IV. The Norwich
Letters

Sponsor

Navy Record Society

Publication

Author

D. Bonner-Smith (editor)

Year published

1937

Pages

115-165

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'IV. The Norwich: Letters', The Barrington Papers, volume 1: Publications of the Navy Records Society, vol. 77 (1937), pp. 115-165. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=79639 Date accessed: 01 August 2014.


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IV. The Norwich

By the Commissioners for executing the Office of Lord High Admiral of Great Britain & Ireland, &c.

Having appointed you Commander of His Majesty's Ship the Norwich, at Chatham, which we have ordered to be fitted and stored for Channel Service, manned with 280 Men, victualled with 4 months' provisions of all species at whole allowance, except Beer, of which she is to have as much as she can conveniently stow, and to be floored with Water.

You are hereby required and directed to get the said Ship ready for the Sea accordingly, taking in her Gunner's Stores at Blackstakes, and then repair with her to the Nore, where you are to remain for farther Orders.

You are to make out and transmit to the Navy Board, proper Pay Books for the Company of the Crown, and you are to remove all the said Company, except the Standing Warrant Officers and their Servants, into the Norwich, on board which Ship are to be paid their Wages for the Crown, before they proceed to Sea. Given under our hands the 21st August 1745.

Hon. Captain Barrington. By command of their Lordships, in the Secretary's absence, J. Milnes.Anson. W. Ellis. Ed. Boscawen.

To the Secretary of the Admiralty (P.R.O., Ad. I, 1485)

Sir,
My Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty having been pleased to signify they intend His Majesty's Ship, under my command, for a voyage to North America (where a Convoy to Merchant Ships is frequently necessary), I beg they will also be pleased to order me a sufficient number of Signals, Printed, for that purpose & am &c.
Saml Barrington.

Norwich, at Spithead, October 21st, 1754.

By the Commissioners for executing the Office of Lord High Admiral of Great Britain & Ireland, &c.

You are hereby required and directed to receive on board His Majesty's Ship under your command MajorGeneral Braddock, with his Attendants, Servants and Baggage, and so soon as they are embarked, You are to make all possible dispatch in proceeding to Virginia, where you are to land them; Victualling the Major-General, his Attendants and Servants as the Ship's Company while they continue on board.

You are to remain at Virginia till the arrival of the Hon. Augustus Keppel, Commander-in-Chief of His Majesty's Ships & Vessels employed, and to be employed, in North America; and then follow his directions for your farther proceedings.

Given under our hands the 19 November 1754.

Hon. Captain Barrington, Norwich, Spithead. By command of their Lordships, J. Clevland.Anson. Will Rowley. Chas Townshend.

By the Commissioners for executing the Office of Lord High Admiral of Great Britain & Ireland, &c.

Notwithstanding former Orders You are hereby required and directed to put yourself under the command of the Honble Augustus Keppel, Commander in Chief of His Majesty's Ships and Vessels employed and to be employed on the Coast of North America, and follow his Orders for your farther proceedings.

Given under our hands the 30th of November 1754.

Hon. Captain Barrington, Norwich, Spithead.Anson. W. Ellis. Will. Rowley.

By the Hon. Augustus Keppel, Commander in Chief of His Majesty's Ships and Vessels employed, & to be employed, in North America.

You are hereby requested and directed to sail in company with His Majesty's Ship Centurion, and follow all such orders & directions as you shall from time to time receive from me for His Majesty's Service.

Dated on board His Majesty's Ship Centurion at Spithead the 20 of December 1754.

Hon. Capt. Barrington, Norwich, Spithead.A. Keppel. By Cd of the Commodore, RD Rosewell.

Signals
When I would speak with the Captain of any of His Majesty's Ships undermentioned, I will put abroad the Pendant as against that Ship's name. If with a Lieutenant, the same Signal and a Weft with the Ensign; and for a Boat without an Officer the Weft shall be hoisted half Staff.

Red.White.Blue.Yellow.Place where.
PortmahonGibraltarSuccessMainTopmast head
MermaidSyrenSeahorseFore
NorwichGuarlandCenturionMizen
NightingaleVulturevBaltimoreStarboardMain Topsail Yard Arm
SloopSloop
Jamaica SloopLarboard

Dated on board His Majesty's Ship Centurion at Spithead the 21st December 1754.

Hon. Capt. Barrington, Norwich, Spithead.A. Keppel. By command of the Commodore, RD Rosewell.

By the Hon. Augustus Keppel, &c. &c. &c.

You are hereby required & directed to keep in readiness to send at a moment's warning on board the Transports with the Forces to Alexandria, a Midshipman, a Boatswain's Mate & ten stout Able-bodied Seamen, with a Musket and Cartouch Box each, directing them to put themselves under the Command of Lieutenant Spendelowe, (fn. 1) and follow all such Orders and Directions as they shall from time to time receive from him or Gen1 Braddock for His Majesty's Service. Dated on board His Majesty's Ship Centurion in Hampton Road this 6th of March 1755.

Hon. Capt. Barrington, Norwich.A. Keppel. By cd of the Commodore, R. Rosewell.

Memo. The Men are to take with them their Hammacoes only, their Beds being too large & cumbersome.

Memo. The Seamen that go with the Land Forces are to have a Bayonet each, in addition to their Musket & Cartouch Box.

Centurion, Hampton Road, 13 March 1755.

Hon. Capt. Barrington, Norwich.A. K.

By the Honourable Samuel Barrington, Commander of His Majesty's Ship Norwich.

In pursuance of an Order I have received from the Hon'ble Augustus Keppel, Commander in Chief of His Majesty's Ships and Vessels employed (and to be employed) in North America, dated the 6th inst.:

You are hereby required and directed to deliver to Mr Thos Gill (the Midshipman I have appointed to go with the Party of Sailors, from His Majesty's Ship under my command, with the Land Forces to Alexandria) the following Stores and take his Receipt for the same: Vizt
Musquets with bright Barrels eleven number
Cartouch Boxes with Straps eleven
Musquet Slings eleven
Bayonets eleven.

Dated on board His Majesty's Ship Norwich in Hampton Road, Virginia, the 17th March 1755.

To Mr James Garrett, Gunner of His Majesty's Ship Norwich.Saml Barrington.

By the Hon. Augustus Keppel, &c.

Whereas Richard Farrel (fn. 2) belonging to H.M.S. Norwich under your command, was sentenced by a Court Martial held the 12th inst. on board His Majesty's Ship Syren, to receive on his bare back with a cat of Nine Tails 24 lashes alongside any five of His Majesty's Ships under my command, You are hereby required and directed to order a Boat manned and armed, with a Lieutenant, to attend the Punishment, by 8 o'clock tomorrow morning; and you are to call your Ship's Company upon Deck to be spectators thereof.

Dated on board His Majesty's Ship Centurion in Hampton Road the 13th March 1755.

Hon. Captain Barrington, Norwich.A. Keppel.

By command of the Commodore, R. Rosewell.

By the Hon. Augustus Keppel, &c.

Whereas Richard Clark, John Lenox, John McFarlin and Thos Golden belonging to His Majesty's Ship Centurion were sentenced by Courts Martial held on board His Majesty's Ship Portmahon to receive on their Bare Backs with a Cat of Nine Tails, vizt Richard Clark 240 lashes, John Lenox and John McFarlin 120 lashes each, and Thomas Golden 350 lashes; in such manner as I should think fit; And having judged it proper that the said Richard Clark should receive 48 lashes, John Lenox and John McFarlin 24 lashes each, and Thomas Goldin 48 lashes (as part of the 350) alongside each of His Majesty's Ships and Vessels now laying in Hampton Road; You are hereby required and directed to order a Boat manned and armed (with a Lieutenant) to attend the said Punishments by eight o'clock on Monday morning (the weather permitting) on board His Majesty's Ship Centurion. And whereas Thomas Golden is to receive the remaining no lashes on Friday (or when he shall be in a condition to receive them), that is to say 22 lashes alongside each of His Majesty's Ships and Vessels, You are also to order a Boat manned and armed to attend the Punishment by 8 o'clock in the morning, and at the time the said Punishments are inflicted alongside His Majesty's Ship under your command, you are to call your Ship's Company upon Deck to be spectators thereof. Given on board His Majesty's Ship Centurion in Hampton Road the 3rd of May 1755.

Hon. Capt. Barrington, Norwich.A. Keppel.

By Command of the Commodore, Rd Rosewell.

N.B. In case His Majesty's Sloop Jamaica should not be here on Friday, Thomas Golden is to receive 28 lashes alongside each of three of His Majesty's Ships and 26 alongside the fourth.
A. K.

By the Hon. Augustus Keppel &c.

You are hereby required and directed, in your turn beginning according to seniority, to cause all Ships and Vessels which may arrive in or sail from or through Hampton Road to be examined from whence they come or where they are bound; making a Report thereof in the evening on board His Majesty's Ship Centurion; and if any Ship or Vessel should arrive from England and have any Packets or Letters for me, or there should be any news of consequence, the Commanding Officer of His Majesty's Ship Centurion is to be immediately informed of the same. Dated on board His Majesty's Ship Centurion in Hampton Road the 13th of May 1755.

Hon. Captain Barrington, Norwich.

By Command of the Commodore, R. Rosewell.

By the Hon. Augustus Keppel &c.

Whereas Captain Palliser of His Majesty's Ship Seahorse has by letter of the 22nd past, required a Court Martial for the trial of Robert Anderson (fn. 3) belonging to the said ship, apprehended as a Deserter from Sick Quarters; And Captain Hughes of His Majesty's Ship Portmahon at Norfolk being through indisposition unable to preside at the same; You are, by virtue of the power and authority to me given, hereby empowered and directed to assemble a Court Martial consisting of the Captains of His Majesty's Ships Guarland, Centurion, Nightingale and Sloop Baltimore, to be held on board His Majesty's Ship Norwich on Thursday the 5th instant to try the said Robert Anderson for desertion accordingly.

If Captain Digges of His Majesty's Ship Nightingale, who is in a bad state of health, should not be able to attend the Court Martial, you are to assemble the Captains of both the Sloops.

Dated on board His Majesty's Ship Centurion in Hampton Road the 2nd June 1755.

Hon. Captain Barrington, Norwich.

By command of the Commodore, RD Rosewell.

Signals

When I would speak with the Captain of any of His Majesty's Ships undermentioned, I will put abroad a Pendant as against the Ships named; if with a Lieutenant, the same Signal and a Weft of the Ensign; and for a Boat without an Officer the Weft shall be hoisted half Staff.

Red.White.Blue.
PortmahonSuccessMermaidMainTopmast head
SyrenSeahorseNorwichvFore
GuarlandCenturionNightingaleMizen
Baltimore SloopJamaica SloopVulture SloopStarboard Main Topsail Yard Arm

Dated on board His Majesty's Ship Centurion in Hampton Road the 9 of June 1755.

Hon. Captain Barrington, Norwich. A. Keppel.

By command of the Commodore, Rd Rosewell.

By the Hon. Commodore Keppel &c.

Whereas I have received an Order from the Hon. Edward Boscawen, Vice-Admiral of the Blue and Com mander in Chief of H.M. Ships and Vessels employed or to be employed in North America, to direct the several Captains of His Majesty's Ships and Vessels under my command to join him off Cape Breton; You are hereby required and directed, after you have completed your Provisions to 4 months and taken on board as much Peas and Calavances for the use of the Fleet as you can conveniently stow and are in all respects ready for Sea except in point of Stores (ordered to be sent out for the use of the Ship) to wait 24 hours for the same, at the expiration of which time if they are not arrived, You are to purchase as are absolutely necessary, drawing upon the Navy Board for the amount thereof; And then with all possible dispatch proceed to join the Admiral as above, taking with you His Majesty's Ship Centurion (whose Captain has my Directions to sail in company with you and follow such Orders as he shall from time to time receive from you for His Majesty's Service) and calling at Halifax in Nova Scotia for any Orders the Admiral may have left there for you. Dated on board His Majesty's Ship Seahorse in Hampton Road the 21st July 1755.

To the Hon. Samuel Barrington, Norwich.A. K.

By the Hon. Captain Barrington, Commander of His Majesty's Ship Norwich.

When I would have you chace on any Quarter of the Compass, for want of the proper Chacing Flags I will make the following Signals

If to theNW an English Jackin the Mizen Shrouds
SE (fn. 4) a Red Flag
SW a Dutch Jack
SE a Blue Flag

For all the other Signals I refer you to the General Printed Sailing and Fighting Instructions and those already given you by the Honble Commodore Keppel. Dated on board the Norwich in Hampton Road 21st July 1755.

To Capt. Mantel, Centurion.S. B.

By the Hon. Edward Boscawen, Vice-Admiral of the Blue and Commander in Chief of His Majesty's Ships and Vessels employed and to be employed in North America.

You are hereby required and directed to put yourself under my command and to follow all such orders as you shall from time to time receive from me. For which this shall be your Order.

Given under my hand on board His Majesty's Ship Torbay at Sea this 23rd May 1755.

To the Hon. Capt. Sam1 Barrington, of His Majesty's Ship Norwich, Virginia.Ed. Boscawen.

By command of the Admiral, Alexr Macpherson.

[Presumably enclosure to Boscawen's Order of 23rd May 1755]

Signals by Day. Article XVII.

When any of the Fleet loose company and meet again, those to windward shall brail up their Foresail, and those to leeward shall answer by brailing up their Mainsail; then he who made the first Signal (after being answered by the Sail of the other) shall hoist a French Ensign at the Mizen Peek, and a red Pendant at the Ensign Staff, and the other shall answer by hoisting a Dutch Ensign on the Ensign Staff & a red Pendant at the Mizen Peek.

by Night. Article XII.

If any Ship loose company and meet again in the night, the weathermost Ship shall hoist three Lights in a Triangle thus [diagram] at the Mizen Peek, and the leewardmost shall answer by shewing two Lights in the Fore Shrouds and two in the Mizen Shrouds all of equal height, then the weathermost Ship shall burn two False Fires, & the lee wardmost Ship shall answer by burning one and he who hails first shall ask What Ship's that ? and he who is hailed shall answer Great Britain; the other who hailed first shall reply King George, then he who was hailed first shall answer God prosper.

To the Hon. Captain Samuel Barrington, of His Majesty's Ship Norwich.E. B.

Line of Battle
The Dunkirk to lead with the Starboard Tacks. The Litchfield Larboard Tacks.

Frigates.Rate.Ships.Guns.Men.Commanders.Division.
Arundel4thDunkirk60420Hon. Richard HoweSavage Mostyn, Esq. RearAdmiral of the White
Guarland4thNorwich50350Hon. Samuel Barrington
Syren3rdNorthumberland70520Rt Hon. Lord Colvill
Post Mahon3rdMonarch74715Savage Mostyn, Esq.
Captain Abraham North
Mermaid3rdMars64500John Amherst
Success4thAnson60420Robert Man
Seahorse4thDefiance60420Thomas AndrewsHon. Edward Boscawen ViceAdmiral of the Blue
Nightingale3rdSomerset64520Francis Geary
Jamaica3rdChichester64520John Brett Hon.
Hornet3rdTorbay74720Hon. Edward Boscawen
Captain Charles Colby
Vulture3rdYarmouth64520Harry Norris
Baltimore3rdFougueux64520Richard Spry
Gibraltar4thNottingham60400Samuel Marshall
Bacchus Tender4thAugusta60400William S. WilletFrancis Holburn, Esq. RearAdmiral of the Blue
3rdGrafton70520Charles Holmes
3rdTerrible74715Francis Holburn, Esq.
Captain William Holburn
3rdEdinburgh70520Thomas Stanhope
4thCenturion54400William Mantel
4thLitchfield50330Matthew Barton

Signals

When I would speak with the Captain of any of His Majesty's Ships or Vessels undermentioned, I will put abroad a Pendant against that Ship or Vessel's Name; If with a Lieutenant, the same Signal and a Weft of the Ensign; and for a Boat without an Officer, the Weft will be hoisted only half Staff up.

Red.White.Blue.Yellow.Place where.
YarmouthTorbayChichesterArundelMainTopmast head
GraftonSomersetNorthumberlandVultureFore
MarsPort MahonAnsonHornetMizen
EdinburghDefianceFougueuxBaltimoreStarboardMain Topsail Yard Arm
SuccessDunkirkMermaidJamaicaLarboard
SyrenSeahorseLitchfieldBacchusStarboardFore Topsail Yard Arm
NorwichGuarlandNottinghamAlcideLarboard
AugustaTerribleCenturionStarboardMizzen Topsail Yard Arm
GibraltarMonarchNightingaleLarboard

Both the above Dated on board His Majesty's Ship Torbay in Halifax Harbour, the 12th August 1755.

To the Hon. Samuel Barrington, Commander of H.M.S. Norwich.Ed. Boscawen.

Additional Signals by Day

Every Ship in Sailing is to keep the Station assigned her by the Line of Battle, and to close before Night, so as in no wise to run any hazard of separation.

The Signal to be made for seeing Sail in the

Upon seeing a sail.NE is a French Jackat the Mizen Peek.
NW is a Dutch Jack
SE a French Jackon the Ensign Staff.
SW a Dutch Jack

Which when I answer by hoisting a French Jack or Ensign on the Ensign Staff, you are to lower as often as you see Ships.

To chace.

When I would have any particular Ship or Ships chace to Windward or Leeward, or on any quarter of the Compass, I will make the Signal as directed in the General Printed Instructions; And if I would have all the Ships chace, I will hoist the Chaceing Flag in the Mizen Shrouds, and a Pendant at the Mizen Peek.

To give over chace.

When I would have them give over Chace, I will hoist a Red Flag on the Flag Staff at the Maintopmast Head, and when I would have the Ships on any quarter of the Compass come into the Fleet, I will hoist the Chaceing Flag for that quarter of the Compass at the same place.

Signals for coming up with the chace.

If at any time when I make the Signal for the Ships to give over Chace, they should find they come up with the Chace so as to be able to speak with her, they are to hoist a Red Ensign at the Mizen Peek and fire a Gun, but if I should repeat the Signal by firing one or two Guns they are then notwithstanding to leave off Chace and stand to me.

To stay by prizes, &c.
If in the time of our Cruising we should happen to have any Prizes in company with us and, upon my making sail, I would have any Ship stay by them, I will make the Signal for speaking with the Captain, and hoist a Yellow Flag in the Mizen Shrouds, and if I should find it afterwards necessary for him to leave them and follow me, I will hoist a Dutch Flag at the Mizen Peek and fire a Gun, and he is then to join me as fast as possible.

By Night

As it is necessary in cruising that the Signals should be made with as few Guns as possible, I will in fair weather make them with the Lights only as directed by the General Printed Instructions, except in the cases following:

To brace to and lye by.
When sailing upon a wind, if I would have the Squadron brace to and lye by, I will shew Four Lights in equal height in the Fore Shrouds and fire one Gun.

When sailing large to bring to and lye.
When sailing large or before the wind, and I would have them bring to and lye by with their Starboard Tacks aboard, I will likewise shew Four Lights of equal height in the Fore Shrouds and fire one Gun; but if with the Larboard Tacks aboard, I will shew the same number of Lights of equal height in the Mizen Shrouds and fire two Guns.

To make sail after lying by.
And when I would have the Squadron make sail after lying by, I will hoist one Light at the Mizen Peek and two Lights on the Ensign Staff, but at a greater distance as under than when the Signal is made for Tacking, so as the lowermost Light may be about the same distance from the uppermost as from the Light carried in the Stern Lanthorn, and I will at the same time fire two Guns. Nevertheless if by reason of bad weather, any of the Ships being at a distance or otherwise I judge it necessary, I will make the Signal as directed by the General Printed Instructions.

If anyone discovers a strange Ship or Ships, he shall hoist if in the

Upon discovering strange ships.NE oneLights, one under the other at the Mizen Peek at some dis-tance from each other.
NW two
SE three
SW four

Which I will answer by hoisting one Light on the Ensign Staff, and when I have answered the Signal, you are to burn as many False Fires as you see strange Ships, after which if I would have you chace, I will burn two False Fires, and if I would have the Ship that is afterwards the nearest to the Strange Ship discovered, chace with you, I will burn two False Fires more a little time after, and if I myself discover any strange Ship or Ships and give chace, I will hoist the Signal Lights, to shew on what quarter of the Compass and fire one Gun.

To leave off chace.

When I would have the Ships give over chace, I will fire two Guns without alteration of Lights, but a less space of time one from the other than when the Signal is made for anchoring.

To know each other coming up with the enemy.

And for the better knowing each other coming up or engaging the Enemy, every Ship shall carry two Lights of equal height at the Mizen Peek, and the headmost Ship another in the Stern Lanthorn, but the Light in the Stern Lanthorn shall only be carried while he keeps sight of the chace, and I myself besides my proper Lights will carry one at the Bowsprit End which I will likewise do when any Ships are ordered or are by accident ahead of me.

In a Fog
To unmoor.
If at any time I should have occasion to unmoor I will make the Signal by firing three Guns.

Whereas by the V and VI Articles every private Ship is directed to fire Musquets and beat their Drums and ring their Bells, yet for the better avoiding any accident that may happen, when sailing upon a wind, by a particular Ship being taken at Stays, the Ships while on the Starboard Tack shall fire Musquets and beat their drums only, and on the Larboard Tack they are to fire Musquets and ring their Bells only.

To beat their drums on the starboard tacks, and to ring their bells on the larboard tack.

To alter the course when sailing large or before the wind.

When the Fleet is sailing large or before the wind and I shall find it proper to alter the course if to Starboard I will fire three Guns (if to Port five) and four minutes after a Gun each half minute, for so many points as shall be altered from the course before steered, so that if only one Gun is fired one point only is altered either to Starboard or Port.

To alter the course when sailing upon a wind.

When sailing upon a wind and I shall find it proper to pay away large, I will fire seven Guns and four minutes after a Gun each half minute for as many points of the Compass as I shall go from the wind.

Additional Instructions to the Fighting Instructions (fn. 5)

Ships ordered out of the Line to give room for ships of greater force to oppose themselves to the enemy are to hold themselves in reddiness to supply the place of any ships which may be disabled.
In case of meeting with a Squadron of the Enemy's Ships that may be less in number than the Squadron under my command, If I would have any of the smaller Ships quit the Line that those of the greatest Force may be opposed to the Enemy, I will put abroad the Signal for speaking with the Captain of such Ship as I would have leave the Line, and hoist a Flag striped yellow and white at the Flagstaff at the Maintopmast head, then the next Ships are to close up the Line and those that have quitted it are to hold themselves in a readiness to assist any Ships that may be disabled or hard pressed or to take her Station if she is obliged to go out of the Line, in which case the strongest Ship that is withdrawn from the Line is strictly enjoined to supply her place and fill up the vacancy.

To attack merchant ships of the enemy under convoy.

And in case of meeting with any Squadron or Ships of War of the Enemy that have Merchantmen under their command, though the Signal for the Line of Battle should be out, if I would have any Frigates that are out of the Line or any of the Ships of the Line fall upon the Convoy whilst the other are engaging, I will put abroad the Pendant for speaking with the Captain of such Ship or Ships and the Flag above-mentioned for quitting the Line and a Pendant under it, upon which Signal such Ship or Ships are to use their utmost endeavours to take or destroy the Enemy.

To come to a closer engagement.

If at any time while we are engaged with the Enemy, the Admiral shall judge it proper to come to a closer Engagement than at the distance we then are, he will hoist a red and white Flag on the Flagstaff at the Maintopmast head and fire a gun, then every Ship is to engage the Enemy at the same distance the Admiral does; and if the Admiral would have any particular Ship do so, he will make the same Signal and the Signal for speaking with the Captain.

For a particular ship to tack when chacing upon a wind.

If in chaceing upon a Wind, I would have any particular Ship to tack, I will make the Signal for speaking with the Captain and hoist a Dutch Flag on the Flagstaff at the Foretopmast head if the ship I would have tack is ahead of me, and if astern I will hoist the same Flag on the Flagstaff at the Mizentopmast head and fire one Gun if the Signal should not be observed immediately.

To speak with a strange ship standing into the squadron.

If at any time a strange Ship should stand into the Squadron and I would have a particular Ship speak with her, I will make the Signal for speaking with the Captain and hoist a red Flag with a white Cross at the Ensign Staff.

Discovering the chace to be an enemy and being able to come up with her without losing company.

If any Ship should discover the Chace to be an Enemy he is to give me notice by hoisting a Dutch Ensign at the Mizen Peek and firing two Guns; and if he discovers her to be an Enemy and believes he shall be able to come up with her without losing Company with me, he shall then hoist a Dutch Ensign at the Mizentopmast head and fire two Guns.

When any ships are in chace, a particular ship or ship to go between them and the Admiral to repeat signals.

When any Ship or Ships are in chace and I would have another Ship to go between them and me in order to keep sight of them and direct them back to the Fleet, I will make the Signal for speaking with the Captain of that Ship and hoist a Flag checquered red and white at the Mizentopmast head and fire a Gun; and if at any time there should be occasion for a second Ship to lye between the former and me I will make the same Signal and put abroad a Pendant for speakwith the Captain of the Ship I would have perform that service.

To leave off chace.

If I would have the ships give over Chace and join me I will make the proper Signal for calling them off, which Signal the ships between me and the chaceing Ships are to be very careful to look out for, and to make known to them by hoisting a Dutch Ensign at the Foretopgallantmast head and firing a gun, and they are likewise to be careful to repeat all Signals which the chaceing Ships may make.

The ship in chace making a signal that the chace is of superior force, the ships between him and the Admiral to make sail to his assistance, first repeating the signal.

And if at [sic] any other Ships in Chace shall make the Signal, that the Chace is of superior Force to themselves, or more in number than I am acquainted with; the Ship or Ships between me and them shall make what sail they can to their assistance, having first repeated the Signal to me, which I will answer by hoisting a blue Flag pierced with white on the Flagstaff at the Maintopmast head.

The two Divisions to form themselves into separate Lines of Battle ahead, keeping abreast of each other at the distance of 1½ cable's length from each other.

When I would have the two Divisions of the Fleet form themselves into a separate Line of Battle, one Ship ahead of another, at the distance of a Cable's length asunder, and each Division to be abreast of the other when formed, at the distance of one Cable's length and a half, I will hoist a Flag checquered blue and yellow at the Mizen Peek and fire a Gun; and then every Ship is to get into her Station accordingly.

The Fleet to spread in a Line of Battle abreast and ahead.

When I would have the Fleet spread in a Line abreast, each Ship keeping at the distance of one mile from the other, I will hoist a Flag checquered blue and yellow on the Flagstaff at the Mizentopmast head, and fire a Gun; And if I would have the Ships spread in a Line directly ahead of each other, and keep at the distance of one mile asunder, I will hoist a Flag chequered red and white at the Mizen Peek and fire a Gun.

To keep at the distance of two miles asunder.

And when the Signal is made for the Ships to spread either abreast or ahead of one another, and I would have them keep at the distance of two miles asunder, I will hoist a Pendant under the forementioned Flag. Then every Ship is to make sail and get into her Station accordingly.

Signals for seeing a sail or sails to be kept flying till observed and to be lowered as often as there are strange ships.

Equal number of ships to the strange ships chance

When any Ship makes a Signal for seeing a Sail or Sails on either quarter of the compass, it must be kept flying till the Ships next to him take notice of it, by making the same Signal. Then he who first made the Signal is to lower it as often as he sees strange Ships, which is to be repeated by every Ship in the Squadron till I take notice of it by hoisting a French Jack at the Ensign Staff; after which an equal number of my Ships who are nearest the strange Ships discovered, are to chace and endeavour to speak with them, and if they gain any intelligence relating to the Enemy, they are to acquaint me with it immediately.

To close the Admiral constantly every evening.

Exception.

Every evening the Ships are constantly to close me, so as to run no hazard of separation and if I would have them close me sooner, I will make the Signal for calling in all Cruizers, which is to be repeated (without a Gun) by the Ships at a distance from me, if those without them do not take notice of it; and if it is not observed, then they are to fire a Gun; but if any Ships are in Chace, an equal number only of the headmost and nearest Ships to the Chace are to pursue it, if they discover it to be an Enemy, and have a liklihood of coming up with it, and the rest are to join me as above directed.

To speak with ships in the night.

If at any time in the night I would speak with the Ships ahead of me I will put abroad three Lights in a Triangle thus [diagram] at the Bowsprit End; and when I would speak with the Ships astern of me, I will shew one Light in the Mizen Top, and one Light at each Yard Arm of the Cross Jack Yard, then all the Ships ahead or astern of me are to continue coming to me, till such time as I take in the Signal; which Signal shall be made either with or without a Gun as there may be occasion.

Ships to quit the Line when the enemy is of inferior force and distress them by raking fore and aft..

If I should meet with a Squadron of the Enemy's Ships of War inferior in number to the Ships under my command, those Ships of my Squadron (over and above the number of the Enemy) that happens to fall in either ahead of the Enemy's Van or astern of his Rear, while the rest of my Ships are engaged are hereby required and directed to quit the Line without waiting for a Signal and to distress the Enemy by raking the Ships in the Van and Rear, notwithstanding the first part of the 24th Article of the Fighting Instructions to the contrary.

Ships chacing ahead to draw into a Line of Battle in order to engage five or seven.

And if I should chace with the whole Squadron, and would have a certain number of my Ships that are nearest the Enemy draw into a Line of Battle ahead of me in order to engage till the rest of the Ships of my Squadron can come up with them, I will hoist a white Flag with a red Cross on the Flagstaff at the Maintopmast head and fire the number of Guns as follows:

When I would haveFive Shipsdraw into a Line of Battle ahead of each other I will fireone Gun
Seven Shipsthree Guns

Then those Ships are immediately to form the Line without any regard to Seniority or the General Form delivered, but according to their distances from the Enemy, viz, the headmost and nearest Ship to the Enemy is to lead and the sternmost to bring up the Rear, that no time may be lost in the pursuit, and all the rest of the Ships are to form and strengthen the Line, as soon as they can come up with them without any regard to my General Form of the Order of Battle.

To get into a proper station when the Admiral thinks the ships ahead or astern of him are at too great a distance from the centre.

Whereas every Ship is directed (when sailing in a Line of Battle) to keep the same distance those Ships do who are next the Admiral, always taking it from the Centre; If at any time I think the Ships ahead of me are at too great a distance, I will make it known to him by putting a broad Pendant at the Jibb Boom End and keep it flying till he is in his proper Station, and if he find the Ship ahead of him is at a greater distance from him than he is from the Torbay (or such Ship as my Flag shall be flying on board of) he shall make the same Signal at his Jibb Boom End, and keep it flying till he thinks that Ship is at a proper distance, and so on to the Van of the Line.

And when I think the Ship astern of me is at too great a distance, I will make it known to him by putting a broad Pendant at the Cross Jack Yard Arm and keep it flying till he is in his Station, and if he find the Ship astern of him is at a greater distance from him than he is from the Torbay (or such Ship as my Flag shall be flying on board of) he shall make the same Signal at the Cross Jack Yard Arm and keep it flying till he thinks that Ship is at a proper distance, and so on to the rear of the Line.

Do.

Captains to make signal to ships without the Line when he thinks they are at a greater distance than those ships who are next the centre.

And if at any time the Captain of any particular Ship in the Line, thinks the Ship without him is at a greater distance than those Ships who are next the Centre, he shall make the above Signal, and then that Ship is immediately to close and get into his proper Station.

As I think it necessary in cruizing that the Ships of [the] Squadron should spread for the better discovering and intercepting the Fleets and Convoys of the Enemy, you are to observe the following Signals:—

Leading on the starboard tack to spread in a line N & S at 2 miles asunder.

When I would have the Ships who lead on the Starboard Tack to spread to the Northward of me, I will hoist a Union Flag on the Flagstaff at the Maintopmast head and fire a Gun; then those Ships are to spread in a Line as near North and South as the Wind will permit, at two miles distance from each other, and the Ships who lead on the Larboard Tack are at the same time to spread in a Line to the Southward of me and keep at the same distance from each other.

On the larboard tack do.

When I would have the Ships who lead on the Larboard Tack to spead to the Northward of me, I will hoist a blue Flag on the Flagstaff at the Maintopmast head and fire a Gun, then those Ships are to spread in a Line as near North and South as the Wind will permit, at two miles distance from each other; and the Ships who lead on the Starboard Tack are at the same time to spread in a Line to the Southward of me and keep at the same distance from each other. And when the Signal is made for the Ships to spread, if I would have them keep at the distance of one mile from each other, I will hoist a yellow Flag at the Mizen Peek.

On seeing a sail on either quarter of the compass after the signal is made and observed the nearest ship to chace and give the Admiral intelligence.

When a Signal is made by any Ship of the Squadron for seeing a Sail or Sails on either Quarter of the Compass, it must be kept flying till the Ships next to him take notice of it by making the same Signal; then he who first made the Signal, is to lower it as often as he sees strange Ships, and it is to be repeated by every Ship in the Squadron, till I take notice of it by hoisting a French Jack on the Ensign Staff, and that Ship which is nearest to the Stranger is to chace and endeavour to speak with him, and immediately to acquaint me if he meets with any other Intelligence relating to the Enemy.

To close every evening except the two head most and nearest to the chace.

Every evening you are constantly to close, so as to run no hazard of separation; but if any Ships are upon chace, the two headmost and nearest Ships to the Chace are to pursue it, and the rest to close me as above directed, unless two or more strange Ships are in sight.

For the distances ships are to keep in a Line of Battle.

When the Signal is made for the Squadron to draw into a Line of Battle one Ship ahead of each other, by hoisting an Union Flag at the Mizen Peek and firing a Gun; every Ship is to make all the Sail he can into his Station and keep at the distance of half a Cable's length from each other. If I would have them to be a Cable's length asunder, I will hoist a blue Flag with a red Cross under the Union Flag at the Mizen Peek and fire a Gun. And if two Cables length asunder, a white and blue Flag under the Union Flag at the Mizen Peek and fire a Gun. But when I would have the Squadron draw into a Line of Battle one Ship abreast of another, and keep at those distances above directed, I will hoist a Pendant under the said Flags at the Mizen Peek.

To alter the course to starboard when sailing in a Line of Battle ahead.

When sailing in a Line of Battle one Ship ahead of another, and I would have the Ship who leads to alter his Course and lead more to Starboard, I will hoist a red Flag at the Mizentopmast head and fire a Gun, for every Point of the Compass I would have him alter his Course.

To port do.

And if I would have the Ship who leads to alter his Course and lead more to Port, I will hoist a Flag striped blue and white on the Flagstaff at the Mizen Topmast head and fire a Gun for every Point of the Compass I would have him alter his Course; And every Ship of the Squadron is to get into his wake as fast as possible. (fn. 6)

Memorandums

1st. If any Ship of the Fleet shall at any time chace out of sight, she is to make herself known as soon as she discovers the Fleet again, by hoisting a Dutch Flag at her Main topgallantmast head, which I will answer by hoisting a Dutch Flag at my Fore topgallantmast head.

2nd. If at any time in chacing you discover the Chace to be a Dutchman, you are to leave off chace immediately and return to your proper Station.

3rd. When the Admiral would have any Ship of the Squadron make sail upon either Quarter of the Compass in order to make the Land he will put abroad the Pendant for speaking with the Captain and hoist the Signal Flag for chacing on that Quarter, and a white Flag at the Main topmast head; Then such Ship is to make what sail she can accordingly, and when she shall have made the Land, she is to return to the Admiral with her Ensign spread at the Main topmast head, and her Captain is to acquaint him therewith.

Dated on board H.M.S. Torbay in Halifax Harbour this 12th August 1755.

To the Honble Captain Barrington, of H.M.S. Norwich. By command of the Admiral, Alexr Macpherson.Ed Boscawen.

Additional Signals From Vice-Admiral Boscawen

No.Signals.Where placed.Guns.Signification.
IWhite Flag with a red CrossShips. Maintopmast head 5 71 3In chacing with the whole Squadron, for the nearest Ships to the Enemy to draw into a Line of Battle ahead of each other ahead of the Admiral, the headmost and nearest Ship to the Enemy to lead; and the ]sternmost to bring up the Rear, and the others to form the Line without regard to Seniority, or the General Orders, as are all the rest as they come up.
1In meeting with a Squadron of the Enemy's Ships inferior to the number of ours, those Ships (over and above the number of the Enemy) that fall in either ahead of the Enemy's Van or astern of his Rear while the rest of our Ships are engaged, are to quit the Line without Signal and to distress the Enemy by raking his Van and Rear, notwithstanding any Article to the Contrary.
2Union FlagMaintopmast head1For the Ships who lead on the Starboard Tack to spread in a Line to the Northward of the Admiral as near N. and S. as the Wind will permit, at two miles distance from each and those who Larboard Tack to spread at the same distance to the Southward of the Admiral.
2Blue Flagditto1For the Ships who lead on the Larboard Tack to spread to the Northward and those that lead on the Starboard Tack to spread to the Southward, as before directed.
2The above Signals and a yellow FlagMizen PeekTo spread as before directed one mile distance from each other.
3When the Signal is made for the Line ahead, every Ship is to get into his Station and keep ½ a Cable's length distance from each other.
3A blue Flag with a red CrossUnder the Union Mizen Peek1To keep a Cable s length asunder.
3A white & blue Flagditto1To keep two Cables' length asunder.
3A PendantUnder the said Flag1To draw into a Line of Battle abreast at the distances above mentioned.
3A red FlagMizentopmast headOnce Gun for every Point of the Com.For the Ships who leads to lead more to starboard. and For the Ships who leads to lead more to port.
3A Flag striped blue and whiteditto
4A broad PendantJibb Boom EndIf the Admiral thinks the Ship next ahead of [him] in the Line is at too great a distance, which Pendant he will take in when she is in her proper Station. The same Signal is to be made if occasion requires by other Ships ahead of him to the Van.
4A broad PendantCross Jack Yard ArmIf the Admiral thinks the Ship next astern of him in the Line is at too great a distance, which Pendant he will take in when she is in her proper Station. The same Signal is to be made by the Ships astern of him, if occasion requires, on to the Rear.
4N.B. If at any time the Captain of any particular Ship in the Line thinks the Ship without him is at a greater distance than those Ships are who are next the Centre, he shall make the above Signal and then that Ship is to close and get into her proper Station.
If in chasing you discover the Ship to be an Enemy, and the Admiral should not take notice of your Signal, you are to make the Signal for seeing a Fleet, if the Chace is of a superior force to yourself.
To speak with the Admiral in the night, two Lights one at each Foretopsail Yard Arm.

By the Hon. Edwd Boscawen, Vice-Admiral of the Blue and Commander in Chief of all His Majesty's Ships and Vessels employed and to be employed in North America.

You are hereby required and directed to proceed with His Majesty's Ship under your command and join RearAdmiral Holburne (or the Commanding Officer of His Majesty's Squadron off Louisbourg). You are to follow and obey all such Orders as you shall from time to time receive from him for His Majesty's Service.

Given under my hand on board His Majesty's Ship Torbay in Halifax Harbour, 18th August 1755.

To the Hon. Captain Barrington, Norwich.E. B.

By the Hon. Edward Boscawen, etc.

You are hereby required and directed if you meet with any French Men of War or Merchant Ships or Vessels with Soldiers, Ammunition, Stores or Provisions on board, You are to seize them, taking care that no embezzlement may be made, for which this shall be your Order.

Given under my hand on board His Majesty's Ship Torbay in Halifax Harbour, 24th of August 1755.

To the Hon. Captain Barrington, Norwich.E. B.

By Francis Holburne, Esq., Rear-Admiral of the Blue, &c.

You are hereby required and directed to put yourself under my command and to follow all such Orders as you shall receive from time to time from me for His Majesty's Service, for which this shall be your Order.

Given under my hand on board His Majesty's Ship Edinburgh at Sea this 2nd September 1755.

To the Hon. Saml. Barrington, Commander of His Majesty's Ship Norwich.F. H.

By command of the Admiral, W. Beed.

The Rendezvous in case of Separation is 5 or 6 leagues SE of Louisburgh. There you are to continue cruizing till you join me or receive further Orders. Given under my hand on board His Majesty's Ship Edinburgh at Sea this 2nd September 1755.

To the Hon. Samuel Barrington, Norwich.F. H.

Line of Battle

The Dunkirk to lead with the Starboard Tacks.

The Norwich . . . . . . . Larboard Tacks.

Frigates.Rates.Ships.Guns.Men.Commanders.Division.
4Dunkirk60420Hon. Richard Howe
4Litchfield50300Mat. Barton
3Edinburgh70480Fras Holburne, Esq.Fras Holburne Esq. RearAdm1 of the Blue
Capt. Thos. Stanhope
4Centurion54300William Mantle
4Norwich50300Hon. Saml. Barrington

Dated on board His Majesty's Ship Edinburgh at Sea, this 2nd Sept. 1755.

To the Hon. Saml. Barrington, Commander of His Majesty's Ship Norwich.F. H.

Memo
When I would have the Ships to spread and look out to the Eastward and Westward, as they are in the Line of Battle at two miles distance; I will hoist a striped Yellow and White Flag at the Foretopgallant masthead & fire a Gun.

When I would have any Ship that is chaceing, bring down the Chace, I will hoist a Blue & White Flag at the Foretopgallant masthead.

To the Hon. Saml. Barrington.F. H.

Memo When a Ship's Signal is made for chaceing on either quarter of the compass (though I see nothing) to look out if I should in addition to such Signal hoist an Union Jack in the Mizentopmast shrouds, then you are to chace as far as Signals may be well observed & in case of seeing one or more Ships you are to hoist an Union Jack at the maintopgallantmast-head & point for the Ships seen, which I will answer by hoisting a Blue Pendant at the maintopgallantmast-head, after which she is to haul down hers, & hoist as often as she see Ships, & I will answer by hoisting & lowering mine as often as she does, then she is to chace unless I make the Signal for calling her into the Fleet, which if I should not do, you are to endeavour to discover what the Ships are so seen & bring them into the Fleet, but if you find they are of a superior Force, you are to make the Signal for seeing a Fleet, which I will answer by hoisting a Yellow Flag at the maintopmasthead & you are to keep sight of the Chace unless I shall make the Signal to call you in. But no Ship is to chace out of sight on any account.
F. H.

Sir,
Whereas Vice-Admiral Boscawen has acquainted me that he don't think it safe for Ships to cruize here after the middle of this month, in consequence of that and not meeting with any further Orders from him, the Rendezvous in case of separation after the 14th instant is Halifax, where you are to follow Vice-Admiral Boscawen's directions for your further proceedings, and in his absence the Senior Officer there. Given under my hand on board His Majesty's Ship Edinburgh at Sea off Louisburgh this 10th September 1755.

To Honble. Captain Barrington.Fra. Holburne.

By the Hon. Edward Boscawen, &c, &c, &c.

You are hereby required and directed to put Yourself under the command of Captain Richard Spry, Commander of His Majesty's Ship Fougueux, and follow and obey all such Orders and Directions as you shall from time to time receive from him for His Majesty's Service. For which this shall be your Warrant. Dated on board His Majesty's Ship Torbay in Halifax Harbour this 19th day of October 1755.

To the Hon. Captain Barrington, Norwich.ED. B.

By Richard Spry, Esq., Captain of His Majesty's Ship Fougueux and Commander in Chief of all His Majesty's Ships and Vessels employed at the Bahama Islands and in North America.

Having received Orders from the Hon. Edward Boscawen, Vice-Admiral of the Blue, &c. to take under my Command all His Majesty's Ships and Vessels employed in North America and the Bahamas; You are hereby required and directed to put yourself under my Command and follow all such Orders as you shall from time to time receive from me for His Majesty's Service.

Given under my hand on board His Majesty's Ship Fougueux in Halifax Harbour 20th October 1755.

To the Hon. Capt. Barrington, Commander of His Majesty's Ship Norwich.R. Spry.

Signals
When I would speak with the Captain of any of His Majesty's Ships or Vessels undermentioned, I will put abroad a Pendant as against that Ship or Vessel's name; If for a Lieutenant the Same Signal and a Weft of the Ensign; and for a Boat without an Officer the Weft will be hoisted only half Staff up.

Red.White.Blue.Place where.
FougueuxSuccessMermaid MainTopmast head
SyrenLitchfieldNorwichFore
GuarlandCenturionNightingaleMizen
JamaicaVultureBaltimoreStarboard Maintopsail Yard Arm

Dated on board His Majesty's Ship Fougueux in Halifax Harbour 20th October 1755.

To the Hon. Samuel Barrington, Norwich.R. Spry.

By Richard Spry, Esq., &c.

Whereas I have received Orders from the Hon. Edward Boscawen Vice-Admiral of the Blue, &c, &c., to enquire into a Complaint lodged at the Admiralty against Captain John Rous of His Majesty's Ship Success for divers Acts of Arbitrariness and Injustice You are hereby required and directed to be on board the Success tomorrow morning at eight o'clock, to enquire into the cause of the said Complaint that a Report thereof may be made to the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty by the first opportunity: For which this shall be your Order. Given under my hand on board His Majesty's Ship Fougueux in Halifax Harbour the 14th November 1755.

To the Hon. Saml. Barrington, Norwich.R. Spry.

By Richard Spry, Esq., &c.

In pursuance of the directions I have received from the Right Hon. the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, (fn. 7) you are hereby required and directed to endeavour to seize and take, by every means in your power, all French Ships and Vessels, as well Men of War and Privateers as Merchant Men, that you shall meet with, Sending them into some convenient Port in His Majesty's American Dominions, together with their Effects, to be there kept without embezzlement till His Majesty's Pleasure shall be known concerning them; and to be particularly careful not to molest or detain any Ship or Vessel belonging to the King of Spain or his Subjects, or any other Prince or State except the French.

Given under my hand on board His Majesty's Ship Fougueux in Halifax Harbour the 13th November 1755.

To the Hon. Saml. Barrington, Norwich.R. Spry.

By command of Captain Spry, G. Banbury.

By Richard Spry, Esq., &c.

In pursuance of the Orders I have received from the Right Hon. the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, (fn. 8) You are hereby required and directed to release all Spanish Sailors or any other Subjects of the King of Spain that you may have, or shall hereafter take in French Ships, and to permit them to embark on board any Ships which may be going to England; and in the mean time you are to cause them to be victualled at whole Allowance on board H.M. Ship under your command; and when opportunities offer for their going to England, if they shall not be received as part of the Crews of the Ships in which they embark, you are to agree for the Expence of their Passage, which will be directed to be paid by the Navy Board.

Given under my hand 17 April 1756.

To the Hon. Saml. Barrington, Norwich.R. Spry.

Line of Battle
Litchfield to lead with the Starboard Tacks.
Norwich with the Larboard Tacks.

Frigates.Ships.Guns.Men.Commanders.
Jamaica Sloop
Guarland
MermaidLitchfield50300Math. Barton, Esq.
SuccessCenturion54300Wm Mantell, Esq.
SyrenFougueux64500Rd Spry, Esq., Commanderin-Chief
Hornet SloopNorwich50300Hon. Sam. Barrington
Baltimore
Vulture

Dated on board His Majesty's Ship Fougueux in Halifax Harbour the 7th May 1756.

To the Hon. Saml. Barrington, Norwich.

The Rendezvous of the Squadron of H.M. Ships under my command is S.E. from the Island of Scatary from six to twelve leagues.

In which station you are to continue so long as your provisions and water last, or till you join me or some other Senior Officer.

Dated Fougueux in Halifax Harbour 7th May 1756.

To the Hon. Saml. Barrington, Norwich.R. S.

Memorandum
When I would have the Squadron wear in a Fog, I will make the Signal by firing three Guns.

And when the Signal is made for bringing to in a Fog, every Ship is to observe to brace the Maintopsail to the Mast, that so we may drive as equal as possible to prevent separation.

Dated Fougueux at Sea 19th May 1756.

To the Hon. Saml. Barrington, Norwich.

By Richard Spry, Esq., &c.

Whereas I have received information that the Governors of South Carolina and Georgia have permitted the French Commonly called Neutrals that were sent thither from the Province of Nova Scotia, to build Vessels in order to return to the said Province from whence they were transported for their Disaffection to His Majesty and their wicked and pernicious practices against his Government; And whose return may be attended with many evil consequences, as there are too many of them already in the said Province, who have taken up Arms and are in open rebellion against His Majesty,

You are therefore hereby required and directed if you should meet with any such Vessels to use your endeavours to take or destroy them, and by no means to suffer any of the People belonging to them, whether Men, Women or Children, to land in the said Province without the advice and consent of the Governor, to whom you are to deliver them on your arrival at Halifax. For which this shall be your Order.

Given under my hand, Fougueux at Sea the 22nd May 1756.

To the Hon. Saml. Barrington, Norwich.

Private Signals for the French to know each other by, found on board the Arc en Ciel.

The first Ship that would be known will hoist a Pendant at the Foretopmasthead and another at the Mizen Topmasthead, which shall be answered by hoisting one at the Main Topmasthead and one at the Ensign Staff.

N.B. Any kind of Pendant will answer the purpose.

But if there should still remain any suspicion with either of them, he shall fire a Gun after having struck his Pendant, and the other shall also strike his Pendant and fire two Guns.

Signals by Night
The Ship that would be known shall hoist a Light at each Topmasthead, and the other shall repeat the same Signal; Then the first that made the Signal shall take in his Lights, and place one in the Poop Lanthorn, which shall be exactly repeated by the other; And if either of the Ships should have any doubts, he shall hoist a Light at the Ensign Staff, over his Poop Light, and fire a Gun, then the other shall hoist two Lights one above the other, over the Poop Light, and fire two Guns.

By Richard Spry, Esq., &c.

Captain Salt of His Majesty's Sloop Hornet haying represented to me that the People of Boston had in a violent and unjust manner, seized on two of his Seamen when peaceably on shore on His Majesty's Service, and put them into jail, by way of reprisal for his having imprest men out of some homeward-bound merchant men.

You are hereby required and directed, whenever you meet with any Fishermen or other Vessels (those employed on the Government service and Coasters to Halifax only excepted) belonging to Boston, or the Province of Massachusetts, either at sea or in harbour, to impress out of them two of the best men you can find on board, and to continue to do so till they shall think proper to release the above Men, and send them down to Halifax; and also to make proper satisfaction for the insult offered to His Majesty by unlawfully taking up and imprisoning His Seamen when in the immediate execution of His Service. For which this shall be your Order.

Given under my hand on board His Majesty's Ship Fougueux at Sea 19th June 1756.

To the Hon. Saml. Barrington, Norwich.R. Spry.

By Charles Holmes, Esq., Captain of His Majesty's Ship Grafton and Commander in Chief of all His Majesty's Ships and Vessels employed in North America to the Northward of Florida.

You are hereby required and directed to put Yourself under my Command and follow all such Orders as you shall from time to time receive from me for His Majesty's Service. For which this shall be your Order.

Dated on board His Majesty's Ship Grafton at Halifax the 1st August 1756.

To the Hon. Sam. Barrington, Norwich.Chas. Holmes.

Additional Signals in a Fog (fn. 9)
When upon a wind and I would have the Fleet wear, I will fire three Guns, the sternmost and leewardmost Ships are to bear up as soon as the Signal is made.

If I would have the Fleet bring to and lye by on the starboard tack, I will fire six Guns and on the larboard tack five Guns.

When I would have the Fleet make sail after lying by, I will fire seven Guns.
Grafton, 6th August 1756,
Cha. Holmes.

Memorandum
When I make the Signal for the Line of Battle ahead and I would have the Ship that leads on the starboard tack lead on the larboard tack, I will hoist a Flag half yellow and half white at the Main Topgallantmast.

And if those on the larboard are to lead on the starboard tack, I will hoist the same at the Fore Topgallantmast.
Grafton, 6th August 1756,
C. H.

By Charles Holmes, Esq., &c.

You are hereby required and directed to seize all French Ships of War and Merchant Ships you may meet and to bring them into the Squadron of His Majesty's Ships under my Command or send them to Halifax, taking care that there is no embezelment. For which this shall be your Order.

Given under my hand on board His Majesty's Ship Grafton at Halifax the 6th August 1756.

To the Hon. S. Barrington.C. H.

His Majesty's Declaration of War against the French King (fn. 10)
GEORGE R
The unwarrantable Proceedings of the French in the West Indies, and North America, since the Conclusion of the Treaty of Aix la Chapelle, and the Usurpations and Encroachments made by them upon our Territories, and the Settlements of Our Subjects in those Parts, particularly in Our Province of Nova Scotia, have been so notorious, and so frequent, that they cannot but be looked upon as a sufficient Evidence of a formed Design, and a Resolution in that Court, to pursue invariably such Measures as should most effectually promote their ambitious Views, without any Regard to the most solemn Treaties and Engagements. We have not been wanting on Our Part, to make from Time to Time the most serious Representations, to the French King, upon these repeated Acts of Violence, and to endeavour to obtain Redress and Satisfaction for the Injuries done to Our Subjects, and to prevent the like Causes of Complaint for the Future: but tho' frequent Assurances have been given, that every Thing should be settled agreeable to the Treaties subsisting between the Two Crowns, and particularly, that the Evacuation of the four neutral Islands in the West Indies should be effected, (which was expressly promised to Our Ambassadour in France) the Execution of these Assurances, and of the Treaties on which they were founded, has been evaded under the most frivolous Pretences; and the unjustifiable Practices of the French Governors, and of the Officers acting under their Authority, were still carried on, till, at Length, in the Month of April 1754, they broke out in open Acts of Hostility, when in Time of Profound Peace, without any Declaration of War, and without any previous Notice given, or Application made, a Body of French Forces, under the Command of an Officer bearing the French King's Commission, attacked in a hostile Manner, and possessed themselves of the English Fort on the Ohio in North America.

But notwithstanding this Act of Hostility, which could not but be looked upon as a Commencement of War; yet, from Our earnest Desire of Peace, and in Hopes the Court of France would disavow this Violence and Injustice, We contented Ourselves with sending such a Force to America as was indispensably necessary for the immediate Defence and Protection of Our Subjects, against fresh Attacks and Insults.

In the mean Time great Naval Armaments were preparing in the Ports of France, and a considerable body of French Troops embarked for North America; and tho' the French Ambassadour was sent back to England with specious Professions of a Desire to accommodate these Differences, yet it appeared, that their real Design was only to gain Time for the passage of those Troops to America, which they hoped would secure the Superiority of the French Forces in those Parts, and enable them to carry their ambitious and oppressive Projects into Execution.

In these Circumstances We could not but think it incumbent upon Us to endeavour to prevent the Success of so dangerous a Design, and to oppose the Landing of the French Troops in America; and in Consequence of the just and necessary Measures We had taken for that Purpose, the French Ambassadour was immediately recalled from Our Court, the Fortifications at Dunkirk, which had been repairing for some Time, were enlarged; great Bodies of Troops marched down to the Coast, and Our Kingdoms were threatened with an Invasion.

In order to prevent the Execution of these Designs, and to provide for the Security of Our Kingdoms, which were thus threatened, We could no longer forbear giving Orders for the Seizing at Sea the Ships of the French King, and his Subjects: Notwithstanding which, as We were still unwilling to give up all Hopes that an Accommodation might be effected, We have contented Ourselves hitherto with detaining the said Ships, and preserving them, and (as far as was possible) their Cargoes entire, without proceeding to the Confiscation of them: But it being now evident, by the hostile Invasion actually made by the French King, of Our Island of Minorca, that it is the determined Resolution of that Court, to hearken to no Terms of Peace, but to carry on the War, which has been long begun on their part, with the utmost Violence, We can no longer remain, consistently with what We owe to Our own Honour, and to the Welfare of Our Subjects within those Bounds, which, from a Desire of Peace, We had hitherto observed.

We have therefore thought proper to Declare War, and We do hereby Declare War, against the French King, who hath so unjustly begun it, relying on the Help of Almighty God in Our just Undertaking, and being assured of the hearty Concurrence and Assistance of Our Subjects in support of so good a Cause; hereby Willing and Requiring Our Captain General of Our Forces, Our Commissioners for Executing the Office of Our High Admiral of Great Britain, Our Lieutenants of Our several Counties, Governors of Our Forts and Garrisons, and all other Officers and Soldiers under them, by Sea and Land, to do and execute all Acts of Hostility, in the Prosecution of this War, against the French King, his Vassals, and Subjects, and to oppose their Attempts; willing and Requiring all Our Subjects to take Notice of the same, whom We henceforth strictly forbid to hold any Correspondence or Communication with the said French King, or his Subjects: and We do hereby command Our own Subjects, and advertise all other Persons, of what Nation soever, not to transport or carry any Soldiers, Arms, Powder, Ammunition, or other Contraband Goods, to any of the Territories, Lands, Plantations or Countries of the said French King, Declaring that whatsoever Ship or Vessel shall be met withal, transporting or carrying any soldiers, Arms, Powder, Ammunition, or any other Contraband Goods, to any of the Territories, Lands, Plantations, or Countries of the said French King, the same, being taken, shall be condemned as good and lawful Prize.

And whereas there are remaining in Our Kingdom, divers of the Subjects of the French King, We do hereby declare Our Royal Intention to be, that all the French Subjects, who shall demean themselves dutifully towards Us, shall be safe in their Persons and Effects.

Given at our Court at Kensington, the 17th Day of May 1756, in the 29th Year of Our Reign.

GOD Save the KING.

By Charles Holmes, Esq., &c.

In consequence of His Majesty's Declaration of War against France, you are hereby required and directed to act in a hostile manner against the French King and his Subjects, and to take, sink, burn, or otherwise destroy all Ships of War or other Ships or Vessels belonging to the said French King or his Subjects, and to annoy and distress them in the best and most effectual manner you are able.

Given under my hand on board His Majesty's Ship Grafton at sea, 26th August 1756.

To the Hon. Samuel Barrington, Norwich.Chas. Holmes.

By the Commissioners (fn. 11) for Executing the Office of Lord High Admiral of Great Britain and Ireland, &c.

Having taken into consideration the great Charge upon the Seamen and others serving in the Fleet, for cure of Venereal Distempers, and that the same does not answer the designed effect of punishing to such a degree as to prevent the Men from running the risk of getting those Distempers, as being well informed that the expence of Medicines is very little on such occasions; and it therefore appearing to us that fifteen shillings from a Seaman or Marine will be a reasonable allowance for the Cure of such Infection, and that it is also as much as the Wages of either can well bear, You are hereby required and directed, when a Cure [of] that kind shall be performed upon any Seaman or Marine belonging to the Ship or Vessel under your command, to charge fifteen shillings for it against his Name upon the Books, which we have directed the Navy Board to cause to be deducted from his Wages and paid to the Surgeon.

There being great reason to believe that it is a frequent practice for Commanders of His Majesty's Ships to send Men to Hospital or Sick Quarters for slight ailments or hurts, which might very well be taken care of and cured on board the Ships to which they belong: And whereas such proceeding is not only burdensome to the Public, by occasioning a great additional expence while the Men are under cure, but is attended with a still much worse consequence to the Service by the loss of many Men who make use of the opportunity thereby afforded them to desert; For remedy of these evils, every Commander of His Majesty's Ships and Vessels is hereby strictly enjoined never to send any Men to an Hospital or Sick Quarters, unless their Distempers or Hurts are such, or the number of Sick and Hurt so great, that they cannot be taken due care of on board, which the Surgeon of the Ship is to certify under his hand, before any Man whatever is sent to such Hospital or Quarters: And in order to a due observance thereof, we do further direct that when any Men are sent Sick on shore, the Physician and Surgeon of the Hospital do forthwith examine them, and if they find any who might have been taken due care of, and probably cured in a little time on board their Ships, and therefore ought not, agreeable to the foregoing Injunction, to have been sent on shore, they are to certify the same to the Commanding Officer at the Port, who is immediately to cause them to be returned to their Ships, and to transmit the Certificate from the Physician and Surgeon to the Navy Board, who are thereupon to cause twenty Shillings for each Man so improperly sent on shore, to be charged against the Wages of the Surgeon of the Ship from which they were sent, and to be abated therefrom.

And whenever the Hospitals or Sick Quarters are visited by a Commissioner for Sick and Hurt, who is a Physician or a Surgeon, if he finds any Persons entertained therein who ought not, agreeable to the foregoing Regulation, to have been received, the Commissioners for Sick and Hurt are to cause the Surgeon and the Agent at the Hospital or Sick Quarters to be mulcted twenty Shillings each for every Man so entertained.

Whereas it generally happens that when any of His Majesty's Ships proceed to Sea, they leave Men at an Hospital or Sick Quarters, and some of those Men are afterwards discharged from thence unserviceable; or (as is sometimes the case) being discharged from the Hospital or Sick Quarters into Ships near at hand, they are in a short time turned on shore as unfit for service; And whereas Men under either circumstance are reduced to great distress and misery for want of their Wages which, by the present Regulations, cannot be paid, because they have not the usual Tickets of Discharge; and we being desirous to give the poor Men relief, herein have directed the Navy Board to cause Tickets in the annexed form to be forthwith printed, and issued to the several Commanders of His Majesty's Ships and Vessels to be made use of as there shall be occasion; and you are hereby strictly charged to take care always to have a sufficient number of the said Tickets by you, and whenever you send any Man to an Hospital or Sick Quarters from His Majesty's Ship or Vessel under your command, never to fail sending one of the said Tickets with him to the Agent for Sick and Hurt, and to be particularly careful that the respective columns be duly filled up, because if the Man shall be discharged unserviceable from the Hospital or Sick Quarters, or put on board any other Ship than that from which he was sent, the Agent is to transmit the said Ticket, together with the customary Ticket of Discharge from the Hospital, to the Commissioner of the Navy at the Port, or to the Navy Board, and from them a proper Ticket is to be forthwith made out, and the Wages paid; or if the Man shall be put on board any other Ship besides that from which he was sent to the Hospital or Quarters, and shall be turned on shore unserviceable before he gets back to his proper Ship, a Ticket is to be made out, and his Wages paid as aforesaid, as soon as such case happens: As therefore the ascertaining the Wages due to the Man will depend upon the accuracy in filling up the Ticket above directed to be sent with him to the Agent for Sick and Hurt, you are to be responsible for the consequence of any failure therein.

Given under our hands the 7th day of May 1756.

To the respective Captains and Commanders of His Majesty's Ships and Vessels.Thos. Villiers. Bateman. R. Edgcumbe.

By command of their Lordships, J. Clevland.
Enclosure.

Whereas we have set on shore the Person undermentioned belonging to His Majesty_s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .the. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . We desire that care may be taken for Quarters and Cure for him according to the methods of the Navy. This . . . . . . . . .day of. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 175....
No. on Ship's Book.Entry on the Ship's Book.Name.Quality.Quality of the Disease or Hurt.Received on board to the value of, in
Wages.Slops furnished by.Beds.Dead Clothes.Tabacco.Neglect.

To the Commissioners appointed to take care of Sick and Wounded Seamen, or their Agent at

Captain Lieutenant Master

Boatswain Purser Surgeon.

By John Rous, Esq., Commander of His Majesty's Ship Success.

Agreeable to the Orders I have received from Charles Holmes, Esq., Commander in Chief of all H.M. Ships in America to the northward of Florida.

You are hereby required and directed to put yourself under my command and follow all such orders and Directions as you shall from time to time receive from me for the good of His Majesty's Service; And in Order for keeping in Company, you'll observe the Directions in the General Printed Instructions, with the Additional ones you have received from Admiral Boscawen and Mr. Holmes. For which this shall be your Order.

Dated on board His Majesty's Ship Success this 29th August 1756.
John Rous.

When I would speak with you I will put abroad a White Pendant at the Maintopmast Head.

The Rendezvous in case of separation is in the Bay Verdt off Fort Monckton.

Sir,
As it is Mr. Holmes's Orders to me to proceed with His Majesty's Ships Success and Norwich, after we had been at Bay Verdt, if the season of the year would permit to go for Newfoundland, and there take or destroy whatever of French or their interest we should meet with, and then to proceed to Halifax,

I have appointed the following Rendezvous, which in case of separation is off Cape Raye, Newfoundland, and not finding me there, you are to run down the Coast to the Island of Langley where I shall be obliged to put in for wood and water.

Dated on board His Majesty's Ship Success this 9th September 1756.

To the Hon. Capt. Barrington, Norwich.John Rous.

By Charles Holmes, Esq., &c.

Whereas the Right Honourable the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty have directed His Majesty's Ship under your command to go to Newfoundland and attend on that Fishery, and have also sent Instructions for your farther Proceedings,

You are therefore hereby required and directed to complete and victual your Ship to three months of all species and proceed forthwith to Newfoundland and from thence with the Trade to Cadiz and Great Britain agreeable to their Lordships' Instructions which you will receive herewith, and for so doing this shall be your Order.

Given under my hand on board His Majesty's Ship Grafton at Halifax the 7th October 1756.

To the Hon. Captain Barrington, Norwich.C. Holmes.

By the Commissioners for Executing the Office of Lord High Admiral of Great Britain and Ireland, &c.

Having appointed His Majesty's Ship under your command to protect the Fishery at Newfoundland, you are hereby required and directed to make the best of your way thither and observe the following Instructions.

You are to cause your best endeavours to settle and guard the Fishery at Newfoundland, and to prevent all illegal Trade during your continuance on the Coast, and never to make any unnecessary stay in port but to keep diligently cruising at sea in such manner as may most effectually protect the Trade from the Enemy or others that may attempt to give them disturbance.

And whereas it is His Majesty's Pleasure that the Commanders of His Majesty's Ships bound as Convoy to Newfoundland, shall not allow of Foreign Ships or Vessels fishing in those parts, you are to take care that His Majesty's Pleasure therein be strictly complied with, and if you meet with any Foreign Ships fishing at or about Newfoundland, you are to oblige them to desist and depart from off the Coast.

You are to be aiding and assisting to the Admirals, Vice Admirals and Rear Admirals of the respective Ports and Harbours of Newfoundland, from time to time, as there shall be occasion in preserving the Peace and good Government amongst the Seamen and Fishermen, and in apprehending Offenders.

And whereas the Lords Commissioners of Trade and Plantations having represented its being very prejudicial to this Kingdom that the Fishing Ships do not bring home the Complement of Men they carry out, many being enticed away to New England and others left in this Country: and desired it may be signified to the Masters of all British Ships at Newfoundland that they take care to bring home the complement they carry out (except in case of death) for that otherwise they will be prosecuted at their return; You are to let the Masters within your reach know the same accordingly, and to use your best endeavours to oblige them thereto.

You are to be careful not to lend any of the Ship's Company to any of the Fishing Ships, nor to suffer any sort of Fish to be taken on board her, by way of merchandise, freight, or otherwise, except what shall be necessary for the use and spending of the Ship's Company.

You are to give such Sailing Instructions to the Masters of Merchant Ships, which shall from time to time be under your Convoy, as shall be fitting for the better keeping your company and meeting again in case of separation, or which shall be necessary for their security and defence.

And whereas Vice-Admiral Smith when he was at Newfoundland built a House at the Watering Place at St. John's for lodging the men employed in trimming the Cask for Beer and Water, and to prevent the expence of Sails and other stores which had been yearly made use of for Tents; You are to take care that the said House be kept in proper repair, as the same may be done at a very small expence by employing thereon the Carpenter of His Majesty's Ship under your command.

In case any Ship of His Majesty's with a Captain Senior to yourself shall join you at Newfoundland, you are to put yourself under his command and follow his Orders for your further Proceedings; but we having at present only sent the Seahorse, commanded by Captain Darby, to Newfoundland, you are, if you join that Ship, to take her under your command and employ her agreeable to the Instructions her Captain has received from us.

You are to continue on the Coast of Newfoundland till the middle of October next, if the Trade shall not be ready sooner, and then take under your care such of them as shall be bound to Cadiz and the Mediterranean, and see them in safety to Cadiz, where you are at liberty to stay ten or at the most twelve days, and then repair to Great Britain with such Trade as shall be ready and willing to accompany you, calling in the Downs for further Orders and sending us an account from thence of your arrival and proceedings.

Given under our hands the 1st May 1756.

To the Hon. Captain Barrington, Norwich.Anson. Duncannon. Bateman.

By command of their Lordships, J. Clevland.

By Sir Edward Hawke, Kt. of the Bath, &c.

You are hereby required and directed, as soon as you shall receive the Stores for fitting His Majesty's Ship under your command by the Portland, to use the utmost dispatch getting her ready for sea;

Having so done you are to take under your convoy any British Trade that may be bound to England, and proceed with them to Spithead, acquainting the Rt. Hon. the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty with your arrival and proceedings.

Given under my hand on board His Majesty's Ship Ramilies in Gibraltar Bay this 9th December 1756.

To the Hon. Captain Barrington, of His Majesty's Ship Norwich.E. H.

By command of the Admiral, W. Pearce.
In the absence of the Secretary.

By Thomas Smith, Esq., ViceAdmiral of the Red Squadron of His Majesty's Fleet.

You are hereby required and directed to take under your convoy all such Ships and Vessels at Spithead bound to the Eastward, whose Masters are ready and willing to accompany you, which you are to see in safety as far as your way and theirs lay together, acquainting them that you are bound to Sheerness. (fn. 12)

Given under my hand on board His Majesty's Ship St. George in Portsmouth Harbour this 2nd February 1757.

To the Hon. Captain Barrington, Norwich.T. Smith.

By the Commissioners for executing the Office of Lord High Admiral of Great Britain & Ireland, &c.

Whereas His Majesty's Ships are ordered to be furnished with Ventilators at a very great expence, and the Captains in the Navy in general not understanding the proper use of them, you are hereby required and directed to cause them to be made use of at least one half hour in every Watch, the Mate of the Watch noting in the Log Book the time of its being made use of;

And whereas the Marine Society are at a considerable expence in procuring Boys for Servants in His Majesty's Ships, you are further required, whenever any of them desert from the Ship under your command, to give an account thereof to the Secretary of the Marine Society in London, with such particulars relating to them as shall occur, in order to have them apprehended.

Given under our hands the fourth day of April 1757.

To the respective Captains & Commanders of His Majesty's Ships & Vessels.E. Boscawen. Geo. Hay. T. Forbes.

By command of their Lordships, J. Clevland.

Footnotes

1 Charles Spendelow (Lieutenant May 1st, 1752). On February 28th Keppel ordered Barrington to deliver to General Braddock's Agent four of the Norwich's upper tier guns, 1000 shot and 50 barrels of powder. Keppel reported this to the Admiralty, March 14th, stating that it was at the General's request, 'to render the attack of Fort du Quesne, near the Monongahila, more successful'; and added, 'I have very strong doubts that these additional Guns to the Train, will prove so heavy that they will meet with great, and perhaps unsurmountable, difficulties in getting them over the Mountains. I have recommended it to the General to buy up Rope, for Luff Tackles; and as I imagine they are not so well acquainted with the nature of Purchases as Seamen, I have ordered 30 good Men, with a Midshipman from each Ship, to attend the Army as far as General Braddock shall have use for them; and as Lieutenant Spendelowe goes with the Forces, he will have the direction of this detachment.'
2 Richard Farrell, mariner (belonging to this Ship) was whipt from Ship to Ship for Desertion in consequence of the Sentence of the Court Martial held on him on board the Syren the 12th instant, and received 21 lashes alongside 5 Ships. Turned the Hands up at the Punishment and read the Articles of War' (Barrington's log, H.M.S. Norwich, March 13th, 1755).
3 Anderson was sentenced to receive 300 lashes with a Cat of Nine Tails on his bare back. The sentence was carried out with 48 lashes alongside each 50- and 20-gun ship and 30 alongside each sloop.
4 Sic. Presumably a copying error for NE.
5 These Additional Instructions should be compared with Boscawen's of April 27th, 1579, printed in Sir Julian Corbett's Fighting Instructions 1530–1816, Navy Records Society, 1905, pp. 219–225.
6 Here follow the Additional Signals printed for convenience on p. 140.
7 Admiralty Orders dated August 27th, 1755, received by Captain Innes of H.M. sloop Otter who arrived at Halifax on November 9th.
8 Admiralty Orders of January 5th, 1756.
9 Holmes also issued to Barrington the usual Pendant signals, and a Line of Battle.
10 This is a copy of the Order in Council, published in the London Gazette, May 17th, 1756.
11 Barrington issued this to the Surgeon of the Seahorse, Evan Jones, on August 27th, 1756.
12 The Admiralty ordered the Norwich to Sheerness for cleaning and refit on January 26th, 1757.