K. 1565. 126.
179. Bernardino De Mendoza to the King.
I am entertaining and making much of Julius to the best of my
ability in accordance with your Majesty's orders, and because I see
how well he is acting in your Majesty's service. In consequence of
Walsingham's enmity towards him the Queen is pressing him about
the money he owes ; and he is therefore in difficulties. He informs
me that Secretary Pinart has sent word to the English ambassador
that, in consequence of information they had received of the
sailing of your Majesty's fleet, they had despatched the news to
his mistress, and had offered her at the same time the aid specified
in the treaties. The King had also taken into his service the
Swiss troops who had surrendered to him, and they were travelling
by short marches, in order that they might delay until they learnt
whether she needed them. Although the King was following up
the reiters he (Pinart) could assure him (Stafford) that it was with
no intention of harming them—which is exactly what I suspected.
At this juncture I received your Majesty's despatches, and whilst
thanking Julius for his advices I said that, to prove to him with
what sincerity they were treating the English ambassador here, I
could assure him that on the 4th November your Majesty's fleet
had not sailed, which greatly pleased him.
Julius writes me under date of 19th and 25th that the Queen
was again in treaty with Casimir for the coming of 6,000 reiters
and 8,000 infantry to France, and she was now quite confident that
your Majesty had come to an understanding with the king of
Scotland, and that these naval preparations had for their object
to place him in possession of the English crown. In conversation
on this subject with the person through whom we communicate, (fn. 1)
Julius said he did not believe your Majesty was so ill-advised as
to incur such a great expense for the benefit of a person so far from
being a Catholic as the king of Scotland, whilst neglecting to assert
your own rights. This will show how well disposed he is to your
Every merchant's letter, and every traveller coming from
Flanders, says that the duke of Parma is going over to England.
I try to stifle this rumour with the best arguments I can find in
furtherance of your Majesty's instructions.
Sampson's advices enclosed are taken from letters from Don
Antonio that I have seen. Friar Diego Carlos was with him.
Pardin says that the Queen keeps so close a watch upon Don
Antonio that it is impossible for him to escape without her
knowledge.—Paris, 4th December 1587.
K. 1565. 127.
180. Advices from Flushing.
The earl of Leicester is leaving for England, his baggage being
already shipped. He is on bad terms with the rebels. (fn. 2) They have
stationed 60 ships, great and small, in the river at Antwerp to
prevent the duke of Parma from going over to England with the
ships he has armed in Antwerp. They expect 20 more vessels from
Holland, which they intend to place at the mouth of the Ghent
canal to prevent the sailing of the ships the Duke has at that town.
They are in fear lest the Duke should use his Antwerp vessels to
seize the ships at the island of Tregus (Ter Goes).
K. 1565. 130.
181. Bernardino De Mendoza to Secretary Idiaquez.
In case the amount to be granted to the secretary of the late
queen of Scotland has not been decided, I may say in answer to
your question that he might be given 30 crowns (a month).
Captain Pardin says there is a soothsayer in England who
affirms that Don Antonio will pass the month of February in
Portugal, and that he will be very peaceful and quiet in March.
The man has foretold many things truly to the Queen, and I fully
expect that in this case he is not lying ; because as he (Don Antonio)
cannot leave England, I hope to God our people will take him back
in their galleons to Lisbon, in the month that the prophet mentions,
and without war.
Colonel Semple has arrived here and writes the enclosed letter to
you. He has asked me whether I have any message from you for
him, and I have told him I have received nothing. I am welcoming
him to the best of my ability, and will so continue to do until I hear
from you what I am to say to him. I have done nothing but listen
to him in the matters he has broached to me, and instruct him
how to bear himself here towards those who speak to him.—Paris,
6th December 1587.
182. Advices from England.
On the 1st Morris returned with the duke of Parma's reply, and
on the same day the Queen sent word to the commissioners that
they were to make ready and leave shortly. The baggage and
attendants were sent off on the 4th and the commissioners
themselves left on the 8th. They have added another commissioner
to those whose name I reported, Sir Amias Paulet, who was the
keeper of the queen of Scots. They have received letters from
Lord Hundson, who is at Berwick, telling them that Scottish affairs
are going very badly, the Scots having taken up arms and had an
encounter with the English, three companies of whom they defeated.
They had also captured a fortified house belonging to an English
gentleman 20 miles from Berwick. Hunsdon asserts that the
duke of Parma has an understanding with Scotland. This news
has caused an immense sensation and uneasiness here, and great
activity is being exercised in preparations for defence by land and
sea. Urgent orders were sent to the captain of the Sluys to raise
4,000 men to defend the port of Berwick, as they fear that if the
duke of Parma has an understanding with Scotland an attempt
may be made there, as the harbour is a good one. The earls of
Cumberland and Huntingdon are being sent to the north with
large commissions, whilst Colonel Norris is going to Milford in Wales,
Grenville to Plymouth, Raleigh to Cornwall, George Carew to the
Isle of Wight, and others elsewhere. They are working day and
night making ready the Queen's ships and others, and have decided
to divide them into three fleets. Drake is to leave as soon as
possible with three Queen's ships and three pinnaces, for the
purpose of collecting all the merchant ships there are between
Portsmouth and Bristol, which have orders to make ready and
await him at Plymouth, so that he may have a fleet of 30 sail to
take to the coast of Portugal, although they say he will have
more. Another fleet of 20 sail, under Admiral Winter, is to go to
Scotland and Ireland, and the rest of the ships will be under the
Lord Admiral to cruise in the Channel, all the Queen's ships being
in this fleet. They are hourly expecting two pataches which they
have sent to the coast of Portugal for intelligence. There is a
commission out here in London to raise 10,000 men to guard the
person of the Queen, and they say another 10,000 will be
made ready to protect the city. Chains are to be put across all
the streets. A council of war sits frequently, consisting of six
members of the Council and others of little experience in warfare,
but they expect the earl of Leicester within three days, as his factor
has already arrived. They have summoned the nobles suspected
of Catholic leanings and it is feared they will be imprisoned
Orders have been given that any person who rises, or makes any
disturbance whatever, shall be hanged at once on the spot without
form of judgment. They delayed the departure of the commissioners
to the duke of Parma, on the ground that the passport
sent was not ample enough, and they requested that another in
fuller terms should be sent, the object being to delay matters and
discover something. They fear the Duke may be entertaining them
the better to carry out his design. On the 6th they received news
of the defeat of the reiters and the departure of the Swiss, a sad
piece of intelligence for them, although they are reluctant to
believe it, and Stafford has written saying it was exaggerated.
Immediately after this the Queen ordered the commissioners to
make ready to go within four days, and they will surely go, as
there is nothing more for them to prepare. Even if they learnt
anything they would be obliged to dissemble, although Paulet, who
is the earl of Leicester's and Walsingham's right hand, is throwing
every obstacle in the way of their going, and has given the Queen
a list of reasons why peace cannot be made without danger. It will
be well for the Duke to continue in his course, as his reputation with
them is high, and they say that they will do everything on his word. (fn. 3)
They are sending to Scotland one Douglas who was here as the
king of Scots ambassador, and who promises that he will make
peace between the Queen and the King, if the kings of Spain and
France do not stand in the way. This Douglas is a creature of
Walsingham and the Queen, and they treat him as ambassador,
whereas he is really nothing of the sort. (fn. 4) On the 8th instant news
came from Antwerp that a fleet of 250 sail, with 30,000 men and
400 artillery mules, had sailed from Lisbon. This news alarmed
them so, although they do not believe it, that they are hurrying
forward harder than ever, as they are determined to give battle at
sea in such case. They are making musket proof shields for their
ships, and many new inventions and devices of fire, to burn the
sails of the enemy's ships.
Note.—A note at foot of the above letter accounts for certain
omissions and incoherences in it, by saying that the cipher key is so
worn out as to make it impossible properly to decipher the despatch.
K. 1565. 137.
183. Bernardino De Mendoza to the King.
Bruce has written me the enclosed letter by Captain Forster, who
was the man that accompanied him, but the letter he mentions in
this one has not arrived yet. (fn. 5) I have told the captain that the
resolution adopted by the Scottish lords makes it difficult for your
Majesty to help them, and that it would be better therefore that he
should go and communicate his message to the duke of Parma, to
whom I send a copy of Bruce's letter. The best way will be for him
to entertain the captain there (i.e., in Flanders) by telling him that the
time has not yet arrived to deal with these matters. I do not wish
to arouse the suspicions of Scotsmen by letting them see him stay
here ; and it will not be desirable for him to return to Scotland.
Julius is much pressed by his creditors, and by the account which
is being demanded of him, and has begged me to signify this to
your Majesty, in order that you may grant him some favour. I have
written to him that I will do so, although I feared that pressure of
affairs and the great cost of the fleet would prevent a very prompt
reply being sent. I was certain, however, that your Majesty would
bear his services in mind. I thus held out hopes to him until I
could hear what your Majesty decided, as it is advisable to keep him
well disposed at the present time. (fn. 6) Walsingham is pressing
him greatly for the account of the money.—Closed at Paris,
22nd December 1587.
K. 1565. 139.
184. Bernardino De Mendoza to the King.
Although I have nothing from England of later date than the
25th ultimo, which news I sent in my last, and the present intelligence
is still earlier, I think well to send it as it comes from an
Englishman with whom I am in communication here, and contains
some points of importance as showing the difficulty encountered by
the Queen in fitting out so few ships, let alone the great number
they talk about. There has been no arrival from England lately,
owing to contrary winds, but ships from Flushing and Scotland,
which were anchored in the Downs on the 15th, say that none of the
Queen's ships have left the Thames, except four small vessels which
are also anchored in the Downs for the purpose of watching the
ships that arrive there.
The Queen has issued a proclamation ordering all people to retire
to their homes under great penalties. The reason of this is that
many gentlemen resident on the coast have repaired to London, on
the rumours that your Majesty's fleet was going to attack the
country, which greatly alarmed them. The people of the coast
villages have also fled inland.—Paris, 19th December 1587.
K. 1565. 140.
185. Bernardino De Mendoza to the King.
I reply in this letter to the instructions contained in your
Majesty's letter of the 27th November.
The moment the credit arrives I will pay the 6,000 crowns as
ordered, (fn. 7) will convey the message to the archbishop of
Glasgow and the bishop of Ross, and also to Miss Curle, by whom
the queen of Scotland sent the credence to me. She remains here
with her brother, Secretary Gilbert Curle, and his wife.
Miss Kennedy went to take a bed which the Queen left as a keepsake
to the duchess of Guise, and another to Madame de Chalons,
the Queen's aunt, and as soon as she returned hither she received an
order from her brother to return immediately to Scotland. I was
anxious for her to stay, but could not prevail upon her to do so, as
she was alone here and without friends. The archbishop of Glasgow
intimates to me that she is almost engaged to be married, and this
was a reason for her going. (fn. 8) I have news that the ship in which
she went had been driven into Portsmouth by storms, where she
(the ship) was seized. I do not know whether they will let Kennedy
proceed on her voyage. She did not say a word to me on the
Queen's behalf, but only that she was present at her death, and
placed the bandage over the Queen's eyes, as she was of better birth
than Curle. Your Majesty will please instruct me whether I am to
write your message to Kennedy in Scotland. She can only testify
to what she has heard. As everything is so dear in this country she
and Curle could not maintain themselves on less than a crown a day
each, and as Kennedy is of nobler birth she would have to be given
a larger pension than Curle if your Majesty wishes her to return
hither from Scotland, and if not, a grant of money should be made
to her in one sum. To give a pension to either of them will really
be furnishing them with a marriage portion. I am not aware that
Curle, her brother, or Gorion, the apothecary, are in any present
need, nor are they talking of leaving here, pending the division of
certain furniture which the queen of Scotland left to the servants
who were with her ; they are also awaiting your Majesty's reply.
It will therefore be unnecessary to give them any money until your
Majesty's decision is received. If Gorion be given 20 crowns a
month it will be sufficient ; and, although, having regard to his
rank, 30 crowns would be ample for Curle, the secretary, yet as your
Majesty allows Thomas Morgan, who was not the Queen's secretary,
40 crowns, it would not be excessive to grant Curle the same amount,
especially as it was he who ciphered the despatch of which your
Majesty enjoins me to take care. They confronted him with the
draft of it, which the queen of England's Council had discovered, and
it was impossible for him to deny it. When it was shown to Nau,
the other secretary, he said it was in Curle's handwriting. As your
Majesty instructs me in your despatch, it is important that neither
the ladies nor Curle nor Gorion should depend upon anyone but
your Majesty, so that if you should choose to grant them larger
allowances than those I mention, it will be all the better, as pledging
them the deeper. As the crowns paid by your Majesty are of less
value in Flanders the grants will not be thought so much of if paid
there. Curle is a worthy man, but not of much understanding.
His sister will depend upon him, and I think it will be best for your
Majesty's purpose that they should remain here, and that I should
pay them (until the time comes for them to make the declaration of
what they know, in some place where they may do so safely). I have
held out hopes to them of your Majesty's reply, but I will not say
the amount they are to receive until your Majesty's decision arrives,
unless anything occurs which may cause them to wish to leave here.
Ligons is an Englishman who has been in Flanders for years past,
and your Majesty granted him the allowance he now enjoys for the
queen of Scotland's sake.
The letter that the queen of Scotland wrote to his Holiness was
taken out by Gorion with mine, and, by orders of the Queen, handed
to her physician for delivery to the Pope. The physician absented
himself from here, and I concluded that he had gone with the letter ;
but when I asked the archbishop of Glasgow he told me that he had
not done so, as he had not the means, and that the letter still
remained in his hands. As it is open I will ask the ambassador
kindly to let me see it, or get Gorion to tell me what it contains,
because as the Queen wrote them hastily she had them read to him,
so that they might be understood here. She did the same with the
letter to the duke of Guise. (fn. 9)
The Queen wrote the will with her own hand, in accordance with
what she wrote to me on the 20th May 1586 in cipher. It fell into
the hands of the queen of England, and when she sent Wotton
hither to complain of the queen of Scotland to this King he told
him that such a will had been found, and that the two secretaries
testified to the fact that it was written in the queen of Scotland's
own hand. When M. de Belièvre was in London, therefore, he
asked the Queen to show him the will, so that he might assure his
master that he had seen it with his own eyes ; but as I wrote to
your Majesty at the time, the Queen replied that the queen of
Scotland was such a bad woman that she believed she had found
means of sending it to your Majesty. When she subsequently
repeated to the Treasurer what had passed with Belièvre on the
matter, he said that, since she had the will in her own hands, it was
better in every respect that she should burn it, which she did. The
false Treasurer told this to Julius, (fn. 10) who informed me of it for
conveyance to your Majesty.
I will ascertain from the new confidant whether the papers
brought by Wotton remained here, and if in these papers which
contained the accusations against the queen of Scotland there is
anything about the will. Julius can throw a good deal of light on
this matter when the time arrives, and his statements will be of
importance, as he is one of the party itself, and in nowise dependent
upon the queen of Scotland. Secretary Curle wrote the letter, as I
have mentioned, and his sister brought me the verbal credence from
her. Gorion tells me he was present when the queen of England's
councillors, whilst informing her of her condemnation, reproached
the queen of Scotland for trying to disinherit her own son by ceding
her rights to your Majesty, which, they said, was proved by her
will. She told them that they were not empowered to address her
upon any subject but those concerning the queen of England, and
she had no reason for rendering an account to them of what had
passed between her and other princes, as she was a sovereign. Nau,
the Queen's French secretary, has been to me secretly, and told me
that he saw the decipher of my letter. He says that Walsingham
and all the queen of England's Council assured him about the will,
and the queen of England had the matter published in Scotland and
here, for the purpose of discrediting the queen of Scotland ; so that,
when need may arise, there will be no lack of witnesses, even
without those now in hand, and Julius, as I say, will be of great
importance. Colonel Semple arrived here some time ago and (as I
wrote to Don Juan de Idiaquez on the 6th) he said he had been
ordered to follow my instructions. I have heard what he has to
say, and will proceed cautiously with him in accordance with your
Majesty's instructions, and as is necessary from the fact of his being
a Scot, although I find him better disposed than any of the "cape
and sword folk" of his nation that I have met hitherto.—Paris,
22nd December 1587.
K. 1565. 141.
186. Bernardino De Mendoza to the King.
Intelligence has arrived from England, dated the 14th instant,
reporting that the Admiral had orders to put to sea with 18
Queen's ships, well armed with guns and munitions, (fn. 11) and
15 merchantmen, which is one more than they had decided upon,
besides which six of the merchantmen are to be replaced by six of
the Queen's ships, which has doubtless been done by the Admiral,
as he is to command in person. They say that in these 33 ships
they will send 3,000 seamen and as many soldiers, and although
the seamen were mostly ready, the soldiers were not mustering,
which gives rise to the belief that the Admiral could not sail so
soon as they say.
Drake had been ordered to sail to the West Country with
36 picked merchantmen, carrying 3,000 sailors and as many
soldiers, but neither the ships nor the men were being got ready
with the same furious haste as the Admiral's fleet. The most
experienced people in the country were of opinion that it would be
extremely difficult for the Queen to collect such a fleet, however
much she might desire it, except after long delay, seeing the great
fear and confusion existing all over the country. People were
crying out for her to make peace with your Majesty. I am told
this by the new confidant and by others. The fleet mentioned
appears to be of the same number of ships as it was advised, in the
letters of the 22nd, they wished to collect, which letters also spoke
of the difficulty of doing so. I will report instantly all I can learn,
and am informing the duke of Parma.
The Queen has sent Walter Raleigh to the West Country to join
the soldiers there. Lord Hunsdon in the north, and Master Grey (fn. 12)
and Colonel Norris, (fn. 13) who were in Flanders, are in London to take
charge of soldiers there if necessary.
Sir William Pelham, the Master of the Ordnance, whom the
English looked upon as one of their best soldiers, has died at
Letters from Scotland of the 4th November report that the
people on the borders of the earl of Morton's country, as the earl is
absent from the country, were committing raids into England.
The Queen had complained to the king of Scotland, and he went
with 200 horse to the border to remedy matters. This was the
foundation of the assertion here that the King had entered the
The Carthusian friar, bishop of Dunblane, and the other fathers
had arrived at Petty Leith, and as the ship that carried them had
no cargo, but only the five passengers, the rumour spread that five
Jesuits had come in her, and a proclamation was at once issued
ordering people, under penalty of death and confiscation, not to
harbour nor help them.
The bishop and his companions travelled north to the house of
the earl of Huntly, who is a Catholic.
The earl of Leicester had not arrived in England from Flushing
on the 14th, and it was understood that the object of the Admiral
would be to station his 33 ships at the mouth of the Thames, and
prevent any of the duke of Parma's ships from going to the north
of England, whilst Drake, with his 36 ships on the west coast,
would oppose your Majesty's fleet from gaining an English port.
The two fleets are not to join unless they are obliged to do so
to enable them to combat your Majesty's Armada.— Paris,
22nd December 1587.
K. 1448. 156.
187. The King to Bernardino De Mendoza.
Your intelligence from England is noted, and I am expecting to
learn from your next letter how the armament of ships for the
Admiral was going on, which you will, I am sure, have informed me
with your usual punctuality. As you have not for some time past
reported the sailing of any fleet from English or French ports, I
cannot make out what ships they can be which have recently been
seen in the neighbourhood of Cape St. Vincent, The number is too
large for them to be unattached corsairs, although they are not
strong enough to cause anxiety. Take continual care to keep me
advised on this and all things you hear.—Madrid, 24th December
K. 1565. 144.
188. Bernardino De Mendoza to the King.
I saw the Scots ambassador yesterday, and he told me that he
had news from Muzio's agent in Rome that his Holiness had
instructed count de Olivares to write to your Majesty in his name,
earnestly begging you to help the Guises, and that he was sending
a special courier for the purpose. The count de Olivares had given
the letters to Cardinal Rusticucci for submission to his Holiness.
The Scots ambassador was very pleased at this, not that he had
any doubt that your Majesty would help him, but because it would
enable you to do so more openly, without giving the king of France
any cause of complaint. I took the opportunity of telling him that,
in the letter his (late) mistress had written to me, she had urgently
begged your Majesty to help Muzio, and doubtless she had done
similarly in the letter she wrote to his Holiness, and the latter
would naturally be influenced thereby. My object was to get him
to tell me what the letter contained. He replied that the point was
not referred to in the letter, which was confined to the following :
commending her soul to his Holiness's prayers, and asking him to
found some memorial of her, as she was dying for, and in, the
Catholic faith. She was reconciled to die thus, as it was God's will,
but as they had refused to let her have a priest to whom to confess,
or from whom to receive the Holy Sacrament, she besought his
Holiness to give her absolution. She had sent her blessing to her
son, on condition of his submitting to the Catholic faith, but if he
would not do this, for the sake of her conscience (which she would
not burden for her son or for anyone else) she declared that there
was no prince more fitting than your Majesty to wear the two
crowns of those islands, and to preserve the countries in the
Catholic religion. This agrees with her remarks in the letter she
wrote to me.
She also recommended all her servants generally to his Holiness.
The above, he (the archbishop of Glasgow) said, were the only
points contained in her letter to the Pope, Muzio not being referred
to at all, and he offered to show me the letter, as it had not yet
been sent to Rome, in consequence of his not having any money to
give to the physician who was to take it. As I had obtained from
him what I wanted to know, I said I was satisfied with what he
told me, without seeing the letter, and, if he thought it was of
importance for the relief of his late mistress's conscience that the
letter should be delivered to his Holiness, I had been so desirous
of serving her that I would provide the money out of my own
pocket for the physician to take it. He replied that if this King
would pay what he owed to the queen of Scotland there would be
plenty of money for this and other things, and he was not sure now
whether the physician would take the letter to Rome, because if I
found the money for him he would not dare to return to France.
He (the Archbishop) had not ventured to send either the original or
a copy of the letter until he learnt the wishes of the duke of Guise,
who was the Queen's principal executor ; but when the bishop of
Dunblane returned from Scotland he would ask the duke of Guise
whether it would be advisable to send the letter to Rome by the
said Bishop. I have brought matters to this point, and thought
better not to carry them any further with the ambassador until I
received your Majesty's instructions. With reference to this,
Secretary Curle tells me that when he was in the house of Philipps,
one of Walsingham's officers, he showed him (Curle) the identical
will made by the queen of Scotland, whose handwriting he knew
well. When he read the clause in question, Philipps said what a
cruel thing it was for a mother thus to disinherit her own son.
According to this, Curle is not only a witness that he ciphered the
letter in which his mistress announced her intention, but also that
he saw, subsequently, her will written in her own hand formally
The Scots ambassador says that since his mistress's death the
funds she provided for the Scotch seminary at Pont Monçon have
failed, and the seminary is becoming deserted. He asks me to beg
your Majesty to give some alms to prevent the loss of so pious a
work, and in consideration of the influence the students there would
exert in the conversion of the country. I promised him I would
mention it to your Majesty.
As I report in the general letter, Arundell has died, and I beg your
Majesty to instruct me as to what I am to do with the 2,000 crowns
which the queen of Scotland owed him, and which for the relief of
her soul your Majesty ordered me to pay to Arundell. The new
confidant has sent me in writing the intelligence I send about
England, through a perfectly unsuspicious channel. He says that
the loss of the former friend forced him to write the news, as it was
of the highest importance that your Majesty should be informed
thereof at once. He did so on this occasion but it was unadvisable
that he should continue to do so, and begged me to send some person
to him who could be trusted, and who would convey intelligence
verbally. I am puzzled to find a man fitting for the task owing to
the qualities required. He says he must not be a Spaniard, but a
person who may freely have access to his house, whilst for religious
reasons it is unadvisable for a Spaniard to be intimate there. In
order not to lose Julius I will myself run the risk of going to his
house at night, until I can find a suitable person.
The Nuncio, as I have mentioned, is opening out with me, and
is displaying a very favourable disposition towards the conquest of
England ; and I doubt not that his Holiness has written something
to him on the subject, because he told me lately that there was
nothing he desired more than that your Majesty should punish
England. A person with whom he is intimate said to him that the
people here had only come to terms with the reiters for the purpose
of being able to help the queen of England, and he replied that,
seeing as he did the evil intentions prevalent here, he had no doubt
that such was the case. I do not answer him when he speaks of
the matter to me, and when he asked me in what state your
Majesty's fleet was, I replied that it was being got ready but
nobody knew where your Majesty was going to employ it.
I am sending this courier off expressly to give your Majesty
information of Drake's design, and am also informing the duke
of Parma. Julius says he has it from the Admiral.—Paris,
27th December 1587.
K. 1565. 145.
189. Bernardino De Mendoza to the King.
To the intelligence about England sent in my last, I now have to
add that other news, dated the 14th instant, new style, has arrived
here, saying that seven out of the 36 ships to be commanded by
Drake are to be Queen's ships. Three thousand sailors are to be
shipped on this fleet, and as many soldiers as can be carried, the
number of which will not reach 3,000 as was stated, and Drake will
sail with them to Spanish waters to fight your Majesty's Armada
there or burn ships in Lisbon, like he did in Cadiz (which will not
be an easy task), or in any other port where he may find them, as
they have news from Lisbon that the Armada cannot sail in any
case before the middle of January. In order to make sure of this,
and ascertain the state in which the Armada is, they had sent two
English shallops to Lisbon harbour to capture some fishing boat,
from which they might learn what preparations were being made
on the fleet, and whether the crews were being shipped. It was
intended as soon as these shallops returned that Drake should at
once put to sea with the object named ; and to enable him to do
this the more speedily he would take with him some of the ships
which were ready to sail under the Lord Admiral, the latter being
now undecided as to whether he would sail, and whether his fleet
would put to sea so soon as had been intended. It was thought
most probable that he would not go out, but if he did, his design,
as I have said, would be to prevent the duke of Parma from landing
in the north of England or executing any enterprise in Zeeland.
Your Majesty's rebel States had intimated to the Queen that they
had 80 armed ships in the river at Antwerp and other places to
prevent the sailing of the duke of Parma's vessels. With these
80 and 20 more they would go to her assistance if your Majesty's
fleet attacked England. The Queen, however, made no account of
these offers as she could not trust them (the States).
In conversation with some of his favourites about your Majesty's
Armada, this King said they knew where your Majesty was going to
employ the fleet, whilst neither the duke of Parma, the marquis of
Santa Cruz, nor any other person was aware of it.
I understand that Chateauneuf writes that the English are in the
utmost confusion and discouragement, and the Scots ambassador
tells me that he has seen a letter from a private person there
reporting that the Queen had ordered the Treasurer and Walsingham
by all means to make peace with your Majesty ; and when
Walsingham asked her what about religion, she replied angrily that
she would agree about religion and everything else.
The earl of Leicester has been informed by the Queen that she
leaves to his discretion whether he should return to England or not.
As he has delayed his departure it is thought that he would not go.
—Paris, 27th December 1587.
190. Names of the Heretics, Schismatics, and Neutrals in
the Realm of England, as follows :—
The principal Heretics.
The earl of Leicester.
Earl of Warwick, his brother.
Earl of Huntingdon, his brother-in-law.
Lord Burleigh, Lord Treasurer.
Earl of Bedford.
Sir Christopher Hatton.
These are the principal devils that rule the Court, and are the
leaders of the Council.
Schismatics and Neutrals.
The earl of Shrewsbury, a great friend and follower of Robert
Dudley, and principal judge that condemned to martyrdom
my late mistress, the queen of Scotland.
Earl of Derby, another good servant of Lord Robert Dudley,
but in his own conscience is neutral.
Earl of Cumberland, a good neutral, but his wife, the daughter
of the earl of Bedford, is a great Calvinist.
These are principal persons in England whom his Majesty should
There are also other nobles and knights who are heretics in
various parts of the country.
William Headon, the principal man in Norfolk, a great enemy
of his Majesty.
Sir William Butts, with all his family.
Sir Nathaniel Bacon.
Sir William Woddons.
The enemies of his Majesty in the county of York.
Sir William Fairfax.
Sir Thomas Fairfax.
Sir William Bele.
Grotick, knight, and all the rest of the Council of York, the
president of which is Lord Huntingdon.
Catholics and friends of his Majesty in England.
The earl of Surrey, son and heir of the duke of Norfolk, now a
prisoner in the Tower.
Lord Vaux, of Harrowden, a good Catholic, now a prisoner
in the Fleet, with many other important knights and
The Catholics of Norfolk.
Sir Henry Benefield, who was formerly the guardian of Queen
Elizabeth, the pretended queen of England, during the whole
time that his Majesty was in England ; Sir Henry keeping
her by order of King Philip and Queen Mary. I wish to God
they had burnt her then, as she deserved, with the rest of
the heretics who were justly executed. If this had been
done we should be living now in peace and quietness.
Sir William Paston.
Townsend Knight, and many other Catholic servants of his
In the county of York.
Sir Richard Stapleton.
Sir Brian Stapleton, who would risk his life for his Majesty.
Edward Clerker, of Risby.
Henry Constable, of Holderness.
William Babthorp, of Babthorpe.
Robert Clerker, of Clerker, and many other gentlemen.
Catholics in the county of Lancashire.
Sir William Stanley, brother of the earl of Derby, a good
Blundell, of Croke Abbey.
Blundell, of Ynce.
The greater part of Lancashire is Catholic, the common people
particularly, with the exception of the earl of Derby and the town
The worthy Sir John Southwell, who is now a prisoner in Chester
Castle, and many other gentlemen there with him, are staunch
friends of his Majesty.
Northumberland and Westmoreland are loyal friends of his
Majesty, but there is no one to lead them now, as the earl of
Northumberland has been executed as a martyr in York, and was
succeeded by his brother, who was treacherously killed by a pistol
shot in the Tower of London, the pretence being that he had killed
The earl of Westmoreland is in Paris, maintained by king Philip.
These two counties are really faithful to his Majesty.
If his Majesty intends to send a fleet to England it will have to
encounter strong resistance if it does not come to one of these two
counties. The way by Ireland is dangerous.
It would therefore be safer to enter and disembark at Kirkcudbright
in the territory of the earl of Morton, who is now in Lisbon and
would, I think, be glad to accompany them. If the force be landed
there they might enter the rest of England with less risk than
elsewhere. If it be asserted that it would be safer to land on the
east coast of Northumberland, it must be remembered that in such
case the ships would have to go round the Orkney isles and the isles
of Scotland, and must therefore pass within a league of Edinburgh.
God grant that all may prosper and that such a resolution may be
adopted as shall prevent them (i.e., the Spaniards) from being
deceived either in England or Scotland.
I wish to God my own old bones were of any service to his
Majesty in the cause, for I would willingly die in defence of the
Catholic faith under the protection of his Majesty, whom God bless,
&c., &c. Amen.—Jacobus Stuart, Natione Scotus.