Entry Book
January 1694, 1-10

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William A. Shaw (editor)

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1935

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'Entry Book: January 1694, 1-10', Calendar of Treasury Books, Volume 10: 1693-1696 (1935), pp. 440-449. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=82123 Date accessed: 23 July 2014.


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January 1694, 1–10

Letters Patent, Privy Seals, Royal Sign Manuals and Warrants, Treasury Warrants, Commissions, Orders, Letters, Memorials, Reports, and other Entries: all not of the nature of Treasury Minutes.
Date. Nature and Substance of the Entry. Reference.
1693–4. Jan. 1. Additional establishment under the King's sign manual for the Danish Forces in the King's service: to commence from 1693, April 1: Guilders Stivers fin 42 days; King's Warrant Book XVII, p. 397.
for a second aide de camp to the Duke of Wurtemberg as Lieut. General to make up the number usually allowed to a Lieut. General 220 10
to the seven Fouriers belonging to the Battalion of [Danish] Guards “to make up their pay at 33 guilders 1½ stivers, being equal to the Serjeants, 9 guilders 11½ stivers each in 42 days” 67
for the 43 Fouriers belonging to the other Battalion of the Danish Forces, 10 stivers each to make up 24 guilders each in 42 days 21 10
for the 28 servants allowed to the officers of the Battalion of [Danish] Foot Guards to make up their pay equal to that of a private soldier, viz. 14 guilders 14 stivers in 42 days as is allowed to the servants of an English Regiment [viz. an increase of] 6 guilders 14 stivers each in 42 days 187 12
496 12½
Henry Guy to the Earl of Ranelagh to report on the enclosed petition of the inhabitants of Manchester and Stockport concerning a debt of 186l. 13s.d. due from some of Col. Byerley's Regiment of Horse who were quartered therein 1692. (This was cancelled and referred to Mr. Fox.) Out Letters (General) XIV, p. 179.
Jan. 2. Treasury warrant to the Customs Cashier to pay William Wekett 1½l. 10s. 0d. for 1693, Christmas quarter, as messenger attending the Customs. Money Book XII, p. 162.
Jan. 2. Treasury allowance of William Wekett's bill for 14l. 10s. 0d. for 1693, Xmas quarter, as messenger attending the Treasury. Money Book XII, p. 162.
Treasury warrant to the Receipt for tallies on the Hereditary and Temporary Excise for 1,500l. to William Smith in repayment of so much lent by him thereon Dec. 23 last. Ibid, p. 144.
Henry Guy to the Auditor of the Receipt to issue 2,213l. 2s. 5d. to the Earl of Ranelagh on any unsatisfied order in his name for the service of the Forces: to be issued out of loans on the Exchequer in general transferable to the next supply to be granted: and to be paid to Sir Joseph Herne and Sir Stephen Evance to be by them remitted to Frankfort or Italy for the Duke of Savoy, for the loss by exchange on the moneys returned [forwarded] to him last year. (Same dated Jan. 17 to said Earl to so pay same.) Disposition Book XII, p. 16, 21.
Same to same to issue 5,000l. to Edward Russell upon the unsatisfied order in his name for the Navy and Victualling: to be issued out of loans by said Russell or his cashier upon credit of the 400,000l. vote: and to be by him applied to make good a credit given by Sir John Houblon at Cadiz for the victualling of Sir Francis Wheeler's squadron. Ibid, p. 16.
Same to the Customs Commissioners. You are to prepare your report concerning the tobacco bonds and to attend my Lords with the same on Saturday morning next; and also give them an account of the port books “concerning which you have been long since written unto.” Out Letters (General) XIV, p. 179.
Same to Mr. Shales, enclosing an account [missing] of money paid by the Navy Treasurer to ships etc. between Dec. 21 and 31 last. Ibid.
Same to Mr. Blathwayte to procure a royal warrant to authorise the Paymasters of the Forces, Ireland, to pay 1,250l. 17s. 11½d. to the Commissioners of Transports to complete the charge of freight and provisions for the transporting four Regiments of English Foot to Ostend. Ibid.
Treasury order to the Customs Commissioners to observe (a) infra. Out Letters (Customs) XIII, p. 88.
Prefixing: (a) Order of the King in Council, dated Whitehall, Dec. 28 last, that the ships which shall trade to Newfoundland, and have not permission already to go, shall not be excepted from the embargo declared the 14th inst., supra, p. 429, but shall be liable thereto: and that all ships employed in the fishery of this kingdom and all foreign ships and vessels employed in the coasting trade of this kingdom and all ships employed in their Majesties' immediate service shall be exempted out of the said present embargo.
Treasury reference to the Surveyor General of Crown Lands of the petition of Sir John Wynne et al., on behalf of the gent, of the county of Denbigh, praying a grant of nine shops under the County Hall at Wrexham. Reference Book VII, p. 19.
Jan. 2. Treasury warrant to the Surveyor General of Crown Lands for a particular of the sandy and oozy grounds near Plymouth found by inquisition July 13 last, in order to a lease thereof to John Warren and Benj. Hingeston, gent., for 60 years at a rent of a sixth part: but with the exception of a parcel of marsh ground of about 23 acres in the parish of Aveton Gifford and below the bridge there on the south side of the river, reaching from the said bridge to Efford lime kilns, in the possession of William Cholwich, gent.; another parcel called the Little Marsh, being 25 acres of marsh ground in the parish of Modbury, in the possession of George Veale; another parcel of land called Puslinch Marsh in the parish of Newton Ferrers on the south side of the river Yealm, being about 10 acres, in the possession of John Uppeton, gent.; and another parcel of marsh called Efford Green in Modbury, being about three acres, in the possession of George Ley, gent. Warrants not Relating to Money, XIV, pp. 254–6.
Prefixing: report by William Tailer, dated 1690, Aug. 4, on the petition of John Davison and John Warren, on the order of reference of 1690, July 16. The Solicitor [General] is of opinion that petitioners may have a patent for 14 years of the sole use and benefit of certain engines or instruments for draining and making profitable such lands as are at present overflowed with water. But I cannot advise a grant of the lands recovered thereby on a rent of a tenth the profit, there having never been any grant in fee out of the Crown upon such consideration, though several grants of derelict lands have been made since 1660 on consideration of recovery and improvement, particularly to the late Countess Dowager of Peterborough and others in 1664. But it seems they made no benefit of this grant, for in 1697 [sic ? for 1679] they had not accounted for anything to the Crown and were willing to surrender; upon which George Blunt and others petitioned for the like grant, alleging they had found out a way to recover them: and there have been several other like patents desired, but little or no profit made thereby for that either the lands intended were claimed by the Lords of the adjacent manors or other proprietors. If the present petition be granted I advise an exception of the lands already recovered and improved. It is certain they must be at great charges if they bring this project to any perfection. The ancient way of passing grants of this nature is for a commission of inquiry to issue to entitle the Crown before the grant pass.
Jan. 3. Royal warrant to the Attorney or Solicitor General for a great seal for a grant to Michael Smith, Vicar of Hendon, and his successors vicars there, for ever of an annuity, yearly rent or portion of 100l. out of the rectory of the parish of Hendon and the tithes of corn, grain and hay within the parish or manor of Hendon: being part of the forfeited estate of William, Marquess of Powys, found by an inquisition taken at the Court House in the parish of St. Clements Danes 1690, Sept. 22, before John Radford, esq.: the King being given to understand that the profits of the said vicarage (the perpetual advowson of which is likewise forfeited by the attainder of said Marquess) amounts to a very small sum, wherefore he is desirous to make an augmentation thereof as royal bounty, having received a good account of the industry and faith fulness of the present vicar. The said sum is to be hereby paid by the bailiff or receiver of the premises. Or if the said revenue chance to be paid into the Exchequer it is hereby to be issued out to said vicar. King's Warrant Book XVII, pp. 299–300.
Jan. 3. Royal warrant to the Clerk of the Signet for a privy seal for 30,000l. to John Richards as imprest for the service of the Office of Treasurer of the Chamber. King's Warrant Book XVII, p. 301.
Royal sign manual for 20,000l. to William, Earl of Portland, Keeper of the Privy Purse, without account: for the use and service of the Privy Purse. (Money warrant dated Jan. 8 hereon.) (Money order dated Jan. 9 hereon.) Ibid, p. 301. Money Book XII, p. 163. Order Book IV, p. 48.
Money warrant for 10,000l. to said Earl to complete 20,000l. for the Privy Purse, as by the privy seal of 1689, April 19, and royal sign manual of 1692–3, Jan. 12, supra, p. 10. (Money order dated Jan. 9 hereon.) Money Book XII, p. 163. Order Book IV, p. 48.
Same for 10,000l. to Bartholomew Fillingham and Bernard Eales in repayment of so much lent by them on credit of the Exchequer in general, viz. 5,000l. to each, with 6 per cent. interest: to be satisfied out of loans to be made by said Fillingham and Eales or by any others at their nomination on credit of the next Aids which shall be granted in this Session of Parliament. Money Book XII, p. 163.
Same for 5,300l. to Lady Margaret Stawell in repayment of the like loan: [to be paid etc. in same manner]. Ibid.
Treasury warrant to the Receipt for tallies on the Hereditary and Temporary Excise for 12,000l. to Edward Nicholas in repayment of so much lent by him thereon Dec. 23 last. Ibid, p. 144.
Same to Brook Bridges, an Auditor of Imprests, to allow 40l. to Edward Seymour in his account for one year to 1693, Sept. 29, as Clerk of the Hanaper: being the usual allowance for the charge of passing said account. Ibid, p. 165.
Prefixing: said Auditor's certificate that said account has been delivered in.
Henry Guy to the Navy Commissioners. I have laid before my Lords yours of the 21st relating to the proportioning of the 1,570l. 16s. 11d. arisen by the thirds of Prizes to the purposes directed by the Act of Parliament for Prizes. It is to be divided into four equal parts and distributed to the four heads or branches to which they are applicable, viz.: a quarter to the Commissioners for Sick and Wounded to be employed in taking care of such seamen as are put on shore from their Majesties' ships for cure: a quarter to the Chest at Chatham for pensions and smart money to seamen wounded in their Majesties' service: a quarter for necessaries put on board for the relief of sick and wounded men at sea: a quarter for bounties to widows, children and parents of seamen slain in the service. Disposition Book XII, p. 16.
Jan. 3. Henry Guy to the Auditor of the Receipt to issue 1,500l. to William de Nassau on any unsatisfied order in his name as Master of the Robes for the service of the Robes: [it is probable that the words “on any unsatisfied order are a clerical slip and that the present sum is identical with that supra, p. 437, of the royal sign manual of Dec. 27 last. The insertion of the words in question would make it refer to a prior dated credit]: to be issued out of loans to be made by said Nassau or by any others at his nomination on credit of the Hereditary and Temporary Excise: see infra, p. 446. Disposition Book XII, p. 17.
Treasury order to the Customs Commissioners to observe (a) infra. Out Letters (Customs) XIII, pp. 89–90.
Prefixing: (a) Order of the King in Council, dated Whitehall, Dec. 28 last, approving the Customs Commissioners' report presented this day by the Committee of Trade and Plantations, with a list of ships with 136 English seamen which the London merchants desire may be permitted to proceed to Virginia and Maryland, and a list of ships with 66 English seamen which they desire may be permitted to go to Jamaica. The embargo lately laid is hereby to be taken off the said ships. Further the ship Tryall, John Horton master, 11 English mariners, is to be permitted to sail to New England. After the sailing of the convoys for those parts the Customs Commissioners are to send to the Committee for Trade and Plantations a list of all ships cleared before that time to Virginia, Maryland and Jamaica.
Appending: (1) list of ships now ready to sail with the next convoy to Virginia and Maryland: Providence, Capt. Hurle, 250 tons, 20 men, Edward Carlton [owner]; London Merchant, Capt. Smith. 250 tons, 20 men. John Cooper [owner]; Canterbury. Hen. Tregany master, 250 tons, 20 men, James Brain [owner]; Bird, Jos. Peacock master, 200 tons, 16 men (Portsmouth), Perry and Lane [owners]: Mary Hopewell, John Tanner master, 250 ton, 20 men, Michaell Yoakly [owner]; Concord, John Bayley master, 300 tons, 24 men, John March [owner]; Susannah and Mary, Capt. England, 200 tons, 16 men, Jerim Bateman [owner].
(2) a list of ships now ready to sail with the next convoy to Jamaica: Richard and Sarah, John Marshall master, 350 tons, 30 men; Amelia, John Robinson master, 200 tons, 18 men; Gilbert and Ann, David Needless master, 150 tons, 12 men; Mary, John Wedge master, 60 tons, 6 men.
Treasury reference to same of the petition of the planters and merchants interested in Barbados against an Act passed there for regulating the freights of sugars and other goods for Europe; said petition being referred to the Treasury by the Privy Council Dec. 7 last. Reference Book VII, p. 19.
Jan. 4. Treasury warrant to the Receipt for tallies on the Hereditary and Temporary Excise for 100l. to Paul Joddrell in repayment of so much lent by him thereon Dec. 22 last. Money Book XII, p. 144.
Henry Guy to the Auditor of the Receipt to issue as follows out of the Exchequer, viz.: l. Disposition Book XII, p. 17.
to the Treasurer of the Navy for the Victualling: out of loans on the 400,000l. vote 12,000
to ditto towards answering [Navy] bills in course: out of ditto 3,000
to ditto for buying the Talbot ketch: out of ditto 380
to the Earl of Ranelagh towards the arrears of his office [of Paymaster of the Forces]: to be issued out of 927l. 8s. 0d. of arrears of taxes; 48l. 6s. 0d. of the 21d. per barrel and 24l. 6s. 0d. of the Double Excise: making 1,000l. in all 1,000
to me [Guy] for secret service: out of the small branches of the revenue 100
£16,480
Same to the Navy Commissioners to make forth bills for 3,916l. 1s. 8d. to the Victualling Commissioners, being the sum which the Treasury Lords have consented to allow them for 6 per cent. discount on the tallies for 65,268l. which have been put into said Victuallers' hands on credit of the Additional Impositions: being for the extraordinary and ordinary service of the Victualling. The said bill is to be assigned for payment out of the tallies now remaining in the Treasurer of the Navy's hands on credit of the said impositions. Ibid, p. 19.
Same to Mr. Shales, enclosing an account [missing] from the Navy Commissioners of moneys received and paid by the Navy Treasurer between Dec. 8 and 14 last. Out Letters (General) XIV, p. 180.
Same to Mr. Blathwayt to procure the King's hand to the two enclosed warrants [missing] for making out debentures for Col. Mathew's Regiment and for the Company of Miners. Ibid.
Same to the King's Remembrancer. Send my Lords a copy of [the duplicates of] the assessments to the 2s. Aid [1 Wm. and Mary, Sess. 2, c. 1] in every place, county or office as prescribed by the Act for said Aid. (The like letter to Sir Robert Howard, Auditor of the Receipt, for copies of the like [duplicates] as transmitted to him.) Ibid.
Treasury reference to Mr. Ryley [Surveyor General of Woods, Trent South] of the petition of the Marquess of Winchester, praying for repairs to the rails and lodge of Burleigh Lodge in New Forest. Reference Book VII, p. 20.
Jan. 5. Same to the Commissioners of Prizes. You are to put to sale the ship St. Margarett of Plymouth, notwithstanding the order of Dec. 21 last, supra, p. 434. Ibid.
Jan. 6. Henry Guy to Mr. Duncomb to make payment as easy and speedily as possibly you can of the tallies on the Excise for 875l. to George Tollett for the Commissioners of Accounts. Disposition Book XII, p. 17.
Same to the Receiver of Crown Revenues for co. Kent to pay into the Exchequer 50l. of the land revenues of Kent, Surrey etc.: to be for the wages to the keepers of Greenwich Park to Michaelmas last. (Same to the Auditor of the Receipt to issue same to the Earl of Dorset for said keepers.) Ibid.
Same to the Excise Commissioners. My Lords desire you to forbear repaying to yourselves 2,000l. on your tallies on the Hereditary and Temporary Excise, they having a present occasion for that sum. They therefore desire you to pay it into the Exchequer. Ibid, p. 19.
Same to Mr. Fox to report on the enclosed petition [missing] of Brigadier Hastings for taking off some cheques upon [the payment of] his Regiment of Foot. Out Letters (General) XIV, p. 180.
Treasury reference to the Excise Commissioners of the petition of Martin Ballard and Geo. Hopkins of Evesham, co. Worcester, shewing that they were sureties for William Martin for 737l. of Excise money as part of a great sum which said Martin was to return [forward to London by exchange]: therefore praying that a sum of 540l. due to petitioners from the Transports Commissioners may be allowed towards said sum: they being ready to pay the remainder: and that process against them may be stopped. Reference Book VII, p. 19.
Jan. 8. Treasury warrant to the Receipt for tallies on the Hereditary and Temporary Excise for 1,500l. to William de Nassau in repayment of so much lent by him thereon the 5th inst. [see supra, p. 444]. Money Book XII, p. 144.
Money warrant for 490l. to the executors of Sir William Dutton Colt, late Envoy Extraordinary to the Princes of Brunswick and Luneburg: for 99 days, May 24 last to Aug. 30 last (being the day of his death), on his ordinary of 5l. a day. (Money order dated Jan. 9 hereon.) Ibid, p. 164. Order Book IV, p. 49.
Same for 2,191l. 8s. 10d. to same for a bill of said Colt's extraordinaries in said service: as allowed by Secretary Sir John Trenchard. (Money order dated Jan. 9 hereon.) Money Book XII, p. 164 Order Book IV, p. 49.
Appending: said bill: l. s. d.
for the charges of his equipage and making the campaign 1,262 13 0
funeral charges and mourning 316 17 6
charges in bringing home his lady and family and other contingent expenses 611 18 4
£2,191 8 10
Henry Guy to the Customs Commissioners to report on the enclosed extract [missing] of a memorial from Sir Edwyn Stede. Out Letters (General) XIV, p. 180.
Jan. 8. Henry Guy to the Navy Commissioners, enclosing an order of the Admiralty Lords, whereby the collectors of Customs [at the various ports] are to pay conduct money after the rate of 1d. a mile to such seamen as the commanders of their Majesties' ships shall put on board merchant ships to conduct them into port, [so as] to enable them to [pass from the port of landing to the naval port in order to] return to their ships. Out Letters (General) XIV, p. 181.
The Treasury Lords desire you to take the said collectors' oaths of what money they have paid and to whom and that you reimburse them upon such oath.
Appending: said Admiralty order undated. By the impressing of men belonging to the merchant ships coming home from foreign parts before they arrive at the designed ports the said ships are very much delayed and sometimes hazarded for want of men. All commanders of ships and officers employed in pressing are hereby charged when they take any men from any returning merchant ships to put on them a like number of men of the ship's company under their command, who on arrival are forthwith to return to their Majesties' ships to which they belong. The commanders are to give such men certificates giving all particulars of the man and his ship and the merchant ship and on production thereof they are to be paid conduct money at the above rate either by the Navy Commissioners at London. Portsmouth and Plymouth or by the Customs collectors in other ports.
Same to Mr. Sotherne [Secretary to the Admiralty]. In reply to yours of Dec. 23 last, forwarding the above Admiralty order, my Lords have sent it to the Navy Commissioners with instructions as above. Ibid.
Treasury warrant to the Customs Commissioners to continue Sir Edwyn Stade as a Commissioner of the Four and a Half per cent. Duty and collector of the Plantation Duty in Barbados. Out Letters (Customs) XIII, p. 91.
Edward Cranfeild: as a same.
John Mills: as Comptroller of the said Duties ibid.
William Moore: as one of the chief searchers at Bridgetown, Barbados.
Richard Nicholson, Henry Tildsley and Thomas Dunkin: as waiters at Bridgetown.
John Pare: as collector, waiter and searcher in the port of Hole and Reids Bay.
Daniell Hooper: as same in the port of Austins Bay.
Edward Denney: as receiver and collector at Spights Bay and the bays adjacent.
John How: as waiter and searcher ibid.
Jan. 9. Henry Guy to Mr. Aaron Smith. By my letters of 1692, Dec. 11, and 1693, May 23, you were directed to prosecute John Haley of Winchester to bring him to account for the timber, ut supra, p. 212. Sir Christopher Wren has certified my Lords that Haley has come to a fair account and desires that he may be discharged from further prosecution. You are to discharge him from all process upon his paying the Crown law charges. Out Letters (General) XIV, p. 182.
Jan. 9. Henry Guy to the Customs Commissioners, enclosing a letter [missing] from Mr. Blathwaite. Please attend the Committee of Trade and Plantations accordingly. Out Letters (General) XIV, p. 182.
Treasury reference to same of the petition of Nathaniell Ponder for the first vacancy of a landwaiter's or deputy searcher's place, London port. Reference Book VII, p. 19
Jan. 10. Royal warrant to the Attorney or Solicitor General for a great seal to determine and make void from 1693, Christmas, the annuity of 500l. granted to Sir Algernoon May by the patent of 1689, Aug. 29, in recompense for the office of Keeper of the Records in the Tower: and [in lieu thereof] to hereby grant him an annuity of 250l. as from the said Christmas last. King's Warrant Book XVII, pp. 302–4
Further, by royal warrant of 1688–9, March 12, William Petyt of the Inner Temple, London, was appointed to take care of the said records in the Tower, and by another royal warrant of 1689, July 25, Henry Powle, then Master of the Rolls, was directed to grant to the said Petyt (as a person of trust and very considerable knowledge in records) the office of Keeper of the said Records for life, which was accordingly done, “and which we do hereby ratify and confirm,” but no salary was contained in the said warrant for the said Petyt, “and we taking into our consideration that altho' antiently the said office was an office of great benefit and advantages, yet since the Court of Wards and Liveries was by Act of Parliament taken away, the bare profits of the said office have not been sufficient to bear the necessary charge thereof,” and considering the said Petyt's faithful services and his charges in maintaining able and sufficient clerks and otherwise to look after, sort, kalendar and put in order the said records for public use, we are pleased to allow him an annuity, fee or salary of 250l. per an. from Christmas last. The present bill is hereby to contain the grant of said fee to him: to be payable out of First Fruits and Tenths by tallies of pro thereon. Further, if Petyt do survive the said May he shall hereby thenceforward enjoy the salary of 500l. per an.
Royal sign manual for 10,000l. to Thomas Neale, esq., Master and Worker of the Mint, upon account for the expense and service of the Mint, to be paid out of the moneys of the Coinage Duty [in the Customs]. (Money warrant dated Jan. 15 hereon.) (Money order dated Jan. 27 hereon.) Ibid, p. 304. Money Book XII, p. 166. Order Book IV, p. 51.
Royal warrant, under the King's sign manual, to the Clerk of the Signet for a privy seal for 50,000l. to Edward Nicholas, Treasurer to the Queen, “for the use and service of us the said Queen and to be disposed of as we the said Queen shall direct”: without account. King's Warrant Book XVII, p. 305.
Royal constitution and appointment, under the King's sign manual, of Sir Edwyn Stede to the office of Receiver of all rents, revenues, prizes, fines, escheats, forfeitures and other profits and duties whatsoever payable to the King within the colony of Barbados; to receive same “and all arrears thereof (such duties and impositions only excepted for the receipt whereof we have otherwise provided): and to answer and pay the same to our use towards the support of our Government of Barbados as also to account for the same pursuant to our directions in that behalf”: being a continuation of the like office granted to him by the sign manual of Charles II, dated 1682, Dec. 20: the present King having received ample satisfaction of Stede's ability, faithfulness and care therein. Ibid, p. 306.
Jan. 10. Henry Guy to Mr. Shales, enclosing an account [missing] from the Navy Commissioners of money received and paid by the Navy Treasurer between Dec. 15 and 21 last. Out Letters (General) XIV, p. 182.
Same to the Earl of Ranelagh to report on the enclosed petition [missing] of several tradesmen in Exeter concerning a debt due from the Regiment late under Sir Robert Paiton. Ibid, p. 184.
Treasury reference to the Attorney General of Lady Anglesey's petition, praying a grant of some derelict lands lying within the bar of Appledore, near Barnstaple. Reference Book VII, p. 19.
Same to Mr. Aaron Smith of the petition of Francis West, shewing that he made it his livelihood to buy books and pictures and sell them again; that he was prosecuted at the Old Bailey for some of them and fined 200 marks, “which he did not keep out of prejudice to the Government: prays his fine may be discharged, being turned over to the Common side.” Ibid.
Same to the Surveyor General of Crown Lands of the petition of Thomas Neale to the King, shewing that he was at considerable charges in prosecuting the East India Company for the King's share of prizes, upon promise to be allowed a third part of what was recovered, but they have obtained a discharge for 18,000l.: further that there is a yearly rent of 500l. payable to the Crown out of the New River water, [which rent] is now in grant for about 20 years [to come]: therefore praying a grant for 40 years in reversion thereof [as in lieu of said share of the prizes]. Ibid, p. 20.