Henry VIII
January 1534, 1-5

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Institute of Historical Research

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James Gairdner (editor)

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1883

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4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12

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'Henry VIII: January 1534, 1-5', Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII, Volume 7: 1534 (1883), pp. 4-12. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=79289 Date accessed: 01 September 2014.


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January 1534, 1–5

1 Jan.9. New Year's Gifts.
R. O.New year's gifts given to the King, 1 Jan. 25 Hen. VIII.
By the Queen. A goodly gilt bason, having a rail or board of gold in the midst of the brim, garnished with rubies and pearls, wherein standeth a fountain, also having a rail of gold about it garnished with diamonds; out thereof issueth water, at the teats of three naked women standing at the foot of the same fountain.
By the Princess [blank]. By the lady Mary [blank].
Bishops. The same names as in the list for 1 Jan. 1532 (Vol. V. No. 636). with the omission of the bishop of Ely. Most of the gifts are money. (fn. 1)
Dukes and Earls. As in list for 1532. Suffolk's gift is a book garnished with gold, having therein a clock.
Lords. The same names as in list for 1532, except that lords Powes, Burrough and Wm. Howard take the place of lords Edmund Howard, Geo. Grey and Delawarre.
Duchesses, Countesses, and Ladies. Lady Margaret Angwisshe, countess of Shrewsbury, lady Anne (now Queen). Ladies Stannope, Oughtrede, Mary Rocheford, Tailbous and Darell omitted.
The new names are the duchesses of Richmond and Suffolk, ladies Kildaire. Zouche, Bulleyn (Sir Jas. Bulleyn's wife), Mary Care. Brynton. Howard (lord William's wife), and Herbert of Troye.
Chaplains. The abbot of Glastonbury, the prior of Tynnemouth, Dr. Rawson and the princcss's schoolmaster omitted. “By Layland, priest, two books of stories, with the King's grace.”
Gentlewomen. Mrs. Henneage and Mrs. Hilles, wife of the serjeant of the Cellar.
Knights. Sir Henry Guldeford and Sir Nic. Harvy, omitted. Sir Wm. Poulet, comptroller, Sir Thos. Nevell, Sir Fras. Weston and Sir Jas. Bolleyn occur in addition.
Gentlemen. Robt. Amadas, Penyson, Wm. Knevett, young Weston. Jerome Molyne, Matthew Barnard, Goron Bartinis, Alerd, Lee, Kawlyns, Harman Hull, Lucas Gunner, Hubbert of St. Katberine's, Thos. Flower, Bartholomew Tate and Stephen Andrew are omitted. The new names are, John Godsalf, of the Signet, Hen. Knevett, Ric. Gresham, John Hasylwoode, of the Receipt, Coyffyn, master of the Queen's horse, Antony Toote, Ric. Atsill, an Almain, polisher of stones, Baptist Dyer, a Portingaille, and one Forster, dwelling in Wood Street.
The presents are of the same kind as in previous lists. Among them occur a silver gilt compass, 69¾ oz., a goodly table of Hercules, a table of Our Lord, a tablet of gold with an antike face, a prymer of written hand in vellum, a goodly clock, an “esposier” of gold with a chain, a goodly table of St. Jerome, a tablet of gold with a device of Venus and Cupidoo, two “seviettes” and a marmoset.
II. New year's gifts given by the King, 1 Jan. 25 Hen. VIII.
To the Queen,—, (fn. 2) the Princess,—, (fn. 2) and the Lady Mary,—. (fn. 2)
The list of names includes most of the persons from whom the King received gifts, with the following in addition: the earl of Essex, lord Ferrers, the Lord Chamberlain with the Queen, lord of Lincoln, lord Marques Dorset, the lord of Surrey, lady Margret Angwisshe, lady Stannope, lady Shelton, Sir J. Shelton's wife, lady Margaret Grey, Mrs. Marshall, mistress of the maidens, Mrs. Zouche, Mrs. Holland, Mrs. Shelton, Mrs. Gambaige, Mrs. Assheley, Mrs. Seymour, Mrs. Margery, Mrs. Cobham, Mrs. Morres, Mrs. Toppes, Mrs. Nurse. Mrs. Hilles, Sir Ric. Sacheverell, Sir John Shelton, Sir Wm. Pounder, Roger Raddif. Antony Knevet, Dr. Butte, Wm. Skidmore, gentleman usher, Lee, gentleman usher. John Parker, of the Robes, the King's master cook, Geo. Lufkin, Blakennall, yeoman of the Crown, Mark Anthony.
The presents are piate. The names of the makers, Freman. Wolf, Cornells, and T. Trsppes, are appended to each article. To the duchess of Richmond and lady Margaret Angus, the King gave gifts himself, so no article is put to their names.
Signed at beginning and end by the King.
Paper roll: Endd.
1 Jan.10. New Year's Gifts.
R. O.Primo die Januarii. anno xxv. R.R.H. VIII.
List of plate received from John Freman, Cornelis Heyes, Morgam Wolf and Thos. Trappes, goldsmiths, for new years gifts, with the names of the persons to whom each article is given.
Total, 3,962 oz. = 1,023l. 7s.d.
i. Plate mended by Freman, the year ending 31 Dec.
White pots, with the bottom out and “evill booged,” received from John Aman, of the Pitcher-house. New burnishing and boiling a pair of covered basons and a constable's mace against the Queen's coronation. Remaking a parcel gilt pot received from Hen. Collyer, late clerk of the Jewel-house with lady Mary. 10 June 25 Hen. VIII., a glass of silver with a cover, the brim of which is to be made deeper; making a jug and other articles for the Princess, &c. 60l. 4s.d.
ii. Plate new made and mended by Cornells Heyes, 6 Feb. 24 Hen. VIII. A salt of gold, with a cover, called the murrion, whereof the murrion Lead was broken in the neck that holdeth up the salt. Changing the Cardinal's arms in the knop of the cover of a gilt cup, into the King's arms. March. The salt called the “murrion,” the foot of the salt and the legs of the “murrion” being broken. From the Jewel-house in the Tower, a sceptre with the dove broken off, which was new made. Changing the arms of Spain to those of England on a stool to lift one on horseback, &c. 4l. 9s.d.
Total, 1,088l. 0s.d. Freman was paid by Thos. Cromwell, master and treasurer of the Jewels, and Heyes, Wolf and Trappes by Sir Brian Tuke.
Large paper, pp. 10. Signed by the King at the beginning and end. Endd.
1. Jan.11. Christopher Hales to Cromwell.
R. O.The prior of King's Langley tells me you have been very good master to him, in which I think you do well. I know neither the place nor his adversary, but I have seen several of his charters, showing that former kings have been good to the house, and I see no reason why such an officer as Mr. Verney should do them wrong. I hear that Steph. Draner, of Cranebroke, escheator (fn. 3) of Kent, has not yet received his commission for that office. It is not well that things should be so ordered, for all this while he is unable to do the King service. I can see no cause for it, unless it be detained that fees may be exacted. My lord Treasurer appoints all escheators, and some of his substitutes must have been misbehaving. Canterbury, the day of Circumcision of our Lord God.
Hol., p. 1. Add.: Right worshipful.
2 Jan.12. Thomas Lord Lawarr to Cromwell.
R. O.I thank you for your kindness to me and others of lord Dacre's executors. I am much behindhand, for I have been greatly charged since my father's death, eight years ago, and have but little land. I have out of my hands at present more than 900 marks. Ask the King, therefore, to have pity on my poverty, and that I might tarry at home until he thinks I can do him service. I will come at two days' warning. For other matters my proxy should be as good, for I can reason no matter, but say yea or nay, for the impediment God has given me in my tongue. I am not able to abide more charges without help. If, however, the King insist upon it, I shall come. At my poor house, 2 Jan. Signed.
P.S., in his own hand: Give credence to this bearer.
P. 1. Add.: To my very special and good friend, Mr. Cromwell.
2 Jan.13. Sir Will. Goryng to Cromwell.
R. O.I beg your favor for the bearer for a matter in the Guildhall between himself and Geo. Tadlow, haberdasher, of London, who made the bearer his factor at Bordeaux in lading 98 tuns of wine, for which the bearer had not sufficient money to pay for 40 tuns, which he took up on credit. George is sued for payment of the same, and to save his credit sent his bills of hand to the bearer, promising payment; but as he failed to keep his word, the bearer was arrested beyond sea and imprisoned for nine months. As George has sold the wine, and will not pay the bearer, I beg you will take the matter in hand. Burton. 2 Jan. Signed.
P. 1. Add.: Right worshipful.
3 Jan.14. Chapuys to Charles V.
Vienna Archives.The little pamphlet (livret) composed by the Council, which I lately sent to your Majesty, is only a preamble and prologue of others more important, which are now being printed. One is called Defensorium Pacis, written in favor of the emperor Loys, of Bavaria, against apostolic authority. Formerly no one dared read it, for fear of being burnt, but now it is translated into English so that all the people may see and understand it. The other is entitled, “Concerning Royal and Priestly Authority,” and proves that bishops ought to be equal to other priests, except in precedence and in the honor showed them in church, and that kings and princes ought to be sovereign over churchmen, according to the ancient law. which is the point most agreeable to the King, and have the administration of their temporal goods. The King will certainly try to put this last in execution, as well on account of his hatred for churchmen as from covetousness, and will be urged on by the Lady and his Council. In order to encroach upon the sovereignty over the Church it has been proposed to give the archbishop of Canterbury the seal of the Chancery, and pass bulls, dispensations, and other provisions under it. If the Pope had been as diligent as these people are in trying to serve him this trick, there would have been no question of such disorders. Your Majesty may consider that since God has abandoned these people, and allowed them to do such execrable acts, and taken away their senses, there is fear for the safety of the Queen and Princess, as they would think that when these persons were dead, they would be free from all trouble on the part of your Majesty. Every one here fears this. Being unable to apply any other remedy, I thought of causing a third person to show to Cremuel, Norfolk and others of the Council, that though your Majesty should be urged on by the Spaniards, and yourself wished to declare war (of which, however. there was no question at all), there was no fear of a war while the Queen lived, as she daily charged me to beg you not to think of making war on her behalf, as she would rather die. I should also let them know, in the same way that it would cause suspicion if anything happended either to her or to the Princess. I have not yet had an opportunity of putting this into practice, and have been waiting to hear the Queen's advice.
The King's chief purpose in composing this book is to justify himself to the people and gain their favor; but he is mistaken, for he has only irritated them more, even those who are slightly contaminated with Lutheranism. Cremuel showed one of the books to the Scotch ambassador, who said that if the councillors of Scotland had done such a thing they would have been all burnt without mercy, and with good cause.
Two Scotch bishop and an earl are expected shortly, to treat of peace. It is thought they may ask for the Princess as a wife for their King. If the peace depends upon that, they will conclude nothing, as the King will never consent. The ambassador here has already spoken of it, saying that even if she is a bastard, as they wish to make her, she is so virtuous and of such a family, that, the King: would not care for more. The bishop of Paris has not stayed here as long as was expected. He left the morrow of Innocents' day. it does not seem as if he had done much, and he has only had half the present the Kins intended to give him. a sign that he did not bring all the news the King wished, or that he spoke too much against the pamphlet.
The doctor of whom I last wrote (fn. 4) has not yet left. It is said he will go tomorrow. I have not been able to find out anything about his charge more than the conjectures in my last letters.
I was told that the King was sending another to Germany (fn. 5) to stir up the Lutheran princes and cities, so as to give your Majesty trouble, and prevent you from attacking him, which is the thing he fears most in the world, as he knows that then he would not be master either of his subjects or of their goods, as he is now, nor have opportunity to attend to his own affairs, (“et quil ne luy donnera a entendre a ses affaires.”) While he has the power of taking what he wants from his subjects, he will not cease to make plots against your Majesty. I have been told of a thing that seems unlikely, but as my informant is an honest man I mention it. It is that the King intends to cause the Lutheran princes and cities of Germany to make war on the Pope and descend into Italy. The French king will then send an army to Italy on pretence of defending the Church, and the two armies will join and march where Francis thinks best.
It is said that the King has intelligence with the duke of Ferrara and others who are opposed to the Pope. I believe he will do everything he can without spending much money; but he has not much talent that way, being more stingy than he was, and besides he has not much money, if the goods of the Church and the taxes which he wishes to impose do not help him.
I hear that the King means to remove the Queen to the house already appointed for her. She does not advise me to speak to him, for if I speak firmly he may be irritated, and speaking mildly will only encourage him. If the personage sent by your Majesty were to arrive soon, it would prevent her ill-treatment and confirm the goodwill of good people, who, as I hear from several quarters, are astonished at the delay in sending someone.
The Princess has only one chamber-woman with her, and is in the worst lodging of the house. The people regret their treatment, and seem to be on the watch to move at the first favorable opportunity. Many of them soy this openly. All men of judgment, either at the Court or elsewhere, are dismayed. The Vice-Chamberlain (Sir John Gage), who is of the Council, and one of the wisest and most experienced in war of the whole kingdom, has renounced his office and gone to a charterhouse, intending, with the consent of his wife, to become a Carthusian. The bishop of Lincoln, who was at the beginning one of the promoters of the divorce, has said several times since Christmas that he would rather be the poorest man in the world than ever have been the King's councillor and confessor. London, 3 Jan. 1534.
Fr., pp. 6. From a modern copy.
4 Jan.15. Stokesley, Bishop of London, to Bedell.
R. O.Has just received by Bedell's servant, the bearer, his letters, with a copy of letters which, he says, are subscribed upon condition by the abbess and sisters of Syon. Would gladly have subscribed this as Bedell wishes but, as he remembers, the clergy did not treat expressly of this marriage, but only of the invalidity of the first marriage, and that by the discussion of two conclusions whereupon that wholly rested, one appertaining to the learning of theologians and the other of lawyers. These the clergy thought to be true, whereupon, with the trust of his own learning and others' besides, the archbishop of Canterbury gave sentence of divorce in the first marriage, and so proceeded to the approbation of this one, as the only obstacle, the previous marriage, was removed by the sentence of divorce. Therefore, if Stokesley were to subscribe to Bedell's form that the clergy of both provinces determined this marriage to be good, whereof by name they spoke no word, would seem to subscribe more from affection than from known or supposed truth, and so bring his learning and conscience in less estimation. Advises, therefore, that before the letter is published with the subscriptions, this point should be reformed, as he has marked in the copy (saving my lord elect and Bedell's better advice), so as to avoid the calumnies of opponents. Would have left the copy untouched and written that point new in this letter but for the messenger's hurry.
If this may please and serve, will subscribe a new clean copy whenever Mr. Morice or any other comes for it, and will do what the King and Council wish towards procuring the subscription of the abbess and sisters of Sion in case of their obstinacy. Would have come to the Court, but is suffering from vertigo. Has not been well since Christmas, though yesterday, for gladness of the repairing of my lord elect and Bedell to his house, he was the more “alegre,” and made the better countenance. Mr. Morice came to speak to him Late last night. Suspecting that his coming was concerning this matter, and knowing that they were obstinate, sent answer that he would not speak with him without commission from some of the King's Council.
Complains of being calumniated as if he was treacherous or less well affected in this cause than he Las shown himself in his journeys through the world, not to mention that he recovered it when it had slipped through the ambassadors' fingers and was despaired of. Bedell knows what he has done at St. Paul's, when he almost alone supported it. 4 Jan. 1533. Signed.
Pp. 3. Add.: To the right hon. Mr. Bedell, of the King's Council.
4 Jan.16. Henry Lockwood to Cromwell.
R. O.We trust you will continue your benevolence to the College as you have begun. But be not offended if I say, qui cito dat bis dat. Extreme need compels me to call upon you. I am so weary that I repent I ever was called to govern this college. I have so impoverished it with this tedious exchanging with the King, spending all I found in the college, and all I can get from my friends. Remember that I was one of the first suitors to you after you were put in authority under the King, and have been so ever since. I am ashamed to say what I have spent by living in London for the signing of this new book,—certainly above 100 marks. If you could help us I should recover it in a few years, as my lord elect of Chester can inform you. I will perform my promise, as God shall enrich us. Christ's College, Cambridge, 4 Jan.
Hol., p. 1. Add.: Of the King's Council.
5 Jan.17. Cranmer to Cromwell.
R. O. Letters, 277.When I was lately at Forde, it was brought to my notice that Bering had lately compiled, since Henry Gold came to be examined before me, a tract De duplici Spiritu in defence of Gold and the Nun's revelation. I have examined him, and he admits the fact, but says he burned the book. I have made him write out the whole effect of it and send you the copy. Pray examine Gold, and such as you think tit, whether they know of any such book, for the person who informed me says it was delivered to Gold, and he thinks that Gold has it still. Oxford, 5 (fn. 6) Jan. Signed.
Add.: Of the King's Council.
5 Jan.18. Richard Pexall, the old Abbot of Leicester, to Cromwell.
R. O.I have applied myself to accomplish what you propose in your letters, and thank you for your pains in the establishment of my living now in mine old age. Leicester Monastery, 5 Jan.
Hol., p. 1. Add.: Councillor.
5 Jan.19. Cromwell to [Cranmer].
Harl. MS. 6148, f. 81. B.M.The King has ordered him to desire [Cranmer] to send hither Mr. Heth, whom his highness intends to send as ambassador to treat with the princes of Germany concerning the King's great cause of matrimony and other matters. Cranmer is to instruct Heth in the justness and equity of the said cause. London, 5 Jan.
The King intends also to practise certain things in Germany concerning the authority of the bp. of Rome.
Copy, p. 1. Headed: By Master Crumwell.
5 Jan.20. Cranmer to Cromwell.
R. O. Letters, 276.According to the King's commands I will send to you tomorrow Mr. Heth, who is a most meet man for the King, but he lacks all things suitable for his journey, and hath no benefice or promotion. I am not able to help him. In his acquaintance with the King's great cause no man can better defend it. Otford. 5 Jan. Signed.
Add.: To mine especial and singular good friend, Master Cromwell.
21. Embassy to the German Princes.
R. O.Instructions given to Nich. Heythe, clk., and Chr. Mount, whom the King sends as his agents to the dukes of Bavaria, viz., to Lewis, the county palatine elector, and his two brothers. William and Frederic, the duke John of Saxony, the landgrave van Hesse, and the abps. of Colayne, Trevers and Magounce.
1. Mr. Heath is to take with him the King's letters of credence to the said dukes and abps., with the copies of other books and writings prepared for his despatch. He is to associate with Mont, who is now with the dukes of Bavaria, and repair to their court first; afterwards to the other princes'. On being admitted an audience they shall refer to the messenger heretofore sent to the Kins from some of the princes for defence of their confederation, towards which the King by his agents has contributed 50,000 cr., and has been desired by some of the princes to send a trusty servant authorised to treat with them. They shall say that the King has sent them to the said princes out of old friendship and for the zeal they bear to God's word and the extirpation of errors by which Christ's people have been kept under the yoke of the bishops of Home. “Wishing to make common cause with them, he has commissioned his agents to declare to them the whole progress of his greet cause of matrimony, the intolerable injuries done him by the bishop of Rome called the Pope and the means by which he intends to maintain his just cause. In this they are to note two principal points,—(1) the justice of the King's cause and (2) the order and process used therein. On the first point thiey shall show that the King has done everything for the discharge of his conscience, so that no one can complain of him; that he has not trusted merely to his own judgment, but has been strengthened in his opinion by the clergy of both provinces in his realm and by the most famous universities of Christendom, and by the evident words of God's law. And, therefore, by the consent of his nobles, spiritual and temporal, and to the comfort of all his commons, and finally the judgment of the abp. of Canterbury, he has been divorced from that unlawful marriage with the princess dowager, and has espoused the lady Anne, marquess of Pembroke, “whose approved and excellent virtues, that is to say, the purity of her life, her constant virginity, her maidenly and womanly pudicity, her soberness, her chasteness, her meekness, her wisdom, her descent of right noble and high parentage, her education in all good and laudable thewes and manners, her aptness to procreation of children, with other infinite good qualities, more to be regarded and esteemed than the only progeny, be of such approved excellency as cannot be but most acceptable unto Almighty God, and deserve His high grace and favour, to the singular weal and benefit of the King's realm and subjects.”
If any of the princes object that the King has occasioned scandal by not observing in all points the common order, they shall reply in the words of Scripture and the Pope's own laws, Quod justo lex non est posita, sed ubi Spiritus Dei ibi libertas est, and that in things prohibited by Divine law conscience must be obeyed above all things, that the King's cause being fully examined in his own conscience, enlightened by the spirit of God, he was, by the means above rehearsed, discharged of his first marriage, and “at liberty to exercise the benefit of God for procreation of children and the lawful use of matrimony necessary for the relief of man's infirmity.” Human law itself admits that it is better to brave all the censures of the Church than to offend one's own conscience. Yet the King cannot be taxed with want of respect to the world after pursuing his cause seven years and more at Rome, and being continually delayed. On his first scruples the King sent to the bishop of Rome as Christ's vicar, who had the keys of knowledge, to dissolve his doubts; but the said bishop refused to take any knowledge of it, and desired the King would ask for a commission to be sent into his realm, authorised to determine the cause, “then pretending that it might in no wise be entreated at Rome, bat only within the King's own realm.” He accordingly delegated his whole power to Campeggio and “Wolsey, giving them also a special commission in form of a decretal, wherein he declared the King's marriage null, and empowered him to marry again. In the open commission also he gave them full authority to give sentence for the King, yet secretly he gave them instructions to burn the commission decretal and not proceed upon it, but suspend the matter. At the time of sending the commission, moreover, he also sent the King a brief written in his own hand, admitting the justice of his cause, and promising sanctissime sub verbo pontificis that he would never advocate it to Rome; notwithstanding which he sent out citations requiring the King to appear at Rome in person, or else to exhibit a proxy—a manifest iniquity, and injurious to the privileges of the realm.
Now that the Pope makes such claims it is time for princes to know the ground of his and their authorities, for he might cite them all to appear at Rome and forsake their realms. Moreover, Rome is not a safe place either for the King himself or for his proctor, if he should send one—least of all for the cause. Moreover, one Dr. Kerne, the King's subject, bring then at Rome, and understanding that his Highness was called to appear before one Capusuceha, dean of the Rota, in answer to the Princess Dowager, loyally, as the King's subject, exhibited matters excusatory why he should not be compelled either to appear or send a proctor, yet Capasuccha, with the Pope's concurrence, rejected him as an excusator. not having the King's proxy, which if it had been given would have been a pernicious precedent for other princes, and proceeded in the principal cause in spite of repeated appeals by Kerne. And though the King's ambassadors showed the Pope the determinations of the universities, and how it was contrary to his own laws that a prince should be cited out of his dominions, Kerne was still prohibited from defending him. Thus the Pope went on adding new injuries and issuing very slanderous briefs against the King, and finally, to accomplish his malice, determined to publish a sentence of excommunication against him; of which the King being advertised, appealed to the next General Council. The Pope refused to admit this appeal on the strength of a bull of Julius that he was superior to all General Councils, and that all were heretics and traitors who would appeal.
Considering the iniquity of these things, Christian princes ought to look to the preservation of their own estate and the maintenance of God's laws The King is now determined to reduce the Pope's power within bounds, and not allow him to exercise any jurisdiction in his own realm. The envoys are to exhort the princes to maintain his cause at the General Council, and meanwhile to advise him how to proceed, according to articles written in a schedule signed with his hand, which they may exhibit at discretion; and shall desire them, to inform the King if there be any articles concerning the common weal of their estate or abuses affecting God's word; in which case they will find the King and his realm always ready to assist them.
Draft in Derby's hand, corrected by Tuke, pp. 22. Endd.: Instructions for Mr. Hethe and Mr. Pagett.
R. O.2. Another draft of part of the preceding instructions, with a clause inserted in the margin, desiring the princes to consult on the King's message at their next diet, which is to be holden at the Annunciation of Our Lady next ensuing.
In Wriothesley's hand, pp. 14, with corrections by Derby.

Footnotes

1 The sums given both by bishops and by others are generally, but with several exceptions, the same as in the list of “moneys given to the King's grace for New Year's gifts,” 24 Hen. VIII. (i.e., 1533), printed in Strype's Eccl. Mem. I., pt. i., 211.
2 Blanks.
3 Escheator in 25 & 26 Hen. VIII.
4 See Vol. VI., No. 1558, last paragraph. There is no doubt that this was Dr. Thomas Legh. whose mission had been determined on some time before. See Nos. 1194 and 1222 in the same volume.
5 Nicolas Heath.
6 Misprinted 6th in the Letters.