585. Signed by Aerssens.
Fr. 1 p. [Ibid. II. 24.]
May 26./June 5.Jaques Rossell to Walsingham.
Mr. Gilpin's arrival leads me to remind you of what I have so often urged, that her Majesty should embrace the cause of these still prosperous United Provinces, both for God's glory and the welfare of her own kingdom. Now, by God's mercy I see this matter so far advanced that deputies are going to her Majesty to offer her no less than they did to the King of France, and (if you so please) I can show you a means of maintaining this state with less cost than she imagines, if in the treaty she reserves to herself what she ought to have. I have hitherto been obliged to submit to the cause of the French, seeing her Majesty especially inclined towards his late Highness, to whom I addressed many memoirs and instructions, but these have disappeared, in consequence of the imprisonment of his secretary Charretier. Other papers of mine are at Antwerp, where they cannot be got at, unless better order is taken in warlike affairs than in this last expedition upon the “Kauvestain” dyke, where I was, and saw that the fault lay only with certain of the commanders and not with the soldiers, who would have fought better if they had been better led, and better supported by the boats and galleys. With her Majesty's aid, I make no doubt of the deliverance of the town, and, in consequence, the total ruin of the enemy, and great honour and advantage to herself.—Middelburg, 5 June, 1585.
Add. Endd. Fr.pp. [Holland II. 25.]
May 27./June 6.Clervant to Walsingham.
Sends only a line, as he has written fully to M. de Segur; also M. de 'Busanval' has shown him what he is sending. Prays that they may feel the effect of her Majesty's zeal and good will in the service of God and the support of his churches and of the kingdom of France against the enemies of God, of this State and England. A little water will not quench this fire; it would only pour oil upon it; but it must be quenched, or it will leap across from their house to his and to others. It is a mere mockery to strike feebly. An end must be made of the quarrel of the State, involved as it is in that of the Roman religion. If they were too discreet, asking only for small aid, he must judge not by their modesty, but by their necessities and England's own. They must have a large sum of money. Never niggardly warrior did great deeds.—Paris, 6 June, 1585.
Add. Endd. Fr. ¾ p. [France XIII. 131.]
May 27.Duke Casimir to the Queen.
A long letter, of which the substance is shown by the annotations in the margin, which are as follows :—” Prosecution of the decrees made in the Council of Trent appeareth by this attempt against the King of Navarre and the princes of the Religion.
“The death of his brother the Palsgrave, cause why the assembly before moved by her Majesty held not.
“That the King of Navarre is forthwith to be assisted.
“That he hath dealt with the Landgrave of Hesse to join with him in sending to the Duke of Saxe and the Marquis of Brandenburg.
“That himself will deal with the Swisses of the cantons reformed, and after advertise her Majesty of the success.
“He thinketh it expedient that the Hanse Towns be also dealt with, wherein the King of Denmark may help much.
“There will be required 10,000 horse and 10,000 footmen to enter into France. The charges of the levy, 100,000l.
“Great expedition is to be used in this levy of men. The men may be levied in two months.”—Rheinfels, 27 May, 1585.
Add. Endd. Latin. 5 pp. [Germany, States III. 70.]
May 27.Duke Casimir to Walsingham.
It is more than time that the princes and potentates zealous for the true religion and the common good should open their eyes and take the proceedings to heart, seeing what practices and pernicious leagues are daily discovered amongst the supporters of Antichrist, tending to the total ruin of all true Christians. For these things have been so long plotted, and the fury of our adversaries is so fierce that nothing will arrest their evil designs. Now, as amongst those affected and who have sincere devotion to the public welfare the Queen of England holds the first place, she is the first whom Antichrist may attack, having done more against him than all the others put together; wherefore she is greatly to be praised that she not only continues but redoubles her courage, and is the haven, after God, of these poor Low Countries and of the churches of France. In which she does well to put to her hand, for infallibly this party which is arising to-day concerns us all.
I pray you therefore, to keep and comfort her in this good affection, that it may not be diminished even if her blessed remonstrances shall not waken all those who sleep, and will listen to nothing until their own houses are on fire. For each must do his duty, however others may be wanting; and so much the more remarkable and praiseworthy for ever will be her courage, if alone or with few others she is found vigilant in such a cause while others remain in a shameful sleep.
You will understand from my letter to her Majesty, my great affection to the common cause, and I shall not give up urging the other princes to give ear to it.—Rheinfels, 27 May, 1585.
Postscript, in his own hand.—I pray you to excuse this bearer for his delay and to despatch him as soon as possible.
Signed. Add. Endd. Fr.pp. [Germany, States III. 71.]
May 28./June 7.Mauvissière to Walsingham.
Upon the promises which the Queen and her Council have so often given me to restore M. de Joyeuse's ship, the Diane, I have assured him and the King thereof, and the rather as you informed me that the ship had been seized in Ireland, ready to be restored, and that if I sent thither, it would be delivered to me. Upon which I despatched a man express whom M. de Joyeuse had sent to me, and also another, who belongs to M. de la Milleraye. But the man whom I sent writes from Bristol that they mocked at him and his master, as he heard from many honest Englishmen, and even from some who came from Ireland; that the said ship, taken by the son of Alderman Rivers and another Englishman has been sent again to sea, armed and victualled, in order to catch other French ships; has been in Cornwall and the Isle of Purbeck, where is a vice-Admiral, a declared enemy of the French and harbourer of all sorts of pirates, and has gone round the Isle of Wight.
The said Rivers, the principal pirate, was arrested at Bristol by the Mayor and sheriff, who had some ado to take him, even breaking open a house; but it is said they have since released him, pretending that he had escaped. All the governors of Normandy, the inhabitants and citizens of the principal towns and havens, have been to the King, to complain and obtain his permission to arm themselves, seeing that there was no longer any free traffic for them and that the English killed their men and mariners with all sorts of acts of hostility.
His Majesty and his Council have written to me from France to speak to the Queen and to you, the Lords of her Council, to take some good order in the matter, for you would not believe the great thefts made by these English pirates, and what despair they cause to our French. I pray you, remedy it.
Dr. Cæsar said he had a commission from the Council to make inquiry concerning the goods pillaged from the French, and yet says that such goods ought to be distributed to the English who claim to have lost anything. But they should not be recompensed upon what is in ordinary process by the commissions and letters of assistance of you Lords of the Council. There will be enough other goods of Frenchmen without that if the enquiry is faithfully made. For the rest, I am informed that the English pirates who hold the sea more strongly every day, intend to seize many French ships which this year have gone to Newfoundland (la Terre Neufve) to fish, whence they are on their return. I pray you to persuade her Majesty and the Council to have M. Joyeuse 's ship restored. —London, 7 June, 1585.
Signed. Add. Endd. Fr. 2 pp. [France XIII. 132.]
May 28.Arthur Champernowne to Stafford.
I arrived at Rochelle on the 20th, and on the 23rd found the King of Navarre, Prince of Condé, M. de Rohan, Rochefoucault, Vicomte de Turenne and divers others at Coutras (Contrian). Thence the Prince and M. de Rohan departed for St. Jean d'Angeli, and the King came to Bergerac. In three days, he goes to Nérac, where I shall be despatched for Languedoc.
“St. Luc hath a thousand men about Brouage, tel quel, mal en poinct; and thought to assail the island of 'Rez,' but finding it provided, the day before I arrived returned without further attempt. Those of Bourg brave those of Bordeaux, even to their gates, and Blay, as you know, maketh all ships that pass to pay tribute. The Queen of Navarre is at Agen and hath about S00 soldiers. Duras is her lieutenant and hath few other of name.” The King begins to send abroad his captains commissioned to levy men. As soon as they have answer from the King they will do somewhat in these parts. The Queen of Navarre had an enterprise against Laroque and Tonneins (Lerrac and Tunnings), but to no effect. The bearer will inform you further, and at my return from Montmorency I will write more amply.
M. de Segur is gone into England, and will probably report there the bruit which ran here—from my long waiting for a wind—that I was taken. Pray send this letter to my master that he may be assured of my arrival at the King's Court.— Bergerac. 28 May, after our English account.
Copy (?). Endd. 1 p. [France XIII. 133.]
Another copy of the above. Endd. 1 p. [Ibid. XIII. 134.]
May 28.Ortell to Walsingham.
Sending him a letter, written from a good place in Zeeland [probably that dated May 21–31, above], and praying him to extend a helping hand that some provisional succour may be sent at once.—London, 28 May, 1585.
Postscript.—According to his calculations, 4,000 good men will not charge her Majesty above 4,500l. a month.
Add. English. 1 p. [Holland II. 26.]
May 28.Memoire for M. Paul Buys of what he is to declare to the Queen of England on behalf of the Elector of Cologne.
To thank her for her favour and pray for its continuance; to express his joy at her treaty with the States and his resolution to treat with none but herself; to show to her the convenience of his country for the advance of the service of God and her Majesty, the aid of other princes and the circumvention of the Pope and Papists, and also the importance of the towns of Nuys and Berck, and to ask her to levy reiters in Germany, to embrace his affairs and to include Count Neuenaar in the present treaty.—Hons-lerdyck, 28 May, 1585, stilo antiquo.
Endd. Fr. 4 pp. [Ibid. II. 27.]
May 28.John Qurenus to Davison.
A long dissertation, bringing forward arguments to prove the priority and superiority of mathematics to dialectics, i.e. logic. —Haarlem, 28 May.
Add. Latin. 7 pp. [Ibid. II. 28.]
May 28.The Elector Truchsess to Walsingham.
Mr. Davison will inform you of the fruit which her Majesty's liberality has already borne for my affairs, and how I, some days ago, gained one of the principal towns of my State with some other advantages. I trust that by God's aid this good beginning will result, with her Majesty's assistance, in my overcoming my enemies, to the advancement of God's glory and of her Majesty's service. And knowing how much you have both these things at heart, I do not doubt the continuance of your good offices.—Honslerdyck, 28 May, stilo veteri.
Signed. Add. Endd. Fr. ¾ p. [Germany, States III.]
May 28.The Elector Truchsess to Walsingham.
Praying him to aid with his favour and wise counsel the Sieur Paul Buys, who, with others is being sent by the States to her Majesty and to whom he has particularly recommended his own affairs.—Honslerdyck, 28 May, stilo veteri.
Signed. Add. Fr. ½ p. [Germany, States III. 73.]
May 28.Dr. Henry “Vam Holt” to Walsingham.
I do not doubt that you have heard of the embassy to the Emperor undertaken by me on behalf of your nation, which after two years and more has at last been happily completed. I would with pleasure write you a full account of everything— of my doings before the journey, on the way, and at the Imperial Court—and of all that has been done on both sides in this matter of the Hanse Towns since 1580 against your Queen and her subjects; but in consideration of your press of work, I ask you and the Queen and her Council to give credence to William Herle (to whom I have written at length) in anything he may relate to you out of my letters.
I pray you also to be so good as to promote my former requests to her Majesty and the Society of Adventurers, so that at Hamburg I may find set out clearly what I am to have, and may obtain what I asked for. Thus you will increase the reputation of your nation for royal liberality and gratitude to those that deserve well of you, and also bind me still more to the service of the Queen and yourself.
I have transmitted German and Latin copies of the Imperial decree relating to this Hanseatic business to the Queen (to whom I have also written) from which she will see clearly how the matter has been conducted and concluded, in consonance with her dignity, and the honour and advantage of the nation.
For the rest, I pray you and the Queen and Council to accept a fuller account of the matter from Herle, and to shew in deed your appreciation of what I have done. Any answer from the Queen or you should be sent to me at Hamburg by this messenger, Vincent von Spreckels.—Embden, 28 May, 1585.
Add. Endd. “From Dr. van Holte.” Latin. 2¼ pp. [Ham-burg and Hanse Towns II. 2.]
May 28./June 7.Cristobal de Ovalli to Dr. Lope, “baillo” of the Council of the Indies at Madrid.
Wrote by the fleet which sailed a year ago and by the despatch boat, the Proprio, sent last January. This last reported to be lost. If not, apologises for giving him the trouble of reading this. Prays that since it pleased his honour that he should come into this exile he may not be so much forgotten as it seems he is; for he has seen no letter from the Council all the time he has been there, which is almost two years. Does not deserve this disfavour, as he has given information of many things of importance which demand good and speedy remedy. Prays that they may be considered and answer sent, without which he cannot do what he would for the service of God and his Majesty. Sends two letters, but if the despatch boat has arrived only the little one need be read. (fn. 1)
As he writes there comes news that the despatch boat was plundered by the French, but that his packet was not lost. Believes it will reach them, and prays his honour to see that it is read.
[The rest of the letter is about the appointment of a Receiver for the Audiencia there.]
Was glad for the sake of his honour and Donna Juana to hear of the arrival of the brave Signor Licenciado at the Court. Donna Beatrix sends greetings to Donna Juana, to whom she is writing more at large. Santo Domingo, 7 June, 1585.
Add. Spanish. 1½ pp. [Spain II. 42.]
May 29./June 8.Du Plessis to Walsingham.
You will learn the progress of our affairs from M. de Segur. We have come to the point when we shall feel by results the goodwill of our friends. The King of Navarre is greatly obliged to her Majesty for sending M. de Champernon. He knows well also how much he is indebted to you. I pray you let this prince be strengthened in his resolute goodwill.—Bergerac, 8 June, 1585.
Holograph. Add. Endd. Fr. 1 p. [France XIII. 135.]
May 29./June 8.Du Plessis to Stafford.
M. de Champernon has arrived and is going into Languedoc. His despatch has been very welcome to us, and his person also. Aid us always according to your kind affection to do well, and believe that never any had more desire so to do. We try to bear whatever ill is done to us, hoping that the King may remedy it, but that cannot go on, for these people make daily attacks upon us and our towns. Yet I can assure you that never were we more filled with determination and courage.—Bergerac, 8 June, 1585.
Holograph. Add. Endd. Fr. 1 p. [Ibid. XIII. 136.]
May 29./June 8.Du Pin to Walsingham.
We have yet no certainty of the result of the Queen Mother's negotiation, but are in no doubt of what we have to do in any event. This Prince is wholly prepared to do right and to follow the counsel of his best friends and honest men. Such is the justice of his cause and the procedure of his enemies, rebuked by God and condemned by men, that I hope for curses upon them and a blessing upon him, and that his friends will at this time let him see the effects of their goodwill. M. de Champernon goes to day towards M. de Montmorency, the King sending Mr. Constans to conduct him. M de Montmorency shows himself very devoted to this Prince's service, and is to-day one of the most notable lords and best captains in France, managing his affairs with prudence and magnanimity.
Guyenne, Languedoc, Dauphiny and Province are all in good case and not at the devotion of the Leaguers.
Holograph. Add. Endd. with date. [France XIII. 137.]
May 29.The Elector Truchsess to Davison.
Asking him to carry and aid by his recommendations the letters he sends for her Majesty and the Council. Thanks him for his good advice and prays him to assist Mr. Paul Buys with his good counsel.—Honslerdyck, 29 May, 1585, stilo veteri.
Signed. Add. Endd. Fr. ¾ p. [Holland II. 29.]
May 29./June 8.The States General to Walsingham.
As our deputies are presently departing in order to offer her Majesty the lordship and principality of the provinces of Gueldres, Flanders, Holland, with West Frise, Zeeland, Utrecht, and Frise, on good and reasonable conditions, and as we know well your good affection to the increase of her Majesty's estate and the preservation of these countries; we earnestly recommend our cause to you, and pray for your aid, that she may take a speedy resolution, as the state of our affairs demands.—The Hague, 8 June, 1585.
Signed by Heermale, president, and Aerssens, greffier. Add. Endd. Fr. ¾ p. [Ibid. II. 30.]
May 30./June 9.Du Plessis to Killigrew.
Your zeal is such that we do not need to commend to you the church of God. Suffice it to say that it is assailed in good earnest, the designs of the league which is hatched in this kingdom being directly against us. M. de Segur will have told you more of this. I pray you to assist the cause, sure that from so much good will we shall feel some good effect. You would not believe the patience we have had till now, but it cannot last” for ever.— Bergerac, 9 June, 1585.
Add. Endd. Fr. 1 p. [France XIII. 138.]
May 30.Ortell to Walsingham.
After leaving him the previous day, he spoke with the Lord Treasurer, and hopes to tell his honour of the reply, if he will fix an hour to-morrow morning. Also wishes to put before him a letter from the governor of Ostend.—London, 30 May, 1585.
Add. Endd. Fr. ¾ p. [Holland II. 31.]
May 31.Colonel Morgan to the Privy Council.
Your lordships' letter of April 24 only coming to my hands on the 30th of the present, I hope you will excuse my innocent silence.
As it pleases you to take notice of the unkindness which has been “between some captains and soldiers of my regiment and me, namely between Captain Martin and myself,” I take it as a singular favour that you command me to refer our controversy to your honours' wisdom. As I hope shortly to be in England, I will not now “go about to confute the weak excuses” of those whose complaints have come to your ears, or to declare the bad dealings of Capt. Martin. The misery in my regiment has been great, and the greater by the secret extortions of divers of my captains, keeping the poor soldiers' due from them. Captain Martin, at his departure, carried away almost all the money he had received one or two days before for his men. If he were only guilty of this or like offences, I should make him repair to your honours, but being charged by the General States with false coining, “through false dollars and the counterfeit stamp of Brabant found in his 'mall' at Bargues . . . it is not in my power to satisfy your honours' desire.” This is not his first practice in that art, for some years ago such instruments were found in his house by his friends and thrown away secretly. He says he received the Brabant stamp from one Mr. Hodges, of my regiment, who died in February last, but the familiarity between them was not such “as Hodges should upon his deathbed leave unto Martin such relics,” nor was Hodges ever suspected to aid himself with that art; but for Martin, almost every soldier knows him to be a practiser in that and many other qualities not fit for an honest man. The General States have him in their hands and proceed against him, and I cannot but suffer justice to take place, though I am void of all malice against him except for his vices.
As to the state of this town, “I will only say that except God miraculously assist them, and not receiving any present succour from her Majesty, they must needs come to their destruction and be reduced under the Spanish yoke.”
You will have learned by Capt. Lucar what money I have received from the Merchants Adventurers at Middelburg, and that I was constrained to take up a thousand gilders more of one Mr. Hugh Ovax, an English merchant here, which I pray you to reimburse him, for he gave it me when my regiment was in great extremity. If I had at first written to the Adventurers for more, I should have had it, but I thought what I sent for would have served our turns. I hope you will assure her Majesty “that my actions have ever tended to do her faithful service and to increase the ancient honour of her and her subjects.”
Ever since February, I and my regiment have been out of pay and entertainment from these States till now, so that I have had to maintain myself and them out of her Majesty's money and some lendings from the States, for which, at times requisite, we have employed ourselves in their service; so that I have indebted myself very much for the maintenance of my men, whom I have now reduced into two companies.
The Estates of Holland and Zeeland have offered me commission and means to levy a regiment of ten English companies, “the more for that the small troup which I had the 16th (fn. 2) of this month upon the dyke of Cowestain did so sufficiently show what Englishmen can do, for such was their valour (though overthrown afterwards through the too great cowardliness of other nations) that the Spaniards and Italians, besides those of our side that are escaped, do daily make honourable mention of us.”
The particulars of our unexpected overthrow are, I doubt not, already come to your ears, therefore to conclude my tedious letter I will only humbly crave that if the said Estates of Holland and Zeeland give me their commission to levy a regiment—as it has pleased her Majesty heretofore graciously to grant me her assistance in the levying of her subjects,—so by your honours' favour, I may not now be deprived of her special grace.— Antwerp, last of May, 1585.
Add. Endd. 2 pp. [Flanders I. 27.]
Annexed :
Note of sums received by Capt. Martyn for himself and his company from April 1 stilo novo to April 15 (when he left Antwerp) amounting to 243 gilders, 6 stivers.
N.B.—Of the first month's pay received for his company, Capt. Martyn made over into England 50l. sterling.
From the time of my [Morgan's] arrival, the captains and soldiers have all received “every one equally to the sum received by me daily their money or victuals, as their own hand-writing doth testify.”
The said Martyn has ordained that of the last month's pay 554 gilders, 5 stivers shall be paid to his creditors.
½ p. [Ibid. I 27a.]
May 31./June 10.Instructions from the Princess of Chimay to M. de Grise.
After offering her humble service and respects; to express her joy on learning that her Majesty will undertake the defence of these countries, and her prayers that she may have a happy issue to this holy enterprise. And further to represent to her Majesty her calamitous condition, her conscience will not let her agree to go with the Prince her husband into the country of the Malcontents, both as knowing the pressure they would put upon her conscience and the danger to her person, and rather resolves to live here en pauvre damoiselle, than there in the quality which she might do. The Prince her husband and his family, hoping to force her by poverty, deprive her of all means, even preventing her enjoyment of the property which she has in France.
That to obviate this, she had intended to withdraw to some neutral place, viz. to Sedan, her husband having given her hope that he would retire with her, but what has happened since, his change of religion and affronts to those of the Religion not excepting herself, has caused her to change her plan.
That she now finds herself in extreme distress, without means to enjoy any of her property, unless it pleases the Queen to allow her to come to England, which she would gladly do, if her Majesty would not suffer her husband, the King of Spain or any other to compel her to quit it. She humbly prays her Majesty to grant this, since the fear of sinning against her conscience has alone caused all these troubles, which she is resolved to bear rather than change her resolution.—Delft, 10 June, 1585.
Signed, Marie de Brimeu. Endd. Fr.pp. [Holland II. 32.]
May 31.Thomas Bodley to Walsingham.
Since writing on the 7th from Hamburg, I have had no opportunity of sending any letter till my coming now to Lubeck. Six days after I wrote, I came to Wolfenbüttel, not far from Brunswick, where the Duke most commonly makes his abode. He sent to my inn three of his Council, Otto van Heim, Dr. Usler and Lieut. Ive, and divers gentlemen besides, with a score of his guards and his own horse-litter. When they had bid me welcome, Dr. Usler in Latin “began to show me” from the Duke how much he longed to hear of her Majesty's welfare and happiness; with hearty congratulations on my safe arrival and many courtesies and offers in the Duke's name. Then they conducted me to Francis Mutzettin, the Chancellor's house (who went that morning towards Bremen), where I was lodged by the Duke's appointment, had my diet from his kitchen, was served by his officers and had always at meals the company of his Council, who did me continually honourable service. Two days later, those of the Council whom I have named, with two more, Dr. Farembelt and M. Statius, came betimes to my chamber, when Dr. Usler, who was commonly their speaker, signified to me that the Duke “was marvellous desirous to have had me come to him . . . but he was so exceedingly troubled with the gout, the palsy, the stone and all at that instant, as it was painful unto him to speak or to be spoken unto.” He therefore prayed me to deal with his Council as if himself were present, promising such despatch as the affairs required.
Whereunto I made answer that I had express command to offer her Majesty's salutations to himself, that it grieved me greatly to carry home to her Highness such sorrowful tidings of his weak disposition, but as my business brooked no delay if it pleased them presently to give me audience, I would not willingly defer it. Whereupon, “having gone to and fro between the Duke and me, and considered of my letters, they all at last came in together, with ink and paper in their hands, and prayed me to tell them what I had further to intreat of . . . which while I uttered to them to that effect as I was willed by her Majesty's instructions, they did all of them write what I said, and some, methought, so fast, as they noted every word. . . . My letters to the Electors and the Landgrave of Hesse they requested me to keep till they had spoken with the Duke; using many good words in commendation of her Majesty's forwardness and zeal in advancing these causes, but desired my patience if I tarried longer for an answer than perhaps I expected, because my petitions were many, and the Duke in health so ill disposed.”
Upon my daily soliciting, on the 23rd they all came again, when Dr. Usler delivered the Duke's resolution. First congratulations for her Majesty's prosperity and the happy estate of her country, then thanks for her kind message and protestation of like hearty good-will; and lastly, “coming to the matter, yielded in everything to perform her Majesty's requests, as far as lay in his power; to send her letters to the Electors and the Landgrave, to join his own unto them, to move them to a Diet and a general union as well of forces as of minds, and to come themselves in person or to send their deputies with full authority to conclude. In particular, to consider of some succour to the King of Navarre, to take order with his churchmen to deal with more charity, to hinder both the levying and the passage of soldiers, and to give, in conclusion, his uttermost furtherance, howbeit, for the Diet, he was of opinion that it would not be so soon as the cause doth require and her Majesty desireth, for that it chiefly consisteth in the Princes Electors, who he doubted would have time to determine such a matter.” But there should want no soliciting on his part, and in the Circle or session of the princes of Low Saxony, at Halberstadt, on July 17 next, he himself would propose and follow the whole matter, and would send his ambassadors out of hand to the Administrator of Halle, who is the chief in that meeting. Meanwhile, he had already done his utmost for the staying of such soldiers as were to be levied in or pass out of his country, and in witness thereof, offered me his edicts, which I send you. As her Majesty did not send me to the Electors, which he thought would have been expedient, he counselled me, as of myself, to write to the Duke of Saxony, signifying why she had not done so. And as he wished to impart something to me of importance, he was very desirous that returning out of Denmark I should repair again to him and receive the Electors' answers; and lastly he made an offer of all his favour to myself, and so made an end, with good wishes for my voyage and thanks for my travail in this cause and my patience there.
In my answer, after omitting nothing on her Majesty's behalf, and especially declaring “what contentment she would take to see her expectation so satisfied in everything demanded,” I said that in regard to the advice that I should make her Majesty's excuse to the Duke of Saxony in a letter from myself, “as a private person I durst not be so bold, and as sent by her Majesty, my commission would not bear it. Nevertheless, whatsoever I should do, directed by his wisdom, I did not any way make doubt but her Majesty would like it, and therefore . . . it should be written out of hand and left to his good pleasure to send it or otherwise.” Then I offered him my services into Denmark and thanked him for my entertainment, with certain speeches to the Council, who told me the Duke wished me to write the letter to the Elector, and would send it with his own. “Withal, Otto van Heim took me apart and told me in mine ear that the Duke would have me in any wise to indite my letter without attributing anything to him, but making as if her Majesty's trust were chiefly in Saxony. This letter, being written, was carried to the Duke, who sent me back word that he liked it well and desired a copy; as I have inserted here another, nothing doubting but her Majesty, being privy to the circumstances, will account it no presumption.”
[Here follows copy of Bodley's letter (in Latin) to the Elector of Saxony, to the effect proposed above.]
My letter written, I made my suit to be dismissed, and to have a copy of the Duke's letters to the Electors and Landgrave, which were sent me next day. They were in Dutch [i.e. German] and the same to all, as I herein send the copy. And if upon these they show themselves not so forward as is needful, the Duke will write more roundly and persuade them more directly to her Majesty's course; “which to do now at first, he thought would hinder more than further. For I was told very flatly by divers of his Council that Saxony in special must be dealt withal in this with singular dexterity, for indeed he ruleth all, and would have it so reputed, and unless he be esteemed the author and contriver of every good enterprise, he will quickly fall to jealousy and take a sinister opinion.”
Having obtained leave to depart, “the Duke sent me a coach for myself and another for my men to bring us to Brunswick, willing Otto van Heim and another gentleman to keep me company and to bring us to be lodged in the house of the Abbot of Ridaghusen, fast by Brunswick, to whom he sent beforehand to make our provision. The Abbot, being 'letted,' sent presently to Brunswick to have us there entertained at his own cost and charge, where I was also presented with many pots of wine by the magistrates of the city, . . . with certain congratulatory speeches according to their custom.” The next day I departed towards Lubeck, where I came two days since and only await a wind to pass for Coppenhagen. Now to impart to you such of my own observations as seem material. In the Duke of Brunswick's Court, no man, even of his Council, knew more of the Duke of Guise than that he was in arms; of his pretentions, adherents, proceedings or forces, they were as ignorant as might be. I gave them a copy of the Cardinal of Bourbon's declaration, and other documents, and the Duke had many copies taken, which he sent to the Electors, Administrator of Halle, Duke of “Pomerane” and others.
The soldiers and colonels whose names I sent in my last were levied mostly in Saxony and the countries adjoining and paid by the Guise. “And if Brunswick would suffer it I think a quarter of the country would serve in like sort, for the malice of their ministers hath no kind of measure, that the common people know no otherwise but that they fight against infidels when they fight against Calvinists, and think the Pope would not hurt them if that Calvinists were gone.
“While I was at Wolfenbüttel, their minister in a sermon before the Council, speaking of those that were massacred at Paris, termed them a wicked generation and martyrs of the devil, whereof I talked after with some of the Council.
“They could not tell me what other forces have been levied, because in these quarters, by reason of the edicts, they assemble not in troops, but get away underhand; nor how many of the former have passed the Rhine, for some say all, and some but a few, but for certain many have been stayed by the Elector of Brandenburg, the Landgrave and Brunswick. In the Circle of Low Saxony, these be the chiefest of the princes who by themselves or their deputies must be present :—The Administrator of Magdeburg, the Archbishop of Breame, Julius Duke of Brunswick, Wolfgangus Duke of Brunswick, Wilhelmus Duke of Brunswick and Luneburg, certain Dukes of Saxe, the Bishop of Halberstadt, the Duke of “Mechelburg” the King of Denmark as Duke of Holsatia, Adolphus Duke of Holsatia, the Bishop of Lubeck and divers other bishops and counts, and the cities of Lubeck, Hamburg &c. That it seemeth, if the Duke of Brunswick will deal as he may, his authority among them being highly esteemed, much good may come of it; howbeit he complaineth very often that we begin a great deal too late to set such matters afoot.
Sir Philip Sidney has a very great friend, one Andreas Pauli, a counsellor to the Duke of Saxony, who coming to Wolfenbüttel, came to dinner with me. I asked him “to favour her Majesty's excuse for not sending to the Elector; for that in sending to and fro much time is consumed and opportunities are lost, and I had haste towards Denmark and then after must return.” He promised to do so, and hoped that the amity between her Majesty and his master might be confirmed, and then she might draw him to all her good purposes. When I asked how it might be firmer than it was, he said that was to be considered when occasions were presented. “He thought the contriving of a match between the Scottish King and a daughter of the King of Denmark would be a grateful thing to him and to all the princes here, and exceedingly beneficial to all Protestants in Christendom.”
About Michaelmas next, the Duke of Brunswick's eldest son will be married to the Duke of Saxony's second daughter. It may be the Duke of Saxony will then send for cloth into England, and Andreas thought it would be well to take order that he might be “freed of custom; which, said he, is a privilege among princes,” insinuating that the Duke took it ill that at some time heretofore he had been forced to pay it.
The day before I left, one Bokelius, physician to the Duke of. Brunswick, came to me, sent, as I take it, by the Duke, who told me “the Duke did greatly marvel that our English merchants had such a liking to Embden. He thought Breame more convenient, or some other town thereabouts; in which, if they were so contented, the Duke himself would pleasure them; for he was a suitor and in hope to get the Archbishopric of Breame for his eldest son, Bishop of Halberstadt, and besides, the country thereabout, by the death of Duke Eric, is fallen into his hands.” Moreover, he told me that as her Majesty did not send to the christening of her godson Joachim, or answer the Duke's letter, it would be taken very kindly if she would at last send him some token of good will and declare her willingness to see him; which also I conjecture proceeded from the Duke, because he told me he meant to send him into England. I was told by him and others, that there are many principal persons about these princes whose talk is altogether Spanish, so it is deemed that King has his pensioners everywhere.
I have seen here in Lubeck a book, published in Latin, with this title :—” Incendium Calvinisticum Regis Navarri legatione apud quosdam Imperii status” &c, with no name of author or place, but containing that King's commission and instructions to M. Segurius, copies of his letters, “and divers letters of divines written to some princes of Germany to deface that legation.” I could not get a copy, but doubt not you have seen it, cr will soon have it in England.
Just now news comes that the King of Denmark is gone into Norway; some say he will stay there long, others that he will speedily return. I shall keep my course to Coppenhagen and there advise with M. 'd'Ancy' what is best.—Lubeck, anno 1585, May 31.
Postscript.—I met with Mr. Herbert in Lubeck and took the copy of a letter which he has to deliver to her Majesty from the Duke of Prusse, “which will serve me to good purpose, to show his affection and forwardness to other princes. For he declareth so his willingness to join his forces with her Majesty in a cause of this quality as if he had been expressly invited unto it.” I believe that going into Denmark, returning again, and perhaps staying for shipping and wind, may hold me six weeks longer in this country, so if you have any further command, it may come to my hands. Valentine Palmer, a factor for Alderman Bond at Hamburg, will convey any letter to me, or return it, if I am departed. I send this by one John Roberts, a merchant dwelling by Bassinges Hall in London.
Add. Endd. 9 closely written pp. [Germany, States III. 74.]
May 31Harborne to Walsingham.
The 18 inst. I certified the present occurrences, since which time the Venetians have made their present and th'ancient licenced to depart hence, for that the galliot by them taken from Romadan Bassa is delivered in the Valonia to the Sanjack Bey of Romania according as these required. Ferai Bassa, late general over the Persian army, now returned, hath gratified his master with a present exceeding one hundred thousand ducats, and notwithstanding that he was much in his disgrace for his sinister proceedings during his regiment, yet now received to former favour, contrary to most men their expectation.
Of certain clerks of the Chancery, for false and counterfeit writings found guilty, four had their right hands cut off and the others banished the court.
The Persian hath given an overthrow to these and at this present is said to attend Osmond the General, with two hundred and fifty thousand Persians at a city called Tauris to fight the field, having destroyed all things that might make for his enemy, whereby already a measure of barley, less than our bushel, here worth eight pence is there at eight shillings, and consequently all other victuals, yet notwithstanding here goeth from hence innumerable people conveyed over in the gallies into Asia, which daily from morning to evening rest not towing over great boats with horse and men, for he maketh all his possible force, so as the whole army after the common report is not less than of 600,000 persons; yet notwithstanding, for that these men and their horses shall be over wearied with sixty days continual travel in the extreme heat of summer, and at their arrival in the camp, hunger bitten and without the requisite to help themselves, the most part unable of their small pay to support such excessive charge, are thought after the soundest judgments shall not prevail against their contraries, being in their own country, abounding with plentiful maintenance; but for that the victory resteth only in God his hands, after his messenger time hath truly attested the certain event, your honour shall be thereof certified.
Out of Christendom, we have no certain news to write. The French ambassador, de Lancome is not yet upon the journey hither, but is thought to be in service to du Guise, privily suborned of the King of Spain and the Pope to make intestine and civil war in France against those of the religion under title of defender Sathans synagogue, by him falsely termed the true church, which indeed Christ the head shall preserve to his and all other (poisoned with the babilonical strumpet her cup) their confusion. In like manner it is affirmed by certain now come from Mercelia [Marseilles] in Provence that the same was likely to have been by treason delivered into the King of Spain his hands, which foreseeing due time was prevented with the present death of the author. Not having others, commending my humble duty and my poor parents to your honour's accustomed favour, the Almighty bless and prosper your honour with yours in all perfect felicity.—From Rapamat, the last of May, 1585.
Add. Entirely in cipher. 1¼ p. [Turkey I. 40.]
Duplicate, also in cipher, of the above. [Ibid. I. 41.]
May.Elizabeth to the French King.
“Si vous sentistes, mon bien aymé frere, le doleur, l'ennuy et la facherie qu'en mon ame je sens pour le perilleux estat en qui je voy que precipitement vous vous laisses conduire, je m'asseure que croiries de n'avoir en ce monde creature de qui plus seurement en pourries faire compte sans hazard. Mon Dieu, est il possible q'un grand Roy se permecte sans raison et contre honeur un requirant paix de subjects traitres et rebelles, et de ne leur faire du commencement trencher toute commodité de s'agrandir, ou au pis aller a cest' heur' ycy constraindre par forces de prince, se sousmectre au joug de leur merite-Je m'estonne de vous veoir trahit en vostre Conseil mesme, voire de la plus proche qu'avés au monde, et qu'estes si aveugle de n'en sentir goute : pardonés mon amour qui me rend si audacieuse vous parler si librement. Devant Dieu je proteste que ne le fais a aultre fin sinon pour l'honeur de Roy and affection que vous porte.
“Helas, croiés vous que le manteau de quoy ils se couvrent de la Religion est si double qu'on ne veoit que ce n'est pour se faire regner soubs vostre nom, mais a leur devotion, et je prie Dieu qu'ils veulent finir là. Je ne le croy, car rarement on veoit les princes vivre qui sont si subjugués. Dieu nous garde d'en faire preuve : et encore s'il vous plaist de vous resveiller les esprits royaulx, vous verrés que nous deux (s'il vous plaist d'user de mon aide) leur fairons s'en resentir avec la plus grande honte que jamais rebelles eurent. 'N'en doubtes nullement que si vos bons subjects vous visrent virilement prendre en main ceste cause, et qu'ils ne soupeçonassent comme pleusieurs font que vous estiés de la partye vous mesmes, regardant vos menees et le peu de soing qu'en monstres avoir, ils vous assisteroient en sorte que vifs ou morts ils les vous ameneroient que vous serviroit en honour perpetuel. Et quelques uns qui vous parlent que la guerre en France est massacrer vostre pais : Ja a Dieu ne plaise qu'un Roy ne hazardast plustost sa vie propre en une battaille que recepvoir le deshoneur que de jour en jour s'augmente. H vauldroict mieux perdre 20,000 hommes que regner au plaisir des rebelles. Vous finiriés bien tost cest' affaire s'on vist que vous y mectastes la main, et non commencies par une belle requeste de paix premier que luy faire se recognoistre. Quy sont si hardis a vous donner loy avecq des prescriptions estranges et conditions monstreuses, en partye pour vous constraindre manger la parole par une tres indigne cartelle.
“Jesus ! Ayt il jamais esté veu qu'un prince fust jamais si espris par lacs de traistres sans avoir ou courrage ou conseil pour y respondre ? Sy une Royne en seize jours fist une armee de 30,000 hommes marcher aux champs pour chastier les resveries de deux fols, suscités par aultre prince et non pour leur particulier, que doibt un roy de France faire contre tels qui long temps y à se font descendre par droicte lignee (comme ils songent) de Charlemaigne precedente celle de Valois; et pour pallier mieulx leur faict, ils se protestent champions de la religion Catholique de qui vous estes, vous touchent pour n'estre si fidelle serviteur de l'eglise qu'eulx.
“Pour l'amour de Dieu, ne dormés plus ce trop long sommeil; aprenes de moy, vostre tres fidelle, que ne failleray de vous assister si vous ne fairés un abbandon de vous mesmes. J'entens d'une intermission pour quelques jours; permectes ce temps pour vous fortifier, non pour vous ruyner, et prenés garde de ne venir a leurs conditions, qui vous produiront deshoneur et perte d'estat.
“J'ay esté si mal traicté par ce gallant Due d'Aumale que ne vous manderay gentilhomme exprés, mais ay choisy ce moyen pour la meilleure voye, vous supplyant m'escrire librement ce que deliberes faire, non attendant leur bon plaisir, mais vostre tres important besoing; pryant le Createur vous assister de sa saincte grace et vous relever les esprits. Vostre bonne sœur et cousine tres fidelle et asseuree Elizabethe.”
Endd. “May, 1585. Copy of her Majesty's letters to the French King.” 2 pp. [France XIII. 139.]
[May ?]A Memorial to Mauvissière.
Praying him to desire Mr. Walsingham to grant the following :—
To give a commission to Geoffrey Prior or his clerk to receive the Duc de Joyeuse's ship.
To give answer to the King's letters for the merchants of Rouen.
To write a word to Dr. Caesar, judge of the Admiralty, to cause to be restored three baris de mamquette, belonging to Guillaume Adan which are in the hands of one Picquet, given him by a servant of Sir George Carey (Carre). The Lord Treasurer has written thereof. Dr. Caesar said that if he did not restore them he should be imprisoned, but the said Adan has recovered nothing, and says moreover that he sent to Southampton (Hantonne) and the neighbourhood to seek his merchandise, by virtue of a commission of the Council, but the Mayor forbid the officers there to execute the said commission. The Mayor and Recorder of Salisbury (Salseborc) did the like. The Mayor of Weymouth (Houesmue) detains much of his merchandise, as mamquettes and morfil, although the Lord Treasurer wrote to him to restore them.
To examine Morgan Wolfe (Houlf), vice-admiral of Wales and his men upon the articles enclosed (wanting), and meanwhile that the mamquettes dans Dolifleur and other Flemish goods belonging to merchants of Picardy, Dieppe, Rouen and Paris, may be restored so far as it is proved that he has had them; and also that he and his deputy shall produce the pirates whom he has taken in possession of the said goods.
To cause Richard “Huictin” (?) and Thomas his brother, master gunner of Portsmouth, to appear, they having a part of the said Flemish merchandise, as is proved by examination of their own men and others. Two requests have been already presented for this purpose.
Endd. “Pour donner a M. de Walinghan.” Fr. 1 p. [Ibid. XIII. 140.]
May.[Davison to the Magistrates of Antwerp?]
Although you will have heard from others how grieved the Queen my mistress has been to see the state of these poor countries, so unjustly afflicted by the tyranny of those whose aim is the extirpation of the Christian religion, with the entire subjection of your liberties and miserable enslavement of yourselves, your wives and children; and that, to obviate this, she has firmly resolved, from her duty to God and compassion towards yourselves to employ the means God has put into her hands, in the just defence of your country :—
Yet, having been informed of the distressed state of your town in particular, which the enemy tries by all means to bring under the yoke of his insupportable tyranny, as also of your praiseworthy resolution and constancy to maintain its defence, and the preservation of your religion and liberty, your goods, lives, wives and children; she has been moved, not only so much the rather to embrace the affairs of your country, but also has commanded me to testify to you on her behalf her special care for your aid and deliverance, the fruits whereof you will shortly perceive, all things, both here and there, being in such good train that there will be (she hopes) no difficulty or delay therein. Wherefore I pray that you will continue that constancy which hitherto you have shown, by the example of some of your neighbours and compatriots, who, not having wished to submit to the yoke of the enemy's barbarous tyranny, have, in the end, borne away not only all that they held most dear, but the immortal glory of their virtue and the testimony of God's mercy and favour, who in the midst of the greatest difficulties and dangers shows his powerful hand towards those who trust in his compassion, and make use of the legitimate means for their deliverance, as you will shortly feel by his grace in your own affairs.—The Hague [the first of May, erased], 1585.
Rough draft, in Davison's hand. Fr. 1 sheet. [Holland II. 33.]
[May.]French Advices.
The Queen greatly desires to make peace, and would have done so before now if the King had been as forward in it as she is; but he wishes to disarm them, and finds their conditions hard. She does not hide the fact that this war against the Leaguers is of more dangerous consequence than that against the Huguenots, but that they must rescue themselves from one by the other, and afterwards consider how to master those of the Religion.
On the other side, those of the League not seeing their affairs succeed as they hoped, begin to mix water with their wine, and have recalled M. de Lorraine express, as is said, to renew the business with the Queen.
It is thought that the Dukes of Mercœur and Elbeuf, and the Count of Brissac will pass the Loire, to employ the forces of Guienne. Some add that they mean to besiege St. Jean d'Angeli.
The King promises all favour for the retaking of the Castle of La Flèche; which Barrug says may be done. Still hoping for peace, he has not sent any fresh order for the raising of reiters since the taking of Chomberg.
Besides the fifteen hundred men already arrived for the League, they expect two thousand more; but not earlier than six weeks from now.
The King has made Joyeuse and Epernon swear a new friendship. Joyeuse would much like a complete reconciliation between his father and Montmorency, and that the Cardinal d'Armagnac should be the mediator. They are asking the King of Navarre to negotiate the matter.
Little La Roche took 6,000 crowns to the Queen of Navarre from her mother. M. de Clervant has written the cause of his journey by a gentleman whom the Duke de Bouillon sent to the Prince and M. de Montpensier. He expects to collect by the end of the month 30,000 crowns on the one part and 10,000 on the other.
The King of Navarre is counselled to conciliate the Catholics by all possible means, and to use the aid of Montmorency to give them access to him.
The Remonstrance against those of the League has been translated into Latin and printed at Paris. It has been reprinted many times in French.
We are strongly urged to send the King a Declaration in the name of the King of Navarre, and to beg him humbly to send it to the courts of Parliament, presidial courts, and assemblies of notables of his kingdom, as also to foreign princes, for his justification against his enemies.
The business of the King of Navarre goes on very well in England. The Queen is sending to him the Sieur de Champernon and Colonel Fitzwilliam (Fels Wilhelm). They left Paris a fortnight ago for Guienne, so that the ambassador is anxious about them.
The King of Scotland is also offering all the aid he can to the King of Navarre, even to the sending of 10,000 men into France to aid the said King at his own cost against his cousins of the House of Guise, because they wish to destroy the Religion. He is making a reconciliation with the Queen of England. The said lady is sending to the King of Denmark and the Princes of Germany to persuade them to a general union for defence of the Religion. She is also treating with the Low Countries and is resolved to aid them, either secretly or openly. In the last Parliament she was granted a great sum of money, which is already being raised, to be employed in the said affairs without touching her treasure.
The Earl of Arundel was taken, when he was already embarked to go beyond seas. Several of his friends have since been taken, which makes us believe that it is for some affair of importance.
Fr. 4 pp. [Newsletter IX. 23.]
[May?]“Declaration for those of Flanders.”
In this province there are safely held Sluys and Ostend, with several strong places upon the Scheldt, as far as opposite to Antwerp; by which her Majesty (if she accepts the protection or sovereignty of the United Provinces) will have the brandschatz [contribution] of all the plain country of the province—there being no hindrance of fort or river to save the villagers therefrom— which will be more than sufficient to maintain the said towns and forts. The garrisons, though not now complete or in great number, yet so trouble all the other towns, especially Bruges, that those of this last town have many times informed the Prince of Parma that if he does not deliver them from this annoyance, they must make an accord with the States. So that, these places being protected by her Majesty, she may soon have Bruges and other towns on what terms she pleases.
To guard the towns and fortresses of Flanders there will be need of 2,000 footmen with 200 horse to make excursions on the enemy, the charge of which will amount to twenty-six or twenty-seven million florins a month. This can easily be provided by the said brandschatz, with what may be collected in Sluys and Ostend from the general funds; which amount to about 3,000 florins a month, and which have always been used for the fortifications of the towns.
[With notes in the margin by Burghley of the numbers of men, amounts of money, &c]
Endd. in a later hand, “The state of the places held by the United Provinces in Flanders, 1586,” but cannot be later than the summer of1585. Fr. ¾ p. [Flanders I. 28.]

Footnotes

1 One of these is probably that mentioned in the list calendared under “June” below.
2 From this it appeal s that Morgan is dating old style.