Henry VIII
May 1544, 16-20

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James Gairdner and R. H. Brodie (editors)

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1903

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'Henry VIII: May 1544, 16-20', Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII, Volume 19 Part 1: January-July 1544 (1903), pp. 318-338. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=80311 Date accessed: 23 October 2014.


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May 1544, 16-20

16 May.512. Frenchmen in England.
Soc. Of
Antiquaries
Procl., ii. 131.
Proclamation that all Frenchmen, not being denizens, shall depart the realm within twenty days, after which time no person is to retain such Frenchmen in wages.
Printed by Berthelet. Headed as devised, with advice of the Council, 16 May 36 Hen. VIII.
*** A photograph of the above is in B.M. among "Tudor Proclamations" (No. 27).
[16] (fn. 1) May.513. The Coinage.
Harl. MS.
442, f. 223.
B. M.
Proclamation that (whereas in Flanders and France the valuation of money is so enhanced that coin is daily carried out of the realm notwithstanding the King's commands to the officers of the ports to enforce the statutes against this, so that the only remedy, seems to be the enhancing of the value of gold and silver in this realm) the King, by advice of his Council, fixes the value of the ounce of fine gold of 24 carats at 48s. and of the ounce of the finest sterling silver at 4s. The King has caused a piece of gold to be newly made which shall be called the "soveraigne" and shall be current for 20s. of lawful money; and a half soveraigne for 10s. The royal of gold "being weight" shall henceforth be of the value of 12s., the angel 8s., half angel 4s. and quarter angel 2s. His Highness has also caused to be newly made certain pieces of silver viz., a "testorne" to be current for 12d., a groat with a whole face current for 4d., a half groat of the same stamp 2d, Gold and silver brought to the Tower to be coined shall be paid for at the above prices, 48s. and 4s. the oz. All groats, pence, half-pence and farthings not clipped nor fully broken shall be lawful tender even though cracked, and persons refusing them are to be imprisoned.
Provided always that debts due before the 1st day of this present month of May shall be paid after the rate of 7s. 6d. the angel.
Modern copy, pp. 5.
*** Another copy (pp. 2) is in Soc. of Antiquaries Procl., II. 118.
Harl. MS.
660, f. 56.
B. M.
2. Humfrey Holt to ———
Pondering the enormities "growing of late into this realm" by the greediness of merchants and others who cull out and transport the best of our money into foreign parts, to "the abasing of the same by reason they be of so many divers and sundry standards in fineness," both gold and silver. To bring all to a uniform standard, that such cullings may cease, signifies to his "honor" not only the valuations but also what losses the King daily sustains, as follows:—
"Fyrst the old sufferentes, di. sufferentes, ryallis, di. ryallis and quarter ryallis, angelles and di. angellis, beynge xxiiijti caryckis fine gold ar beter than there currant valu aftur the moneys in Flanders, in every pownd xxti pens, and in every hundrythe pownd viijl. vjs. viijd., and in every thowsand pound iiijxx iijl. vjs. viijd."
Similar calculations for sufferents, &c., of 23 carats, "th'old crownys and di. crownys of the fyrst stamp," sovereigns, &c., of 22 carats and 20 carats, crowns, &c., called "the poldhedes," the "last moneys of gold," the new sterling money of silver, the half groats called the "old starlynge," the half groats with the "gunholes," the half groats called "gunstone grotes" and four other kinds of silver coin.
The worst of these coins "doth buy and sell the best" and the price of everything will run upon the value of the worst of our moneys. The converting of all "to one uniforme aftur the moneys in Flanders" will be to the King's great advantage and no loss to the commons, as the writer will show if his honour will licence him to make proof thereof.
Additional calculation, like the preceding, for the silver coins called rose" pence.
Pp. 4. Begins: Your humble suppliant, Humfrey Holt.
R. O.3. Composition of the standard crown in gold and alloy "if you would have every crown of the double rose should be worth 5s. ster. as money goeth now," when 22 carat gold is worth 41s. 10½d. an oz. Memorandum that the Mint Master gives the merchants only 41s. 3d. the oz. for such gold and thus takes 7½d. the oz. for coining.
Pp. 2. Endd.: Valores auri cunati.
R. O.4. Memoranda that 94,736 cr. 32s., "rating the crown at iiijs. ijd. and a Flemish penny" make 20,000l. st.; and, rated at 4s. 6d., make 21,562l. 5s. 7½d., besides the fineness of the gold "and the valuation and new enhancing of the silver, which amounteth in every pound which was of lx groats the number of six groats and ijd." It is "tried" that 500 oz. 3 qr. of the King's crowns soleil make 4,616 cr. The crown soleil being converted into crowns of the double rose of the fineness of 22 carats, the King must be answered of so much as the crown soleil is in fineness above the crown of the double rose. Mem. 4,735 cr. 12s., at 4s. 2d. and a Flemish penny the cr., make 1,000l. st.
P. 1.
R. O.5. Calculations in Wriothesley's hand showing what the King will gain by the enhancement of the coinage both of silver and gold.
ii. Similar, but fuller, statement in another hand, beginning "In this alteration of the coin the King's Majesty shall have two gains, one by the proclamation of enhancement and th'other by coinage."
Pp. 4. Endd.: Touching the alteracion of coyne.
R. O.6. Letters missive commanding the person addressed, who has received from Edmund Pekham, esquire, cofferer of the Household, 3,000l. "for the provision and buying of bullion of gold and silver for to be coined to our use according to the standard now devised," to deliver the same when so coined to Pekham and receive again other 3,000l. to be similarly dealt with, and so continue delivering and receiving until further direction is taken.
Draft, corrected by Wriothesley, pp. 2. Endd.: Copie of the warr. to the Mrs of the Mynte.
16 May.514. The Privy Council to Hertford.
Hatfield MS.
231, No. 104.
[Cal. of Cecil
MSS.Pt. i., 161.]
Haynes'
St. Papers, 35.
In case Sir George Dowglas or others who under pretext of friendship have dealt suspiciously with the King, upon report of your success, repair to you, whatsoever offers or fair language they use you shall follow your instructions and burn and spoil without respect to whom the places appertain. If not against your promise to them, you shall bring with you Sir George, Angus, and all other men of haviour you may attain. Westm., 16 May. Signed by Chancellor Wriothesley, Norfolk, Suffolk, Winchester, St. John, Gage, Browne, and Petre.
P. 1. Flyleaf with address lost. Headed in a later hand: To therle of Hertforde. Endd.: Fro the Lordes, rec. at Barwik, xviijo Maii.
16 May.515. The Privy Council to Hertford.
Add. MS.
32,654, f. 195b.
B. M.
Hamilton
Papers,
ii., No. 238.
The King is informed that his soldiers, amongst the spoil of Edingburgh and Lyth, "have gotten great quantity of canvas, olromes, polldavies and other linen cloths." Hertford shall procure some merchant of Newcastle or thereabouts to buy them at reasonable prices and keep them for the King's use, who will repay the money disbursed and recompense the travail.
Draft in Paget's hand, p. 1. Written on the back of an earlier corrected draft of the same letter. Endd.: A minute to [th'erll of Hert]ford, xvjo Maii ao 1544.
16 May.516. Sir George Douglas to Hertford.
Add. MS.
32,654, f. 202.
B. M.
Hamilton
Papers,
ii., No. 240(1).
Found Angus at Crawfurd Castle and brought him to lord Somer-wellis place called Cowthelye, intending to be with Hertford this Friday; but word came from Edinburgh that the army was all departed and Hertford gone by sea in the ships. Angus has written to Hertford that all shall be at the King's command; and told Sir George that, as he was a true gentleman, he and his house should be at the King's command. Offers to send advertisements out of Scotland. The Governor and lords purposed to be this night at Lynlythqw, with their power. Eight French ships are come to Dunde, but the writer has not heard their news yet. Is acrased, not having been lately accustomed to labour, but will come to Hertford when and where he appoints, even to London. Is ready to treat for the King with any great men of the realm; and trusts to draw most of the Mers to the King's purpose, the Border gentlemen showing them favour, for their goods are lost. "I traist the erlle of Cassillis hes bene with your l., for, as I am advertyst, my lord Maxwell is efter yow, and he is ane fyne fallow—your l. is wys anewcht." Remember lord Hume's house called Dunglas, in your way, for he and his are the King's enemies, and if lord Maxwell would speak in its favour grant it not. Is always at the King's command. Dalkeith, 16 May.
Hol., pp. 2. Add. Sealed. Endd.: 1544.
16 May.517. Layton to Paget.
R. O.This day the Queen's secretary sent him word that yesterday the Queen received a letter from the Emperor stating that Guasto had 1,200 of his Italians taken in last conflict, all of whom were brought before the French king, who gave them their ransoms and an oath not to serve the Emperor for four years, and sent a larger company than they to conduct them through the mountains. Knowing their way better than the Frenchmen, and perceiving that they were led out of it towards Barbaroussa, the Italians suspected that they were to be committed to Barbaroussa's galleys, and so, espying their opportunity, they suddenly assailed the Frenchmen and slew every man of them; and then took the next way into Italy. Bruxells, 16 May. Signed.
P. 1. Add. Endd.: 1544.
17 May.518. Chapuys to Charles V.
R. O.
[Spanish
Calendar,
vii. 96.]
On the 12th inst. received together the Emperor's letters of the last of the past month and 5th (fn. 2) of this; and, being unable to speak with the King, who had taken pills, communicated the contents of the letters to the Council, who forthwith made report to the King. The answer was:—
First, as to Captain Siquinghen, the King had already indicated that he was satisfied, and now he was still more obliged by the Emperor's compliments, and especially the offer to assist his captains in levying horsemen. As to the hastening forward of their army, after Chapuys had urged this to the Council as a means of interrupting French designs for assisting Scotland and invading this realm, and had debated it at length, he was answered that the King, no less than the Emperor, desired to hasten the enterprise, and night and day thought of nothing else and would see to the crossing whenever possible. The Council gave him the same assurance on their part, and, this morning, the secretary of the Council, by whom he yesterday sent them a reminder, told him that the King has since sent everywhere to hasten the men of war who are in the remoter parts, and has written to Hertford to hasten his return from Scotland and, as soon as he can spare men, to ship 3,000 to Calais to reinforce the vanguard. The King has also hastened the provisions and victuals for men and horses that must be had between this and Dover, and it will depend only upon the arrival of the hoys from Flanders (not one of which is yet come) if they do not leave sooner than was answered to Mons. de Chantonnay, which Chapuys will not cease to solicit; and although the King's ambassador might have said to the Queen that the vanguard was to be ready at Dover on the 15th inst. he said it only to hasten the hoys, before the arrival of which the men of war will not stir, so as not to make scarcity of victuals in the quarter where they shall sojourn. As to the affair of Madame d'Aiguemont and others who have property upon the French frontier, the King heretofore commanded his men of war not to damage them unless for the Emperor's service and his; the Emperor knew that it was not easy to keep men of war from disorder, and he would again provide earnestly therein. The news of Scotland will be seen in the bill herewith. London, 17 May 1544.
Fr. Modern transcript of the original at Vienna, pp. 3. Original endd.: receues en Spiere le xxte (sic) dud. mois 1544.
R. O.
[Spanish
Calendar,
vii. 88.]
2. [The bill mentioned above?]
News from Scotland, furnished apparently to Chapuys, as taken from letters of Mons. de Herford, lieutenant, of the 6th inst. and of Mons. l'Admyral of the 8th inst.
P.S.—Other letters came from Scotland on the 14th inst., but not from the lords above named, to the effect that our men have taken the good town of Edinburgh and burnt and razed it all, as they did Lith. Certain news is expected hourly. And when the horse shall join the others there is great hope that with God's help some great exploit will be done.
Fr. Modern transcript from Vienna, pp. 3.
R. O.
[Spanish
Calendar,
vii. 89.]
3. Later news.
Upon trust of those of Esdembourt, who had several times come out to present the town to him, the earl of Harfort appeared before it with less artillery than he would otherwise have done; out, when he approached, the gates were closed against him, and some of his men not experienced in war approached one of the gates where the artillery of the castle did them some hurt. Having cast down the said gate with artillery, his men entered the town and, at the first attack, slew 200 Scots who were defending the gate; which done, the English (little practised in such work) lost order and there was such confusion that they wounded one another with their arrows (among others, lord William, brother to the Duke of Norfolk, was wounded in the face), and this disorder and the resistance they met with compelled them to retire. During the fight the Cardinal and Governor went out and escaped because the King's horsemen were not yet arrived, who arrived the same night. Next day the English returned to the assault, and some soldiers, not content with taking the town, boastfully thought to capture the castle "avec les angles," from which they were well repulsed with cannon shot. (fn. 3) After sacking the town and killing about 800 Scots therein, it was proposed to give battery to the castle. But, the ground being either rock or small sand, it was impossible to trench; and when the English artillery approached, those within dismounted their principal piece with a cannon shot, and, as it could neither be remounted nor removed, the Earl of Arfort caused it to be burst with an overcharge. Harfort also writes that he caused the horsemen to pillage and burn all the villages within five or six leagues round the town, and they have spoiled all the country and made a very great booty without losing in the whole expedition past 60 or 80 men. The King learns by spies that the Cardinal and Governor, in their perplexity, took the expedient of liberating Earl Dhouglast and other prisoners and gaining their assistance, and also summoned the earl of Lynnes, who answered that he was ready to do his duty if he had another chief than the Governor, under whose flag or command he would never march. The King did not much like the said answer, thinking that the Earl, in view of the King's intelligence with him, should have acted otherwise. Arfort, after taking the two principal ships of Scotland, named the Salamander and Lycorne, razing a castle upon a little island, (fn. 4) sacking Lyft, the richest and busiest town of Scotland, and sacking and burning two places belonging to the Cardinal, took his return journey by the sea coast, so as to have the assistance of the ships. After journeying 16 miles he will despatch the ships and make for a castle called Wtme, (fn. 5) 12 miles from the Northern frontiers, which he intends to take and fortify.
It has been omitted that, on their arrival, the Cardinal and Governor went forth to guard a passage, but fled at the approach of the English, leaving the artillery; as likewise did other gentlemen who were deputed to guard another passage. The Cardinal "estoit vestu d'une casacque de velour jaulne fort descouppe, plaine de taffetas blanc avec listes d'or que flocquoyent par les descoupeures."
Fr. Modern transcript from Vienna, pp. 3. Headed: Supplement a la lettre de Chapuys a l'Empereur du 17 Mai 1544.
17 May.519. Chapuys to the Queen of Hungary.
R. O.
[Spanish
Calendar,
vii. 97.]
Received on Monday last (fn. 6) her letters of the 8th inst., and on Tuesday communicated the tenor of them to the Council. She could not believe what satisfaction the declaration against Scotland has given to the King, who has charged Chapuys to thank her and all those who have managed it. Thinks she has done a singular work to gain the King's heart by despatching it, as any further delay might have greatly prejudiced affairs. The King much approved her dealing with the man who brought the letters from the Admiral of France, and still more her desire for his advice before answering them. He says that she may do as she thinks best; and [that] to him (not having thought out the affair) it would seem advantageous, and harmful to the French, to refuse the fishing truce, and that, the Emperor's army and his being so powerful, their common subjects will be able to fish without danger, for the French will take care not to scatter or go amusing themselves (s'aller jouer).
The Council sent Octavian Bos to Chapuys's lodging, who examined him at length. He affirms that since he left Lyons to return to Milan, about three years ago, he has never entered France, and that, at least, he will be able to prove that for the past sixteen months he has not resided in France [and] has nowise returned thither; that he has no acquaintance with any of the great men of France, especially that he has never spoken with Mons. de Vendosme, and although he saw him when he was page to Seigneur Gallia Visconte he would not recognise him now; during all the month of October last he was at the camp of Landressy or at Valencienne and, on the retreat of the camp, returned straight to Antwerp, from whence he has since, twice, returned to Cambresil (sic), taking La Chapelle with him, who was in Antwerp without occupation; his acquaintance with La Chapelle began in Milan, when La Chapelle was of the band "dung (?) des Seigneurs des Meynes"; he heard nothing of La Chapelle's arrest until he was at Calais. That he did not return to Lyons, where he formerly traded, rather than come to Flanders was because in Milan it was forbidden to carry harness and such merchandise as his into France. Examined Octavian's servant, a native of Dynant, who affirmed the same as his master touching the abode at the camp and Valencienne in October. Upon this it will be well to examine the other servants remaining at Antwerp; and that as soon as possible, for the Council make marvellous instance to know the affair fully, so as to resolve quickly whether to release or detain him. As he has the favour of several of those here, whom he served at the said camp, it is to be feared that, unless proof of his crime comes, he will be set at liberty.
The Council approve her advice touching the Sieur de St. Martin, knowing that in such affairs the French are cleverer than they; they will be more on their guard in future.
For other news refers her to the copy of his letters to the Emperor.
Fr. Modern transcript of the original at Vienna, pp. 3. Headed: 1544, Mai 17.
17 May.520. Chapuys to the Queen of Hungary.
R. O.
[Spanish
Calendar,
vii. 98.]
The King has just sent two of his Council to say that he has decided (advisé) to send his principal secretary, Mr. Paget, to the Emperor as well for the return visit as to relate the success of affairs of Scotland and the state of those which concern the coming enterprise. Could learn nothing more of Paget's charge; but takes the opportunity of this courier to write these two words, and would add that the said secretary, who is a discreet personage and in credit with his master, has always shown inclination to the Emperor's service. London, 17 May 1544.
Fr. Modern transcript of the original at Vienna, p. 1.
17 May.521. The Bishops of Durham and Llandaff to Hertford.
Hatfield MS.
231, No. 84.
[Cal. of Cecil
MSS.
Pt. i., 162.]
Forward three letters just received from the Council, and also the copy of a letter to the Bp. of Durham showing that the King looks for his two hundred horsemen from these borders, and as many from the West Borders, whereof they have advertised Wharton, besides the footmen. He may advertise the wardens of the East and Middle Marches thereof. Newcastle, 17 May, at 8 p.m. Signed.
P. 1. Flyleaf with address lost. Headed in a later hand: To therle of Hertforde.
17 May.522. Lennox and Glencairn.
R. O.Treaty, in the form of an indenture, made at Carlisle, 17 May 36 Hen. VIII., between Wharton and Bowes (commissioners appointed by the King's Commission, recited, dated Westm. 26 March 35 Hen. VIII., to treat with commissioners of Matthew earl of Lenaxe and Wm. earl of Glencarne) and Wm. earl of Glencarne, Robert bp. elect of Catnes, brother to Lenaxe, Thos. Bishope and Hew Conynghame, commissioners appointed by Lenaxe and Glencarne by their commission (to Bishope and Conynghame), recited, dated Dumberten, 8 April 1544.
That, for the quiet of Scotland and relief of Lenaxe and Glencarne from the malice of the Cardinal and Arren, it is agreed that (fn. 7) :—
1. Lenaxe and Glencarne shall cause the Word of God to be taught and preached; 2, remain friends to England and refuse any league to the contrary, &c.; 3, foresee that the young Queen is not conveyed away; 4, assist the King to win Jedworth, &c.; 5, help to have the King Director and Protector of Scotland.
For the more sure performance of the above, Robert bp. elect of Catnes enters himself as hostage for his brother Lenaxe; and also Glencarne grants that his "nephew" Wm. Conynghame, son and heir apparent of his son Alex, lord of Kilmawrise, now lying here in pledge for his ransom, shall remain his hostage for this.
In return, the King is content, "of his incomparable bounty and benevolence," to grant as follows:—[Five Articles as in 337 (2) p. 221.]
And, finally, where Lenaxe, by his secretary and otherwise, has made suit to marry lady Margaret Douglas, the King's niece, and now has renewed that suit, the King's pleasure is that, if Lenaxe perform the above covenants according to the King's expectation, and lady Margaret and Lenaxe on seeing each other agree for that purpose, he will both agree to the marriage and further consider Lenaxe's good service. Signed by Wharton and Bowes.
Pp. 12.
R. O.2. Another copy of the above, also signed by Wharton and Bowes.
Pp. 10.
R. O.
(R.T. 175-6.)
3. Modern copy of § 1.
Pp. 13.
R. O.
Rymer, xv. 22.
4. English counterpart of the above treaty, signed and sealed by the Scottish Commissioners.
Large parchment, much mutilated. Signatures and seals lost.
18 May.523. Isle of Guernsey.
See Grants in May, No. 51.
18 May.524. Unauthorised News.
Harl. MS.
442, f. 197.
B. M.
Proclamation, for London, that as certain light persons have printed certain news of the prosperous success of the King's army in Scotland inaccurately, to the slander of the King's captains and ministers, all persons having such books are to bring them to the Lord Mayor and Aldermen within 24 hours to be burnt. Westm., 18 May 36 Hen. VIII.
Modern copy, p. 1.
Soc. OfAntiqu. Procl.ii. 132.2. Another modern copy.
P. 1.
18 May.525. Henry VIII. to Charles V.
R. O.
[Spanish
Calendar,
vii. 101.]
Begs credence for his Councillor, Messire Guillaume Paget, whom he sends to explain some important matters touching the common affair, and to learn the Emperor's decision therein. Westminster Palace, 18 May 1544.
From a modern abstract from the original at Vienna.
18 May.526. Henry VIII. to the Queen of Hungary.
R. O.
[Spanish
Calendar,
vii. 90 and
102.]
Paget, who is sent to the Emperor, is ordered to visit her on his way; to inform her of the news and thank her for help in forwarding provisions for the English army. Westminster Palace, 18 May 1544.
From a modern abstract from the original at Vienna.
18 May.527. Henry VIII. to Granvelle.
R. O.
[Spanish
Calendar,
vii. 103.]
For Paget, whom he sends to the Emperor, begs Granvelle to obtain "good answer and short expedition." Westminster Palace, 18 May 1544.
From a modern abstract from original at Vienna.
18 May.528. The Privy Council to Tunstall.
Add. MS.
32,654, f. 196.
B. M.
Hamilton
Papers, ii.,
No. 239.
The King has presently despatched his servant Thos. Hungate with 8,000l. for those frontiers. As the coin is raised in the manner shown by the proclamation (fn. 8) herewith, notice must be given that it be paid accordingly. By the letters of Wharton and Bowes, of the 14th inst., it appears that they are towards concluding with Glencarn and other commissioners for Linox and desire to know how the bp. of Catnez, when delivered as hostage for his brother, shall be used. The Bishop is to repair to the King at Court. The sending of footmen hither or to Dovar to be furnished and serve as horsemen is to be stayed until further orders, and then not more than 200 are to come.
Draft with corrections in Paget's hand, p. 1. Endd.: A minute to my lord of Duresme, xviijo Maii 1544.
18 May.529. Chapuys to Charles V.
R. O.
[Spanish
Calendar,
vii. 99.]
This King sent two of his Council to tell Chapuys that he had decided to send his first secretary, the bearer, to return reciproque visitation (fn. 9) and to communicate the news of Scotland and state of preparation for the approaching enterprise. To-day the King has sent the said secretary to communicate letters which the king of France has written him and his reply, of which the said secretary will carry the originals (at least that of the king of France) to the Emperor. From what he sees and learns from the said secretary, all possible diligence is made here to hasten affairs; but he very much doubts that things will not be so soon ready as the Emperor desires and the occasion requires. The cause of delay will be the zeal (not to say obstinacy) which the King shows to go in person, for whose surety so many things have to be done that they will not be finished for some days. Chapuys's own foolish opinion is that the King will not act prudently in attempting the journey, for, besides his age and weight, he has the worst legs in the world, such that those who hare seen them are astonished that he does not stay continually in bed and judge that he will not be able to endure the very least exertion without danger of his life, yet no one dare tell him so (et que toutesfois personne ne luy ose remonstrer). It is clear that his presence might he very useful if health permitted it, but as he now is it will be a danger. Wherefore, and for other reasons which Chapuys has lately written, it would be a good work, for which every means should be sought, to rid the journey of his presence, though, for the furtherance of affairs he might remain at Calais during the enterprise. London, 18 May 1544.
Fr. Modern transcript of the original at Vienna, pp. 2. Original endd.: receues en Spiere, le xxvie dud. mois 1544.
18 May.530. Chapuys to the Queen of Hungary.
R. O.
[Spanish
Calendar,
vii. 100.]
Advertised her yesterday of the King's decision to send his first secretary, Mr. Paget, to the Emperor. This after-dinner the King has sent him to communicate his charge to Chapuys. It is (besides what Chapuys wrote in his last) to communicate to the Emperor a letter from the King of France, dated 9th inst. at St. Germain, and this King's answer, viz.,—That he is surprised at the French king's writing that he never thought the amity between them broken, seeing the hostilities done at the wasting of Boullonnois and neighbouring countries, and captures of ships, and still more surprised to learn by the said letter that he who brought the present of wines had, to the French king, moved the subject (aroit esmeu propoz) of peace and confederation; and it seemed that the French king only sought to engender suspicion between the Emperor and him, but their amity was inviolable and the French king would do well to avoid such indirect means; if he wished for peace he must first renounce alliance with the Turk and Scotland, "et satisfaire son deu et au tort quil tenoit de sa Majesté;" and in recompense for the news of Piedmont this King sent him those of Scotland.
The Secretary being hurried about his departure, Chapuys could not get copies of the letters, but supposes that the Emperor will get them. As Chapuys wrote yesterday, the Secretary goes also to report preparations for the enterprise. The King continues in his wish to go in person, and truly his presence would be of much service provided that his health would bear it, but it is more than certain that, if he insists, affairs will be much retarded. Moreover, there is evident danger, for, besides his age, he is so very ill in his legs that it is a wonder he can stand, especially if (after long sojourn where he has been) he has to exert himself without loss of time. (fn. 10) All those about him have tried every means to dissuade him from it but it is no use, and Chapuys does not think that there can be any other means except that the Emperor should wish to excuse his going, for the King would hold it a point of honour to go if the Emperor were there. Suggests that it would be a good work to excuse the going of them both; and that by remaining in some part of their frontiers they would vex and astound the enemy no less than if they were personally in the army. Begs her, if she approves this advice, to write of it whither she thinks fit; but to make no sign of it to the said Secretary, in thanking him for his continual good offices.
Fr. Modern transcript of a contemporary copy at Vienna, pp. 3. Headed: 1544, Mai 18.
18 May.531. Hertford, Lisle and Sadler to Henry VIII.
Add. MS.
32,654, f. 198.
B. M.
Hamilton
Papers,
ii., No. 240.
On Thursday (fn. 11) last, having burnt Edinburgh and the towns and villages round (as they wrote in their last), they burnt Legh, sent away such ships and boats as were meet and burnt the rest, and destroyed and burnt the pier; and, coming homewards they have burnt Muskelburgh, Preston, Seton with lord Seton's principal house (himself pricking aloof so that he might see it), Haddington and Donbarre and as many other peels, houses and villages as they could reach. Kept such array that the Scots could take them at no advantage. Yesterday lords Hume and Seton, and Bothwell, with 2,000 horsemen and 6,000 foot, seemed determined to stop them at the Peese, which is a very strait passage for an army and might have been kept by 3,000 men of heart; but, when the Scots saw the army march towards them to the assault, they dispersed and gave the passage without resistance. The King will hear what devastation is done from the lord Admiral, who repairs to him in post, to know his pleasure for the ordering of affairs by sea, and sends the ships which have arrived here out of the Fry the to the Narrow Seas.
Wrote what they did with Sir George Douglas touching Temptallen, and the letters (herewith) received since from Angus and Sir George show their mind in that matter. Hertford would gladly have made some countenance of assault to it, but lacked artillery and powder. Besides, scarcity of victuals compelled the army to hasten (and as it was, the soldiers had to drink water for half the way), so that they had, unwillingly, to leave both Temptallen and Hume castles and arrived this night in Berwick.
On Thursday night last, when encamped at Seton, lord Maxwell sent to Sir Ralph Evre desiring to speak with him in the fields, and sending word that he would also speak with Hertford. Thought good to stay Sir Ralph from going, and, meanwhile, the lord Admiral rode forth to the place where he understood Maxwell to be, and found him in the fields with 8 or 10 horse. Came suddenly upon him, as though by accident, "merrily saying unto him that he should be my prisoner and go with me to our camp to speak with your Majesty's lieutenant." He answered that he was already the King's prisoner and came purposely to speak with the Lieutenant, and so came into camp without assurance; whereupon Hertford has brought him to Berwick, telling him it would be to his honor to enter according to his promise. He said he would gladly go home to make ready to enter, desiring to have a day appointed, and that he had come to Hertford upon trust; but when he saw he must needs tarry he seemed content, and now desires to repair to Carlisle, to order his things at home and furnish himself to repair to the King. Beg to know how to treat him. He offers as much as ever.
Have here received letters from the Council requiring 3,900 soldiers to be transported hence to Calais, to serve in France; and Hertford has appointed captains for that purpose. Although the gentlemen are most willing to serve, their necessity is so evident that it seems impossible to furnish the number, unless they and their men may have time to go home and furnish themselves. They have spent all their money; and they have no tents or pavilions, because this enterprise was by sea. The soldiers have lain nightly in their clothes for two months, and for this fortnight every night in the field without covering, so that most of them, "with cold and great travail and scant victualling," have caught diseases in their bodies and swelling in their legs, and are so wearied, that few are meet to serve; and besides, they are out of apparel and money to buy it. Without time to refresh themselves and get the health and furniture they want, 3,900 men cannot be got, as the lord Admiral will declare. Meanwhile 500 hackbuttiers, 200 of lord Cobham's men, 200 pioneers under Mr. Lee, 50 of Sir Chr. Morres's men, and 500 of those who come by sea, over and above the 2,000 reserved to keep the seas, shall be forthwith embarked for Calais. Berwick, 18 May, 11 p.m. Signed.
Pp. 6. Add. Endd.: 1544.
Harl. MS.
6,063, f. 15.
B. M.
2. Knights dubbed in Scotland by the earl of Hertford, the King's lieutenant, 36 Hen VIII., "at the burning of Edenburgh, Leith and others," viz.:—
Sunday, 11 May, at Leith:—The lords Clinton and Conyers, Sirs Wm. Wroughton, Thos. Venables, Thos. Leight alias Doctor, Edw. Darrell, John Lutterell, George Bowes, Rafe Bullmer, Thos. Holcroft, Wm. Breerton, Hugh Cholmeley, Edw. Warren, Brian Layton, Peter Lee, John Constable, Edm. Trafford, Hugh Calvely, John Atherton, Thos. Gerrat, Ric. Lee, Ric. Chamley, Thos. Waterton, Wm. Vavasour, Ric. Shirborne, Peter Fretchwell, Thos. Cokin, Robt. Stapleton, Ric. Egerton, Laur. Smyth, Wm. Ratcliff, Thos. Maleveray, Robt. Worseley, Thos. Talbott, Ric. Holland, John Lee, Thos. Clerc, Ant. Nevill, Leonard Beckwith, John Jenninges, Thos. Holt.
Tuesday, 13 May, at Leith:—Sirs Charles Howard, George Blount, Wm. Woodhowse, George Breerton, Errynge Breerton, Ph. Egerton.
Sunday, 18 May, at Butterden:—Sirs Wm. Damport, Ralph Layster, Edm. Savage, John Massey, John Nevill, Hew Wylloughby, Edw. Warner, Peter Mewtas, Robt. Constable, Humph. Braidburne, Fras. Hothome.
In a modern hand, pp. 2.
Add. MS.
5,482, f. 9.
B. M.
3. List of the same names (§ 2) in a different order, all under the date 11 May, and marked as agreeing with the list given in Stow's Chronicle "the last edition, page 987."
In a modern hand, p. 1.
19 May.532. The Expedition against Scotland.
R. O.Hertford's warrant to Sadler to pay Sir Edw. Warner, captain of 100 men, 20 days' wages, at 4s. for himself, 2s. for his petty captain and 6d. a man, from 29 April to 18 May, deducting 25l. 2s. 3d. for victuals had out of the King's provision. Berwick, 19 May 36 Henry VIII. Signed.
Receipt signed the same day by Warner's servant, Albane Bampton.
P. 1.
R. O.2. The like for John Preston, deducting 32l. Received by himself.
P. 1.
R. O.3. The like for Sir Piers Lighe, deducting 30l. 9s. 9d. Received by Lighe's servant, Piers Hey.
P. 1.
R. O.4. The like for Nic. Thorneborowe, deducting 32l. 9s. Rec. by himself
P. 1.
R. O.5. The like for Hugh Anderton, deducting 30l. 19s. 0½d. Rec. by himself.
P. 1.
R. O.6. The like for Sir Wm. Radclyff, deducting †† Received by himself.
P. 1. Much mutilated.
R. O.7. Like warrant to pay Ric. Metcaulf, gunner, 18 days' wages for himself and another gunner, at 8d. each, from 1 to 18 May. Berwick, 19 May 36 Hen. VIII. Signed.
Signed as received by himself the same day.
P. 1.
R. O.8. Like warrant to pay Sir Ric. Chomondeley, captain of 100 men, conduct money from Berwick to Whitebe, Yorks., 100 miles at 4d. a mile for himself, 2d. for his petty captain and ½d. for each man. Berwick upon Twede, 19 May 36 Hen. VIII. Signed.
Signed as received the same day by Sir Richard's servant, William Cholmeley.
P. 1.
R. O.9. Forty-two similar warrants of the same date, for conduct money, viz.:—(1) Sir Wm. Fairfax for 100 men from Berwick to York, 100 miles. Received by himself. (2) Sir John Atherton for 100 men to Atherton (altered from Manchester), Lane, 140 miles. Received by himself. (3) Nic. Rudeston for 100 men to Hull, 110 miles. Rec. by himself. ii. Also Sir Robt. Stapleton, for 100 men, to Wighill, 95 miles. Rec. by himself. (4) Sir John Nevile for 100 men to Leverseche, Yorks., 90 miles. Rec. by himself. (5) Sir Nic. Fairfax for 88 men to Gilling, 86 miles. Rec. by himself. (6) Sir Anthony Hungerford for 100 men to Shifford, Wilts, 300 miles. Rec. by himself. (7) Ric. Norton for 100 men to Toplif Yorks., 80 miles. Rec. by himself. (8) John Tempest for 100 men to Wakfelde, Yorks., 100 miles. Rec. by himself. (9) Sir Thos. Waterton for 99 men to Wakefeld (altered from West Chestre), 100 miles (altered from 160). Rec. by himself. (10) Francis darl of Shrousbury for 500 men (himself at 10d. the mile), himself to Sheffeld, Yorks and his men to Winesfeld and other places in cos. Derby and Salop, 170 miles. Rec. by Thurston Wodcok. (11) Hugh Starky for 100 men to Westchester, 160 miles. Rec. by himself. (12) Sir Wm. Wroughton for 92 men to Blackborn, Lanc., 120 miles. Rec. by himself. (13) Sir Edmond Trayforde for 99 men to Manchester, Lanc., 140 miles. Rec. by Alex. Maysse. (14) Sir James Fuljambe for 100 men to Walton, Derb., 140 miles, and to Derby, 160 miles. Rec. by Reignold Bretlond. (15) William lord Sturton for 93 men to Sturton, Wilts, 330 miles. Rec. by himself. (16) Sir John Dawn for 99 men to Westchester, 160 miles. Rec. by Ralph Bryne. (17) Sir Hugh Calveley for 100 men to Westchester, 160 miles. Rec. by Ric. Hough. (18) Sir Wm. Brereton for 100 men to Westchester, 160 miles. Rec. by Jas. Paver. (19) Sir Francis Huthom for 100 men to Grove, Notts, 120 miles. Rec. by Ric. Pek. (20) Robt. Molieneux for 100 men to Croksteth, Lanc., 140 miles. Rec. by his servant Robt. Molyneux. (21) John Preston for 100 men to Dalton, 120 miles. Rec. by himself. (22) Nic. Thorneborowe for 100 men to Dalton, 120 miles. Rec. by himself. (23) John lord Scrope for 200 men to Bolton, Yorks., 80 miles. Rec. by John Forster. (24) Sir Ric. Hollond for 100 men to Manchester, Lanc., 140 miles. Rec. by Ralph Hollond. (25) Hugh Anderton for 98 men to Croksteth, Lanc., 140 miles. Rec. by himself. (26) Ralph Hollond for 100 men to Manchester, Lanc., 140 miles. Rec. by himself. (27) Thomas Katterall for 100 men to Wakfeld, Yorks., 100 miles. Rec. by himself. (28) Ric. Billingford for 100 men to London, 280 miles. Rec. by Wm. Clayton. (29) George Stafford for 60 men to Kyrkbe Morsyd, Yorks., 100 marks. Rec. by himself. (30) Thos. Slingesby for 100 men to Skipton, Yorks., 100 miles. Rec. by Walter Pulleyn. (31) Sir John Cunstable for 112 men to York, 100 miles. Rec. by himself. (32) William lord Dacres for 100 men to Hinderskelf, Yorks., 100 miles. Rec. by Thos. Baytes. (33) Thos. Maliverey for 100 men to York, 100 miles. Rec. by himself. (34) Ric. Bowes for 100 men to Aske, Yorks., 70 miles. Rec. by himself. (35) Wm. Wiclif for himself and 10 men (at ½d. each) to Wiclif, Yorks., 70 miles. Rec. by himself. (36) Thomas Delariver for 100 men to Borowbrik, Yorks., 88 miles. Rec. by himself. (37) Sir Piers Legh for 100 men to Werrington, Lanc., 140 miles. Rec. by himself. (38) Thomas Cole for 100 men to Westchestre, Chesh., 160 miles. Rec. by himself (signature lost). (39) Sir Thomas Southwoorth for .... men to ....., Lanc., 120 [miles]. Rec. by himself (signs with a mark). Mutilated and faded. (40) Sir Hugh Willoughby for 100 men to Wolberton, Notts, 166 miles. Rec. by himself. (41) George Holfourd, captain of 100 of Sir Piers Dutton's men, for the said 100 men to Westchestre, 160 miles. Rec. by himself. Much mutilated. (42) Henry Halsall for 100 men to Halsall, Lanc., 140 miles. Rec. by himself.
Each warrant is written on one side of a separate paper.
R. O. 10. A blank sheet of paper marked "Warrantes. Exr J. Hixson."
Two leaves.
533. ——— to Lord Russell.
A news letter printed with the title: "The late Expedicion in Scotlande made by the Kynges Hyghnnys armye under the conduit of the ryght honorable the Erle of Hertforde, the yere of oure Lorde God 1544." (fn. 12)
The half-title immediately above the text is: "The late Expedition in Scotlande, sent to the Ryght Honorable Lorde Russel, Lord Privie Seale, from the Kynges Armye there, by a frende of hys."
After long sojourning of the King's army at Newcastle for lack of commodious winds, which had been N.E. and E.N.E., much to our grief, on the 1 May 36 Hen. VIII. the wind veered round to the S. and S.S.W. and in two tides the whole fleet was out of Tynemouth haven. The third day after we arrived in the Frith, "a notable river in Scotland," entering between two islands, the Basse and the May. Landed boats the same day at S. Mynettes on the North side of the Frith, burnt it and brought away divers great boats useful for our landing. That night the whole fleet anchored under Inchkeith, 3 miles from Leith haven. The place where we anchored has long been called the English Rode—a name the Scots now take as a prophecy. Next day, 4 May, the army landed at Grantame Cragge, 2 miles West of Leith, every man so prompt that the whole army landed in 4 hours. Landed so quietly (which we looked not for) that having our guides ready we marched to Leith in three battles, my lord Admiral leading the vanguard, Shrewsbury the rearguard, and Hertford (being lord Lieutenant) the battle, having with us some small pieces of artillery drawn by men. This was thought necessary for commodious lodging and victuals, and the landing of our artillery. In a valley on the right near the town the Scots were assembled to the number of 5,000 or 6,000 horse and a good number of foot to stop the passage, with artillery laid at two straits through which we must pass to achieve our enterprise. They seemed ready at first to attack the vanward, but, the Cardinal especially, finding our devotion to see his Holiness such that we were ready to wet our feet for the purpose, to pass a ford between us, after some shot of artillery on both sides, they made a sudden retreat and fled to Edinburgh, leaving their artillery behind them. "The first man that fled was the holy Cardinal, like a valiant champion, and with him the Governor, the Earls of Huntley, Murrey and Bothwell, with divers other great men of the realm." Two Englishmen hurt at this passage, and two Scotchmen slain. Eight pieces of the Scotch artillery were brought away by our hackbutters, and we marched directly towards Leith. Had to pass another passage defended a while by certain ensigns of footmen and pieces of artillery; but after 3 of their gunners were slain they gave way and left behind them their ordnance, which had only slain one man and hurt another. Leith was then entered and won with the loss of only 2 men of ours, and hurt of 3, where the Scots had cast great trenches and ditches to defend it. That night the army encamped in Leith, and by the said trenches and ditches made a strong camp. The morrow, 5 May, we had our ships brought into the haven and unloaded. Found many goodly ships there, especially two—the Salamander given by the French King at the marriage of his daughter into Scotland, (fn. 13) and the Unicorn made by the late Scottish King. The town was found fuller of riches than we expected any Scottish town to have been.
Next day the army went to Edinburgh, leaving the lord Sturton in Leith with 1,500 men. On our coming near, the provost with one or two burgesses and two or three officers of arms desired to speak with the King's lieutenant, and in the name of all the town said the keys should be delivered to him on condition that they might go with bag and baggage and the town be saved from fire. The lieutenant replied that the Scots had so often "falsed their faiths" and broken promises confirmed by oaths and seals by their whole parliament that he was not sent to treat but to take vengeance and put to the sword all that resisted; they must yield unconditionally, and every man, woman and child issue into the fields, or he would put them to the sword and set their town on fire. The provost said it were better to stand to their defence. This was rather a false practice to spy our force "than for any zeal they had to yield their town, as it appeared after." The provost and officers at arms were warned to depart. Meanwhile word was brought by a herald whom the lord Lieutenant had sent to summon the castle, that the Earl Bothwell and the lord Hume with 2,000 horse were entered the town to defend it; and Sir Chr. Morice, lieutenant of the Ordnance, was sent to approach the Cany gate with certain batteries; "which gate lay so that the ordnance must be brought up a broad street of the suburbs directly against the said Cany gate, which was the loss of certain of our gunners. And before that any battery could be made by the said ordnance, divers of the captains of the said vauward (the better to comfort their soldiers) assailed the said gate with such courage that they repulsed the Scottish gunners from the loupes of the same, and there slew and hurt sundry of their gunners, and by force drew one piece of artillery out of one of the said loupes. Our archers and hackbutters shot so wholly to the battlements of the gate and wall that no man durst show himself at the defence of the same; by reason whereof our gunners had good leisure to bring a cannon hard to the gate; which, after 3 or 4 shot, made entry to our soldiers, who at their breaking in, slew three or four hundred Scots of such as were found armed." Meanwhile the earl Bothwell and the lord Hume fled and saved themselves by another way issuing out towards the castle; the situation of which is so strong that it can only be approached one way, viz., by the High Street of the town; "and the strongest part of the same lieth to beat the said street, which was the loss of divers of our men with the shot of the ordnance out of the said castle." Considering the strength of the castle, it was resolved to waste no time or munition in besieging it; though this was attempted till one of our pieces was struck by a shot from the castle and dismounted. Finally it was determined "utterly to ruinate and destroy the said town with fire;" which, as the night drew on, we could not fully execute that day, but setting fire to 3 or 4 parts of the town we withdrew to our camp. Next morning (fn. 14) early we began again and continued the burning all day and two days following; "so that neither within the walls, nor in the suburbs, was left any one house unbrent, besides the innumerable booties, spoils and pillages that our soldiers brought from thence, notwithstanding abundance which was consumed with fire. Also we burnt the abbey called Holy Rood House and the palace adjoining to the same."
While we held the country thus occupied there came to us 4,000 light horsemen from the Borders who after their coming laid waste the country everywhere within 7 miles of Edinburgh, and left neither pile, village, nor house unburnt, nor stacks of corn, and brought in daily great numbers of cattle and goods which the inhabitants of Edinburgh had conveyed out of the town for safety. Meanwhile Sir Nich. Poyntz crossed the river, won by force Kinghorn, and burnt it and other towns. But the Lieutenant, thinking the Scots not yet condignly punished for their falsehood, determined not to return without doing them more displeasure. He took order with Sir Chr. Morice for the reshipping of the great artillery, reserving only small pieces to keep the field. He gave commandment for every captain to receive victuals out of the ships for his company for 6 days; and for carriage of the same caused 1,000 of our worst horsemen to be set on foot and the horses divided equally to every captain of hundreds, who, with them and such carts and cattle as we got in the country, conveyed our victuals, tents, &c.
On the 14 May we broke down the pier of Leith "and brent every stick of it, and took forth two goodly ships (fn. 15) and manned them and put them in order to attend on the King's Majesty's ships. Their ballast was cannon shot of iron which we found in the town, to the number of four score thousand. The rest of the Scottish ships meet to serve we brought away, both they and our own almost pestered with the spoil and booties of our soldiers and mariners." That done, we abandoned our ships to return by land. To provoke them to show themselves in the field, we left neither pile, village, town nor house on our way homeward unbrent. "In the meantime of the continuance of our army at Leith" our ships upon the seas were not idle, and left neither ship, crayer nor boat belonging to any village, town, creek or haven, on either side of the Frith, "between Stirling and the mouth of the river, unbrent, or brought away; which containeth in length 50 miles." They also burnt a number of towns and villages on both sides of the water and won a fortress on a strong island called Ynchgarue (Inchgarvie) which they razed and destroyed.
On 15 May we dislodged from Leith and burned every house to the ground. The same night we encamped at a town of Lord Seton's and burned Seton castle, and destroyed his orchards and gardens, the fairest in the country. "We did him the more despite because he was the chief laborer to help their Cardinal out of prison, the only author of their calamity." The same day we burnt a fair town of the Earl of Bothwell's called Hadyngton, with a great nunnery and a house of friars. Next night we encamped beside Dunbar. There the Scots gave a small alarm to our camp; but our watches were ready and they recoiled without doing harm. That night they expected us to burn Dunbar, which we deferred till dislodging our camp next morning, when we did it by 500 of our hackbutters, backed by 500 horsemen. Having watched all night for our coming, they thought themselves safe when we dislodged, and had newly gone to bed, when "their first sleeps closed in with fire; men, women and children were suffocated and brent."
That morning being very misty, we learned by spies that the Scots had assembled a great power "at a strait called the Pease"—lords Seton, Hume and Bouclugh with the whole power of the Marshe and Tyvidall. This day divers of their prickers gave us alarm and unhorsed one between the vanguard and the battle within 200 ft. of the lord Lieutenant. At that alarm Jocke Holly Burton, one of their best prickers, was taken, and confessed that the said Scotch lords were ready at the passage with 10,000 men. As the mist did not break when it was past noon, the vanguard being within a mile of the said passage, and it was dangerous to march on when one could not see 20 yards off, we prepared to encamp on the ground. But at 2 p.m. the sun broke out and the fog cleared off, and every man had new courage, longing to see the enemy, who awaited us at the passage; but seeing us determined to pass through or leave our bones with them, abode but 2 shots of a falcon and "skaled" every man to the high mountains, which were hard at hand and covered with flocks of their people. "The passage was such that, having no let, it was 3 hours before all the army could pass it." The same night the army encamped at a pile called Ranton, 8 miles from our borders, which was a very ill neighbour to Berwick. We razed it to the ground.
Next day, 18 May, the whole army entered Berwick and ended this "viage" with the loss of unneath 40 of the King's people. At the same instant our whole fleet from Leith arrived before Berwick; "as God would be known to favour our Master's cause, who ever preserve his most royal Majesty with long and prosperous life, and many years to reign in the Imperial seat of the monarchy of all Britain."
ii. "Names of the chief boroughs, castles and towns brent and desolated by the King's army being late in Scotland, besides a great number of villages, piles and stedes which I cannot name."
Edinburgh borough and town, with abbey of Holyrood. Lythe town burned, with haven and pier destroyed. Cragmyller castle and village. Newe Bottell abbey. Part of Muskelborowe town, with chapel of Our Lady of Lawret. Preston town and castle. Hadington towns, Freres and nunnery. A castle of Oliver Sancklers. Dunbarre town. Laureston with the Grange. Drylaw. Wester Crag. Enderleg, the pile and the town. Broughton. Chester Felles. Crawnend. Dudistone. Stanhows. The Ficket. Beuerton. Tranent. Shenstone. Markle. Trapren. Kirkland Hyll. Hatherwike. Belton. East Barnes. Bowland. Butterden. Quickwod. Blackborne. Raunton. Byldy, and the tower.
iii. Subjoined to the above is "Other new prosperous adventures of late against the Scots," which will be found noticed further on.
534. Hertford's Invasion of Scotland.
Harl. MS.
6,047, f. 58b.
B. M.
Stevenson's
"Selections,
"3.
(Maitl. Club.)
"Anno regni Regis H. VIII. 35, in March 1544, the Earl of Hertford, being the King's Majesty's liefetenante generall in the parties of the North, was received into the town of Newcastle as followeth, where he lay in gathering and pointing of his men till the latter end of April and the beginning of May, ao 36. H. VIII., 1544":—viz., first rode 3,000 Northern horsemen in jacks with spears: then 8 score nobles and gentlemen in coats of black velvet and chains of gold, 3 trumpets and 3 clarions, 3 officers of arms in their coats of arms, a gentleman bearing a naked sword; then the Earl himself in rich apparel, 3 pages of honor richly clothed, 8 score of his servants in his livery; and, last, 5,000 men on foot.
3 May, Saturday, landed in the Frith with 200 sail, Viscount Lisle being lord Admiral, and burned St. Mynettes. 4 May, the army landed about Newhaven and proceeded forward in 3 battles, "the lord Admiral the forward, the earl of Shrewsbury the rear ward and the earl of Hertford the battell; where, beside Leith, they found the Scots ready with 6,000 horsemen, beside footmen, to stop the passage; but seeing our men so willing to fight with them they fled away, the Cardinal and Governor and other earls first; and there they won Leith town and the haven. The 5th day the galley with certain ships burned the Queen's Ferry on both sides the water and took a fortress called Hynchegarayn (Inchgarvie) and the army proceeded towards Edinburgh." On the 6th they won Edinburgh by assault, and burned and spoiled part thereof with the abbey called Holy rood house and the King's palace adjoining it. Friday and Saturday (fn. 16) following they burned the rest of the town, and the horsemen burned Lawreshton with the Grange, a pile called the West or Wester Cragge, Dreylawe, the pile and town of Enderleghe, Cragge, the mains of Enderleghe, Browton, the Den, the Estre Seeles and the Wester Seeles, Heypricke, the Estre Myles and the Wester Myles. About this time came 4,000 (fn. 17) light horsemen sent by the King, on which "they clear forsook their ships and sent them home laden with spoil and gunshot and returned home on foot through the main country of Scotland, burning both pile, fortress and town which was in their way, and lost scant 40 persons." On 12 May they won the castle and town of Craggemylner; also Cragge Mylls; "and razed the principal towns, and burned Nether Dudstone, Fyckettes, Sand-hindthe(?), Buttretone, with Preston town and castle." On the 15th May they burned Newbottell abbey, part of Musklebrowghe and the chapel of our Lady of Lawrett. On the 16th they burned Leith town and destroyed the haven and pier, razed Seyton Castle and burned Traynnynt, Preston and Grange. "And here was made 45 knights." On the 17th they burned Dunbar, Hadyngton with the Freeres and nunnery, the abbey of Benyston, Stentor, Markhill, Crapzen, the Hill, Lynton Kyrkbye. On the 18th they burned Dunbar town, Telton unto the castle foot, and put the lord Humes and other to flight, "and had the same quietly, and burned Estbarnes, Fawwaynorth, Lees, Rangenside, Barton, Bouterege, Quynwoode and Black-thorne." The 19th they burned Raynton or Raynto and the mains with sundry villages, and razed the pile Byckley. Also they burned a castle of Oliver Seyntclere's Beverton, Markley, Hatherwike, Bowland, Blackbourne, Chestrefelles, Stanhowse, Travent, Trapren, Belton, Crawnend, Shenston, Kyrkland hill, Quyckwood, Byldre and the tower, with divers other towns and villages which I cannot name. The fleet burned Kynkone (Kinghorn?), part of Pettiewaynes Island and divers other."
Pp. 7.
19 May.535. Hertford to Henry VIII.
Add. MS.
32,654, f. 204.
B. M.
Hamilton
Papers,
ii., No. 241.
St. P., v. 390.
Highly commends the service done by the lord Admiral who now repairs to the King. My lord of Shrowisbery, my lord William, my lord Cobham, my lord Clynton and my lord Sturton have also done right honest and painful service, and so have all the noblemen and gentlemen appointed to this journey. Will declare particulars when called to the King's presence; as he would wish to be before the King's voyage to France, and would come and go by post in 10 or 12 days. Mr. Lee, who has served honestly and willingly, brings a plat of Ligh and Edunborow. Berwick, 19 May.
Hol., pp. 2. Add. Sealed. Endd.
R. O.2. Corrected draft of the above, from which it is printed in the State Papers. Shrewsbury and the others commended are substituted for "my lord Dacars, my lord Coniars, my lord Skrop, my lord Euers, Sir Ralph Euers, Sir Ant. Hungarford, Doctor Legh, Houlcroft, and Master Legh that was of Cales."
Pp. 3. Commencement in Hertford's hand, the remainder in Sadler's.
[19 May.] (fn. 18) 536. Wotton to Henry VIII.
R. O.
St. P., ix. 672.
Granvelle has sent Doctors Boisot and Viglius, of the Council, to show him the article to be inserted in the league betwixt the Emperor and the Danes. It is that Henry shall be comprised and that his subjects and the Danes shall traffic freely together, and the Danes shall not aid the Scots against him. To obtain this, they say that they had to grant that the King of Sweden, a very usurper, should also be included; and the Danes will have added to the article, that the Scots may traffic freely in Denmark. Said that it was expedient that the Danes should declare the Scots enemies, but the doctors answered that they would not hear of it, saying they had authority to make friends for their master, not enemies, and instancing the duke of Cleves, who in agreeing with the Emperor did not declare against the French king. Required it to be added that any promise or league between the Danes and Scots should be void. The doctors said that was implied, and they would see whether they might have it expressed; but the Danes were "so strange and hasty" that they doubted whether anything could be altered. Cannot get a copy of the article until it is concluded. The Danish ambassadors have been ready to break off, divers times; but the Emperor cannot lack the commodities of those parts, so that Wotton thinks a peace will be concluded, and Henry will have to ratify it by a certain day.
The Cardinal of Mentz departed a while ago, ill. The Elector of Saxe left on the 14th and the Landgrave on the 16th. All complain of the air of this town. The Viceroy and Dom Francisco de Este are gone towards Metz and Luxenburgh; and Count Guillaume also. Supposes that the Diet will end within this fortnight. Cruzerus, who was the duke of Cleves' ambassador in France and escaped thence with the loss of all his goods, has come to show Wotton that the French king has 800 ships ready in Normandy to send an army into Scotland when Henry has passed over into France. The bp. of Tulle came hither lately, under safe-conduct. He was born the Emperor's subject at Valenciennes and his diocese is in Lorraine, but is reported more French than Imperial. The bp. was first the Cardinal of Lorraine's secretary and obtained an abbey of the French king. Cannot learn whether he comes for any private matter, or whether the Emperor hopes to learn affairs of France from him, or whether he will practise secretly for the French king. Cruzerus is well acquainted with him, but knew not of his being here. The Emperor sends 3,400 lantzknechtes into Italy under John Baptista de Insula. The French king gathered more men of war about Myrandula. During a thunderstorm on Wednesday last King Ferdinand's horse fell in a ditch, but the King was not hurt.
Has just received letters from the Council of the 14th inst. "Written at Spyre, 1544." Signed.
Pp. 4. Add. Endd.. Mens. Maii 1544.
20 May.537. French Wines.
Harl. MS.
442, f. 198.
B. M.
Warrant to make proclamations limiting the prices of Gascon and French wines to 8l. a tun for best Gascon and 6l. a tun for French. 20 May 36 Hen. VIII.
Modern copy, pp. 2.
Soc. of
Antiqu. Procl.,
ii. 133.
2. Another modern copy.
P. 1.
20 May.538. Provisions for Ireland.
R. O.Licence to the King's servant, Philip Roche, merchant of Kinsale, in Ireland, to export into Ireland 500 qr. of wheat, 250 qr. of beans, and 250 qr. of malt. Westm., 20 May 36 Hen. VIII.
Draft, pp. 2. Endd.: A note of the licence for Roche of Ireland.
20 May.539. Fotheringhay.
R. O.Note that Queen Katharine, by patent dated Westm., 20 May 36 Hen. VIII., granted to Thos. Beston the office of particular receiver of her manors of Fodringhey, &c. (named) and all her lands in Northants and Hunts.
Lat., p. 1.
20 May.540. The Privy Council to Hertford.
Hatfield MS.
231, No. 110.
[Cal. of
Cecil MSS.,
Pt. i., 163.]
Haynes'
St. Papers, 35.
The King has received his letters of the 15th and thanks him for his diligence, courage and dexterity. Where it appears that the Scots, notwithstanding this plague caused by their untruth, "of their natural stubbornness and arrogancy" prepare to assemble forces against the 24th (fn. 19) inst., by which time the army will have safely returned into England, Hertford shall, with the advice of the wardens, provide for defence of the Borders before dismissing the army. A Scot lately apprehended here confesses that he was sent, "by the procurement of a Scottish lord, called the lord Massee (fn. 20) to have set fire in London and to have procured by all the ways and means he might the burning and divasting of the same." Albeit that inconvenience is provided for by proclamation, as Hertford will see, no doubt they will practise no less displeasure there than they have attempted here so far off; so that Hertford must, with the wardens' advice, have special regard to Scots upon the Borders. Westm., 20 May 1544. Signed by Chancellor Wriothesley, Norfolk, Suffolk, Russell, Essex, Westminster, Gage and Petre.
P.S.—After appointing the inland men to serve in France, as signified in the Council's last letters, he shall take order with the lord Admiral for their transport to Calais; and "you, my lord Admiral," shall, taking order for conducting hither the King's navy and furnishing the number for defence of the Narrow Seas, put yourself ready to be with them there with diligence.
Pp. 3. Add.
Add. MS.
32,654. f. 206
B. M.
2. Draft of the above, without the postscript, noted in Hamilton Papers, II., No. 242.
In Petre's hand, pp. 2. Endd.: 1544.
20 May.541. The Expedition against Scotland.
R. O. Hertford's warrant to Sadler to pay Ric. Bruche, captain of 100 men, 20 days' wages, at 4s. for himself, 2s. for his petty captain, and 6d. for each man, from 29 April to 18 May, deducting 32l. 13s. 10¼d. for such victuals as he had out of the King's provision. Berwick upon Twede, 20 May 36 Hen. VIII. Signed.
Signed by Bruche, as received the same day by himself.
P. 1.
R. O. 2. The like for John Whytley, deducting 25l. 17s. 8d. Received by himself.
P. 1.
R. O. 3. The like for Thomas Drakes, deducting 32l. 15s. 5½d. Rec. by himself.
P. 1.
R. O. 4. Like warrant to pay George Dawkins, captain of 100 men, conduct money for his petty captain and 47 men from Berwick to York, 100 miles, at 4d. a mile for himself, 2d. for his petty captain, and ½d. for his men, 30 men from Berwick to Hull, 110 miles, and 23 men from Berwick to Westchester, 160 miles. Berwick upon Tweed, 20 May 36 Hen. VIII. Signed.
Received by himself.
P. 1.
R. O. 5. The like for John Egylsfeld, for conduct money of † men from Berwick to †† Yorks., 110 [miles]. Rec. by himself.
P. 1. Much mutilated.
20 May.542. The Justice and Council of Ireland to Henry VIII.
R. O.
St. P., iii. 501.1544.
The mayor and citizens of Waterforde have written that young Geralde, the earl of Kildare's son, lately in Italy, is come to Nantes in Brytayne, where the French king prepares a navy to send him with an army into this realm intending to besiege Waterford. They of Waterford are making bulwarks and defences. William de la Cluse, of Bridges, whose father was the host of the Irishmen resorting thither, has notified this, and certain of Wexford who were prisoners in Brytayne (where all Irishmen are well entertained) were delivered and ordered to adhere to young Gerald, but stole away to another port. They and other prisoners were asked of the strength of McChartie Reagh and McCharte More, especially McCharte Reagh. Although Waterford is a proper port to trade betwixt Brytayne and Scottelande, they will probably arrive first among the McCharties, where there are good havens, and take and garrison Corke which lies more directly to Brytayne. The crew of 500 is a small number wherewith to resist an army, and here is small store of bows, bills or powder, and no strings or spears, and no men to use the ordnance, as Mr. Travers knows. According to their former certificate, for two or three years neither guns nor powder have come from beyond sea, nor are merchants suffered to bring artillery out of England. Beg that all necessary munition may be sent with the Deputy. It may be said that the Irishmen and we together could resist 9,000 or 10,000 Frenchmen, and doubtless all the country would join us against strangers; but if young Gerald came, both the McCharties, one of whom is son to his aunt Elionour, will join him, and likewise Occhonor (who, since the Deputy left, refuses to speak with us) and all the Geraldines except Desmonde. Have determined to retain 200 galloglasse, and willed Ormonde and Dermonde to retain as many more. Dublin, 20 May 36 Hen. VIII. Signed by Brabazon, Alen, Ormond, Dublin, Meath, "Jenico of G.," "P. Barnewall lord of T.," Aylmer, Oliver baron of Louth, Bathe, Lutrell, Cusake and Basnet.
P.S.—Received letters from the Council of the bruit of young Gerald's being in Bretten. Without him the Frenchmen will take little advantage here; but, unless a navy is here, they will so keep the havens and seas that we "shall not be suffered to advertise your Highness of their proceedings."
Pp. 3. Add. Endd.: 1544.

Footnotes

1 Ruding (II. 86) says there is no date to the MS. Oopy of the proclamation of the 36th year in the library of the Society of Antiquaries; "but Mr. Leake, p. 194, dates it from Stow's Annals on the 16th of May 1544. The same date is given to the raising of the prices of gold and silver in Cooper's Chronicle, folio 323a; and in Holinshed."
2 Apparently each of these letters was dated and despatched the day after the draft. See Nos. 427, 466.
3 De la prinse de laquelle non se contentans, aucluns souldars, faisans les braves, pensoient d'emporter led, chasteau avec les angles, dont ilz furent bien repoussez a grandz copz d'artillerie.
4 Inchgarvie.
5 Hume.
6 May 12th.
7 These five articles are as in Wharton and Bowes's first and third instructions. See Nos. 243 (2) and 337 (2).
8 See No. 513.
9 In return for the mission of Chantonnay.
10 "Car oultre leaige il est si tres mal des jàmbes que eust (qu. est?) merveille quil se peult soustenir, et sil est question (apres long sejour ou il a este) de se mectre en travail sen jour perdre." The text seems to be corrupt, but the general sense is obvious.
11 May 15th.
12 Printed "at London in Paul's Church Yard by Reynolde Wolfe at the. sign of the Brazen Serpent anno 1544. Cum privilegio ad imprimendum solum." A copy is in the Grenville Library. Reprinted [by Sir John Graham Dalyell], in "Fragments of Scotish History," Edin. 1798.
13 See Vol. XII. Part i. No. 1286.
14 The 7th.
15 The Salamander and Unicorn.
16 May 9th and 10th.
17 Blotted in MS., and so misread as 2,000 by Stevenson.
18 See No. 556.
19 28th in the draft, § 2.
20 Name left blank in § 2.