Spain
March 1525, 26-31

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Institute of Historical Research

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Pascual de Gayangos (editor)

Year published

1873

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99-114

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'Spain: March 1525, 26-31', Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 3 Part 1: 1525-1526 (1873), pp. 99-114. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=87459 Date accessed: 28 July 2014.


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March 1525, 26-31

26 March.50. The Emperor to the King and Cardinal.
K. u. K. Haus-
Hof- u. Staats. Arch.
Wien. Rep. P. C.
Fasc. 223. No. 19.
Has received the King's letter of congratulation on the recovery of his health and on the glorious victory just won over their common enemy. Knew the King would heartily rejoice with him on hearing of the event. Has given long audience to the King's ambassador, and heard what he had to say concerning M. de Praet, but cannot in all reason be otherwise than deeply wounded at the insult shown him in the seizure of that ambassador's correspondence. Cannot believe that so good and loyal a subject as M. de Praet is capable of making either groundless or mischievous statements. Begs the King to hear the ambassador in his own defence, as he (the Emperor) would were the positions reversed. Assures the King of his (the Emperor's) unfailing attachment to him.—Your good son, brother, and nephew, Charles.
26 March.51. The Emperor to Cardinal Wolsey.
K. u. K. Haus-
Hof- u. Staats Arch.
Wien. Rep. P. C.
Fasc. 223. No. 20.
Has received his letters, together with those from the King, and given audience to Dr. Sampson, the English ambassador. Has been grievously insulted and in a manner which he should hardly have deemed possible between friendly powers. Has written in consequence to the King what he thinks fittest and most desirable in this matter for the maintenance of his own honour and dignity.—C'est de la main de .....
French. Original minute, pp. 2.
26 March.52. The Emperor to Louis de Praet, his Ambassador in England.
K. u. K. Haus-
Hof- u. Staats Arch.
Wien. Rep. P. C.
Fasc. 223. No. 19.
Has received since Cilly's departure the good news of the victory given him by God over the King of France and his army; will not enter into details, as the King, the Legate, and himself (De Praet) have doubtless already heard the particulars. Encloses a list of the personages known, up to this time, to have been either killed or taken prisoners, which list he is to show to the King and Cardinal, acquainting them also with the discomfiture of the White Rose (La Pole), and the danger threatening the Duke of Albany; also how greatly he (the Emperor) thanks God for having given him this victory at a moment when his friends rendered him so little help.
Encloses copy of a letter from the Queen Regent of France. She must desire peace more than ever, now that it is the only way of restoring the King, her son, to liberty. He (the Emperor) has always desired peace, as Louis de Praet knows. Thinks it the greatest blessing that could be bestowed on him, provided only restitution of what is respectively their due were made to him (the Emperor), to the King of England, to the Duke of Bourbon, and to their other allies. Would much prefer obtaining peace by treaty than having recourse to arms. It sounds badly to make war upon a prisoner unable to defend himself. Has therefore determined to negotiate with all magnanimity, and is now sending the Sieur de Beaurains to the Queen Regent and to the King of France, to acquaint them with the conditions proposed by himself (the Emperor), the King of England, the Duke of Bourbon, and other of his allies and subjects, and to learn their resolution thereupon. Has ordered the King of France to be treated in the meanwhile with all due honour. Will duly inform the King of England of whatever the said M. de Beaurains may be able to accomplish by his mission. As soon as he (Beaurains) has seen the Duke of Bourbon and the Viceroy, he will write to Praet and send certain instructions, which he (Praet) is to follow as if they came directly from the Emperor himself.
Wishes Praet to assure the King and Legate of his (the Emperor's) goodwill towards them. He is to tell them also that the Emperor has no intention whatever of disarming, and hopes they will not do so either; on the contrary, he is quite determined—and so should they be—in case of the peace not being made, and their conditions rejected, to push on every preparation for war; for the French will naturally try to cause all possible delay in order to gain some breathing time; and it would be very unwise, on the faith of a few fair words from them (the French), to let this grand opportunity slip. Should the English wish to begin operations at once, although the Emperor's opinion is that by waiting a little while they would be more thoroughly justified in the eyes of the world, he (the Emperor) will give up the point, and accede to their wishes. He will write immediately to Madame to furnish the required aid in men and provisions. Should Madame prefer not to take a binding engagement on this point, so as to gain time, and see how things turn out, in that case the whole case is to be referred to the Emperor; and Praet, when addressed on the subject, can offer to write to Madame to know her pleasure, who, in her turn, will consult the Emperor. Relies upon his ambassador's ability and experience not to compromise him (the Emperor) in any way, or take any engagements, but to maintain the alliance with the King, his uncle, on as firm a footing as ever.
Should the English try to draw the ambassador into negotiations concerning the prosecution of the war, and propose that an adequate force should be kept on the Flemish frontier at the Emperor's expense, as was lately offered by Cilly, in that case he (Praet) is to say that the prospect of the Emperor's affairs has been totally changed since Cilly's mission, and that he can enter on no further negotiations until the Emperor sends him fresh instructions, but that the English can instruct their ambassador at Madrid to treat on all needful points there. This is the course the Emperor wishes his ambassador to pursue until tidings arrive from the Duke of Bourbon, the Viceroy, and M. de Beaurains.
Has heard from the Abbot of Middleburgh's messenger of the seizure of Praet's letters. Is seriously displeased at it, feeling the great insult thereby offered to himself. Has disguised his resentment until having Praet's own account in writing; will then write at once to the King, his brother, and complain of the Cardinal. Doubts not that the English ambassador here will also write to the King and Cardinal on the subject, as he has been requested to do, and will report what he (the Emperor) thinks of so flagrant an insult. Does not intend this matter to pass over unnoticed, God having given him the power to maintain his dignity. Wishes Praet to advise him whether there is a way, not involving any serious compromise to himself, of making the Cardinal suffer for this; also whether he (the Emperor) shall write to Madame to recall M. de Bèvres and the other ambassadors. Should Cilly not have left, he is to bring answers to these letters, and also to those enclosed for Madame.—Given in our city of Madrid, the 26th of March 1525.
Indorsed: "L'Empereur à M.. de Praet."
French. Original minute. pp, 4.
26 March.53. Martin de Salinas (fn. 1) to the Archduke of Austria.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salinas, f. 127.
Muy alto y muy poderoso señor.—Your Highness must have been informed of the great diligence used by Alonso Gutierrez de Meneses in coming from those parts. He is now returning [to Germany], after delivering his charge, and speaking to His Imperial Majesty and to the members of his Council of Estate in the very words of his instructions. The said Meneses was in Portugal when the news of the battle of Pavia arrived. Many are sorry, and I among the rest, that your Highness was not present at it, but many there are at this court who throw the blame of His Highness's absence on a certain individual whose name Meneses will tell vivâ voce.
To-day, the bastard Du Rœux (fn. 2) arrived in this town (Madrid), though too late for the journey he had in contemplation, because many days before his arrival His Imperial Majesty was fully acquainted with the news of the victory [of Pavia]. At the same hour Alonso Gutierrez de Meneses was despatched, from whom your Highness will hear of the Emperor's good health and news of this court. As the said bastard (Du Rœulx) or perhaps Dr. Borja are likely to start soon [for Germany] I will write by them.—Madrid, 26th March 1525.
Addressed: "To His Highness the Archduke Ferdinand."
Spanish. Original draft, pp. 1½.
26 March.54. Margaret of Austria to Cardinal Wolsey.
K. u. K. Haus-
Hof- u. Staats Arch.
Wien. Rep. P. C.
Fasc. 223. No. 48.
Is writing to Mons. de Beures, to the President of the Council (Laurens), and to Jean de le Sauch, her ambassadors in London, respecting her intended proceedings after the manner in which the King of England has recently answered their overtures. They (the ambassadors) are to ask permission to return, leaving Le Sauch behind until the Emperor, to whom she is now writing, determines to send another ambassador [instead of Praet].—Brussels, 26 March 1525.
Signed: "Marguerite."
French. Original draft p. 1.
27 March.55. The Emperor to Louis de Praet, his Ambassador in England.
K. u. K. Haus-
Hof- u. Staats Arch.
Wien. Rep. P. C.
Fasc. 223. No. 25,
ff. 58–9.
The enclosed is the duplicate of a letter which We wrote to you by Meneses, gentleman of the bedchamber to our brother the Archduke Ferdinand. After whose departure We have also received through the agent of the Foucker (Fuggers), first, and afterwards by the Sieur du Rœulx, bearer of the present, your two letters dated 24th Feb. and 11th March. We had already perused the contents of those which were taken from you in England and opened. They were brought to this our court by an express messenger of the Cardinal, and exhibited to us by the English ambassador (Dr. Sampson) together with a memorandum, whereof We send you copy, that you may see the frivolous reasons and pretences alleged against you, and to excuse the said seizure and opening of your correspondence. (fn. 3)
The said ambassador has also put into our hands hologragh letters of the King and Cardinal, accusing you of all manner of things, and requesting that We should punish you for your misdeeds.
There was no occasion for so much anxiety and fear as you have shown in your late despatches, for We should never have thought of abiding by the judgment of the people of England, without standing by you and upholding you in your right, as a true and loyal servant of the Empire. It has never been our habit to abandon those who, like you, have served us well. We firmly believe in the truth of your report, to maintain which, as well as to preserve your honour and our own authority, grievously affected by the said trespass, We shall henceforward devote all our attention and care, promising you every help and protection at a future time, and, whenever an opportunity occurs, of asserting your right as our ambassador.
And now you may see by our letters to the King and Cardinal, of which a copy is enclosed, what our sentiments are concerning the seizure and breach of your correspondence.
We should like that the King heard you on the subject, and, therefore, you might at once ask for an audience, or wait until you were sent for, and then state your reasons in the mildest possible terms, without producing irritation or anger, and as your prudence may dictate.
Our letter to the King We have entrusted to the said Meneses, with orders to place it in his own hands. He will tell you what sort of reception the King gives him, and what impression our letter is likely to produce, for you must, if possible, appear as if you knew nothing of its contents. If the King and Cardinal pass the matter over without taking any notice, or referring in any way to it, then, in that case, you will do the same, from fear of awakening the Cardinal's suspicions, thereby damaging our common cause, and perhaps exposing your person to danger, a thing of all others to be avoided under the present circumstances, as everything has its time, and We are not likely to forget so soon the injury done to us. We have heard what the Seigneur de Bèvres, our cousin, the President of our Grand Council of Flanders (Jos. Laurens), and their colleague (Le Sauch) have said to the King and Legate on the aforesaid subject and others under discussion. We fully approve of their answer to the King; it was wise and prudent. But as We now write to them without alluding to the above particulars,—believing they have by this time left England and returned to Flanders,—as the English ambassador at this our court tells us that the King, his master, is about to send a gentleman of his chamber to communicate to us his intention of landing with a force in Normandy, were the King or Cardinal to interrogate you on the subject, you will tell them that We have given no charge whatever thereupon, because We are waiting for the arrival of the said gentleman, who will no doubt come with full powers to treat.—Madrid, .... March 1525. (fn. 4)
French. Original draft, pp. 3.
27 March.56. The Emperor to the Ambassadors in England.
K. u. K. Haus-
Hof- u.Staats Arch.
Wien. Rep. P. C.
Fasc. 223. No. 25,
f. 60.
By the Baron du Rœulx, bearer of the present, We have duly received your letters and their enclosures, informing us of what has passed between the King, our brother, Monseigneur the Legate, and you. We fully approve of all your doings, as well as of the answers made in our name.
Believing that by the time this our letter reaches England you will be back in Flanders, We write in full to Madame our aunt, and to the Seigneur de Praet, concerning our affairs. We thank you for the trouble taken and the zeal and wisdom displayed in the execution of our orders. Matters are now in such a plight that it behoves us to come to a final resolution, if We are to profit by the victory which God has granted to our army. We shall not fail, hereafter, to remunerate all and each of you according to his services.—Date ut supra.
(Similar letters to Madame la Gouvernante des Pays-Bas and to Monseigneur l'Archiduc.)
French. Original draft on the same sheet p. 1.
29 March.57. The Abbot of Najera to the Emperor.
M. D. Pasc. d. G.
Pap. r. a. l. Hist.
d'Esp. No. 31.
Has not written since the 25th February last, waiting for the departure of Don Ugo de Moncada for Spain, who will leave in three days, through France, with a safe-conduct of the King. After his departure a despatch shall be sent by sea, with news up to that time. What he (Najera) has now to advise is that the King of France is still at Piciguiton, passing his time with balls and other games of manly exercise. Alarcon has especial care of his person, as M. de Brion (Philippe de Chabot) must already have informed His Imperial Majesty.
This army is divided into two corps; one is now in the Plazentino, (fn. 5) and is going shortly to the Rezzano, to please His Holiness, who has expressly asked us for it; the other has hitherto been quartered in the country of Novara, but is being removed to Ibrea and other lands of the Duke of Savoy. Our principal business has been and is still to procure from the Pope and other Italian Princes money to pay the 600,000 ducats owing to this army up to the day of the battle. He (Najera) went to Genoa for the purpose of receiving the 100,000 of the first instalment, but could not learn when the second, third, and fourth were due. The Duke of Milan has levied a tax of 80,000 and odd ducats on the capital of his estate, and the Marchioness of Monferrato 15,000, with which the immediate wants of this Imperial army have been somewhat supplied. Enclosed is a memorandum of the sums with which each, of the Italian Princes is expected to contribute. Is very much afraid that it will be necessary, in the end, to appeal to force, for the parties do not seem inclined to pay. The Pope has promised the Viceroy (Charles de Lannoy) and Duke of Sessa to enter into an offensive and defensive league with His Imperial Majesty against the Turk, both in his own name and in that of the Florentines, and to pay, besides, in consideration of the past as well as of future expenses, a sum of money to be fixed by them (Lannoy and Sessa). The better to prove that he is in earnest, His Holiness has actually remitted 25,000 ducats, which we expect to receive here in two days. The sum, though small, will be gratefully accepted, owing to the great distress in which we now are, without, however, losing our hopes for the remainder. The Pope is contriving to make the Venetians join this league, but only as accessories, which they object to, wishing in every respect to be considered as principals. Their answer is expected every day.
The Marquis of Pescara has taken possession of Carpi, with the consent of the Duke of Bourbon and of the Viceroy of Naples, who are equally deserving of the Imperial favours, as well the Marquis del Gasto (Guasto), Alarcon, Antonio de Leyva, and all the generals and captains of this victorious army.
The Duke of Ferrara is about to pay 50,000 out of the 100,000 ducats which he has promised to lend us. This he does in consideration of Rezzo and Rubiera, which he hopes to retain.
The French fleet was, on the 20th instant, at Porto Hercole and Sanctistevan (Sanct Stephano); and there are advices from Rome, that on the 22nd the Duke of Albany had already gone on board with upwards of 1,000 Germans, and the greatest part of his cavalry, who, it is said, had sold most of their horses. They wore only waiting for favourable wind to set sail.
M. del Escudo (L'Escun) died on the 5th instant, from the hackbut-shot received at the battle; the Grand Master from fever on the 22nd. 30,000 ducats, at least, have been lost by the death of the above two prisoners.—Milan, 29th of March 1525.
Signed: "El Abad de Najera."
Addressed: "To the most Sacred, Imperial and Catholic Majesty, &c."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1525, Milan. Abbot of Najera, 29th March."
Spanish. Holograph, pp. 2¼.
M. D. Pasc. d.
G. Pap. r. a. l.
Hist. d'Esp.
No. 31.
58. Account of Money to come from the Italian Powers to cover the expenses of the War.
ducats.
From the Pope40,000
" the Duke of Savoy11,000
" the Duke of Milan20,000
" England16,000
" Sienna15,000
102,000
The above 102,000 ducats have already been paid. Remain to be recovered within a few days' time 109,000 move, an follows:—
From the Pope60,000
" England24,000
" Lucca and Sienna25,000
109,000
The Italian powers will remain in the Emperor's debt, as follows:—
The Venetians for120,000
The Duke of Milan, in silk and cloth40,000
The Duke of Savoy, as complement of the 30,000 ducats which he has to pay19,000
179,000
According to the agreement made with the said powers, the following sums were to be paid to the Emperor:—
The Pope, for the remainder of his contribution, in virtue of the league made with Pope Adrian, for five months75,000
The Florentines, for the remainder of certain monthly contributions70,000
The Siennese, for five months25,000
The people of Lucca, for as many months55,000
The Venetians, at the rate of 30,000 per month, for four months120,000
The Duke of Ferrara100,000
The Duke of Savoy50,000
Genoa25,000
Making in all the sum of ducats520,000
Indorsed: "Quel che de presente se puo hauer de contante."
Italian. Contemporary copy. p. 1½.
30 March.59. Charles de Lannoy to the Archduchess Margaret.
Arch. d. Royme
de Belg.
Doc. Hist. III.,
f. 53.
Has received her letter of the 12th instant, and thanks her for the kind words brought by Bregilles, her squire.
Commander Pynnalose (Peñalosa) has not yet returned [from Spain] and he himself has no news since the battle. Is trying to conduct affairs in Italy as mildly (doucement) as he can. The Pope is endeavouring to conclude a defensive and offensive league with the Emperor, and yesterday (the 29th) sent him 25,000 crowns to help to pay the men, but considering that the arrears owed to this Imperial army, men-at-arms, cavalry, and infantry, amount to upwards of 600,000 ducats, the sum remitted by the Pope is very insignificant.
Intends to claim from him and from the Florentines 150,000 ducats which they owe since the time of the league with Pope Adrian. Demands also from the Venetians 130,000 ducats on account of their forces not having joined the Imperialists, as stipulated in the convention made for the defence of the duchy of Milan. Is also trying to get money from Genoa and Lucca. The Duke of Ferrara is about to lend 50,000. Does his best to get this army paid, which is by no means an easy task.
Does not inform Madame of the Duke of Sessa's present negotiations with His Holiness, because he (Lannoy) has not heard from Rome lately, and because Don Hugo hag not yet arrived, though he is expected every day.—Milan, 30 March 1525.
Signed: "Charles de Lannoy."
French. Copy. pp. 2.
30 March.60. Katherine, Queen of England, to the Emperor.
K. u. K. Haus-
Hof- u. Staats Arch.
Wien. Rep. P. C.
Fasc. 223, f 85.
Most High and Powerful Lord:—I have been so long without receiving news from your Highness that I really do not know to what cause to attribute so long a silence, unless it be to the inconstancy and fickleness (poca synceridad) of the sea—and to the long distance. Nothing indeed would be so painful to me as to think that your Highness had forgotten me, and therefore beg and entreat, as earnestly as I can, that your Highness be pleased to inform me of your health, and send me your orders; for love and consanguinity both demand that we should write to each other oftener.
That your Highness may the better appreciate my sentiments, I have charged the ambassadors of the King, my husband and master, now going to Spain, to inform your Highness of the great pleasure and content I have experienced at hearing of the very signal victory which God Almighty, by His infinite mercy, has been pleased to grant to the Imperial arms in Italy, trusting that your Highness will offer thanksgiving to that same God, as the King, my master, is now doing, ordering solemn processions and other religious acts, throughout this kingdom.
As the King, my husband and master, has never failed to be the constant and faithful ally of your Highness,—as his words and deeds have sufficiently testified on every occasion,—and as from the continuance of such friendship and alliance the best results may be anticipated, I humbly beseech your Highness to persevere in the path of friendship and affection towards us, since the King has always done his duty, and is now rejoicing at your Highnesses success. I shall say no more, but will refer entirely to the said ambassadors, to whom your Highness will be pleased to give full credence on my part.—Granuche (Greenwich), 30th of March.
Signed: "Your good aunt, Katherina."
Addressed: "To the most High and most Powerful Lord, the Emperor, nephew, etc."
Spanish. Holograph, pp. 2.
30 March.61. The Commissioners to Margaret of Austria.
K. u. K. Haus-
Hof- u. Staats Arch.
Wien. Rep. P. C.
Fasc. 223. No. 21.
Received Madame's letters of the 26th inst, and waited this very morning on the Cardinal to inform him of their contents, and say that Madame was willing to do the King's pleasure in every respect, except sending to Normandy the 3,000 horse and 3,000 foot, which could not possibly he effected for many reasons, unless the Emperor was previously consulted thereupon. Told him, 1stly, that although Madame was fully empowered by her nephew, the Emperor, matters of peace and war were so important that she had never decided them without the Emperor's approbation; 2dly, that by sending such a force to Normandy our frontiers would necessarily remain open to the enemy, who might thus invade Flanders and pillage the towns close to the borders. This would naturally cause great discontent among the inhabitants, who might say—not without reason—that though they paid heavy taxes they were yet unprotected; 3dly, that since the King is now sending his own ambassadors to Spain in order to ascertain the Emperor's intentions and wishes before the English army sets out on this expedition, Madame is the more justified in consulting him thereupon; 4thly, that the King having declared his inability to cross the Channel before the end of May, there is plenty of time during that interval for the King and Madame to ascertain the Emperor's intentions without any possible detriment being caused by the delay. And in order to prove her goodwill in this matter, Madame was ready, if required, to send with the King's ambassadors [to Spain] some gentleman of her court, who might urge the application and bring back an answer, when she would not fail to comply with the Emperor's orders to the King's satisfaction.
The Cardinal then, in the presence of Mons. de Londres (Cuthbert Tunstall, Bishop of London), and Wingfeld (Sir Richard Wingfield), replied that Madame was bound by treaties to furnish the above-mentioned contingent, and that such was the Emperor's avowed intention. It had been stipulated between the King and him (the Emperor) that the grand enterprise was to commence at the end of May, and therefore on the King effecting his descent [in France], Madame was expected to help with her contingent. Even supposing that the treaties did not expressly contain that stipulation, he (the Cardinal) considered that Madame was bound to do so by way of gratification, and in acknowledgment of the many favours which the King, his master, and his predecessors had conferred on the house of Burgundy. As to the people of Flanders and the Low Countries grumbling at it, he felt sure that when they saw the King of England pass over in person at the head of his army, they and all the rest of the Emperor's subjects would be exceedingly pleased.
The Commissioners' answer was in substance as follows: To the first point, that Madame was nowise bound by treaties to furnish the required contingent; for although the "grand enterprise" is therein mentioned, nowhere is it stipulated that the Low Countries are to help in it with a contingent of horse and foot, but only that in case of the enemy wishing to give battle (voulsissent bailler la bataille), the King may call for (mander) the garrisons of our frontier towns, if they can take the field conveniently (commodieusement), not otherwise .......
(Two lines crossed over so as to be illegible.)
To the second point, the Commissioners replied that they wore aware of the favours which the King and his predecessors had granted to the Low Countries (aux pays de par de là); the Flemish had not been ungrateful; they had always considered the King and his subjects; had lent them assistance when wanted, and were still ready to proffer it; but as to furnishing now the 3,000 horse and 3,000 foot, that was out of the question, for the reasons already declared.
To the third, they said they hoped that on the King's landing [in France] he would take in his pay as many of our soldiers, horse and foot, as he wished; that would give no offence to the inhabitants of the Low Countries, and the men would willingly serve as long as their services were required.
Upon which the Cardinal observed: "I can see that your object is only to content me with fair words, but that is not my way of doing business. You ought to tell me explicitly whether Madame is willing or not to grant our request. The King has, since your arrival in London, acceded to everything you have asked him for, and yet you have done nothing for him."
The Cardinal then began to recount one by one the affairs in which he had done us service; and, firstly, that when the French applied for the hand of the Princess, making large offers, they were flatly refused, and their ambassadors dismissed from court; that the Scots had made a similar application, offering to forsake the French alliance, to furnish 18,000 or 20,000 men at their own charge for the invasion of France, to take King Henry for their superior, (fn. 6) and to place in his hands the government of their country (Scotland) during the minority of their infant King [James], and yet for our sake their offers had been rejected, and England was in danger of a war with Scotland.
The Commissioners, after duly thanking the King and Cardinal in the Emperor's and Madame's name for their goodwill and intentions, remarked that it was not on Madame's account, or through their arrival in London, that such answer had been given to the French and Scottish ambassadors. Their offers would have been rejected ah1 the same if they (the Commissioners) had not come to England, as it could not for a moment' be supposed that the King intended to break through the treaty.
This the Cardinal owned was the case, when after a good deal of conversation, he again begged us to speak sincerely, and tell him at once whether we were willing to negotiate with him or not. "Let us" (he said) "put fair words aside, and come to facts." The Commissioners' reply was: "We have told your Reverence the plain truth. "We have no powers to go on with the negotiation, and we cannot but repeat our former statement." "How is it then" (replied the Cardinal), "that when you first arrived in this country you offered us, of your own accord, 3,000 horse and 1,000 foot, and now you say you have no powers to treat? I confess that I do not understand such strange manner of negotiating, nor can I make out what the cause may be of your tergiversation."
The Commissioners' answer was that the powers in virtue of which the offer had been made were granted under the supposition that the King wished to invade Picardy, not Normandy.
"Well then," (interrupted the Cardinal) "let us at once treat as if the King, my master, wished to invade that province. What do you mean to do for us?"
To this last overture, however, the Commissioners dared make no reply, neither would they accept or refuse it, in compliance with Madame's orders contained in her last letters, and for several other reasons which will be detailed hereafter.
1stly. Because it is doubtful whether the Scottish ambassadors now in London have solicited the marriage alliance as earnestly as they are represented to have done; and it is to be feared that if their offers of peace be rejected they may be induced to push matters forwards, and propose more advantageous conditions.
2dly. Because the English might say that Madame only sent her ambassadors to deceive the people of this country with fair words, and that when the King had condescended to grant all we wanted of him, we drew back and no longer kept our promise, which would have a very bad effect upon the people of this kingdom, and strongly alienate their affections from the Emperor, his various subjects, and Madame in particular.
3dly. As the Cardinal had expressly summoned Mons. de Londres (Tunstall) and Wingfield to the above-mentioned conference, that they might hear all what was there said, and report accordingly to the Emperor, when at his court, the Commissioners fear that if they had committed themselves in the least, and said anything contrary to his wishes or intentions in this affair, they might have caused him displeasure, which is the thing in this world they most wish to avoid.
4thly. Because had the Commissioners answered the Cardinal's overtures in a vague manner, it is very probable that the first thing these ambassadors would have done upon their arrival at the Imperial court would have been to ask the Emperor the very same questions, and as the Emperor will no doubt tell them plainly what his intentions are, the King and Cardinal would have gained their object without being at all thankful to Madame for it.
5thly. That during the conference the Cardinal has told them many a time: "Messieurs les Commissaires, pensez y bien," which words he (the Cardinal) has repeated so often, that they are lost in conjectures about their meaning.
Beg Madame to take in good part whatever has been done and said by them on this occasion. Their only wish is to serve her and the Emperor to the best of their abilities. Should Madame consider it advisable for them to negotiate, particular instructions must be forwarded in all haste. The Commissioners might consider their present charge as executed, and return home, as it is their most ardent wish to do, but they will remain in London until an answer comes to this despatch, or they may otherwise know the Emperor's pleasure.
The Cardinal begs them to say that Madame would do very well to send somebody from that country to accompany the English ambassadors, whose departure, however, is not to be delayed, for they have already taken leave of the King, and are to sail next Saturday.
A paragraph in Madame's last letter to the Commissioners refers to a former one in which they were directed not to insist any longer upon the dismissal of the French ambassadors at this court. They beg to inform Madame that such a letter has not been received, and that when the last came to hand the French ambassadors (fn. 7) had already left.
The Commissioners have not omitted to bring Mons. de Praet's case to the Cardinal's notice as graciously as it was in their power. The Cardinal insists on his punishment, because (he says) many injurious and malicious reports have been sent by him to Spain, Flanders, and principally to the Viceroy of Naples (Charles de Lannoy) in Italy. He says, however, that he will be satisfied if Madame has him punished as he deserves. The Commissioners have told him that Mons. Praet having his commission direct from the Emperor, not from Madame, nothing could be done in Flanders; it was for the Emperor to decide. He replied: "Madame ought to do it, in order to set an example. I will speak to the King, who perhaps will not let him go without his taking his trial in this country," which last words, as Madame may imagine, threw the Commissioners into great confusion.—Londres, le penultieme jour (30th) de Mars.
Signed: "Adolf de Bourgoigne" "J. Laurens," "J. de le Sauch."
Addressed: "A Madame."
French. Original. pp. 7.
31 March.62. The Same to the Same.
K. u. K. Haus-
Hof- u. Staats Arch.
Wien. Rep. P. C.
Fasc. 223. No. 21.
Yesterday, as they were returning from the Cardinal's, the Commissioners met Mons. de Silly (Cilly), bearer of the present despatch, who had just arrived in London with letters and with instructions for Mons. de Praet and himself. After perusing the same and discussing their contents, the Commissioners have been of opinion that before communicating the same to the King and Cardinal, it was advisable that the said Cilly should go to Flanders with the said letters and instructions, in order that being examined there, they should be made acquainted with Madame's pleasure respecting them.
As the Cardinal, however, knew from the English ambassador at the Imperial court that the said Cilly was expected in London, and was to bring certain letters for him; as Cilly, moreover, could not well quit London without paying his respects to the Cardinal, and asking for a passport, it was resolved that the President (Jos. Laurens), who was to go to the Cardinal's for other business, should take him (Cilly) thither, explain his mission as well as the Commissioners' resolution to send him to Flanders for orders, and beg his Reverence the Cardinal to wait a few days until Cilly's return.
As Mons. de Cilly will verbally tell Madame, the Cardinal strongly objected to his going, but, after a good deal of resistance, yielded to the President's entreaties, and consented to his departure, on condition that he (the President) will communicate to him, to-morrow, the substance of the said instructions, which he (the President) has promised to do. He could not do otherwise, as the Cardinal assured him that he knew what the instructions contained, having heard from the English ambassador in Spain what was the nature of Cilly's charge, and what message he brought for the King, his master. And, therefore, to-morrow, according to promise, the said President (Laurens) is to communicate, as graciously as he can, the substance of the Imperial instructions to Mons. de Praet.
Beg to receive Madame's commands respecting their letter of yesterday, the 30th, as well as respecting the papers, letters, and instructions now sent by the bearer, Mons. de Cilly.—London, 31 March 1525.
Signed: "Adolf de Bourgoigne," "J. Laurens," "J. le Sauch."
Addressed: "A Madame."
French. Original. pp. 2.
31 March.63. Louis de Praet, Imperial Ambassador in England, to the Archduchess Margaret.
K. u. K. Haus-
Hof- u. Staats Arch.
Wien. Rep. P. C.
Fasc. 223. No. 23.
Has received Madame's letters touching his recall. Is quite ready to start, as soon as the King will give him a safe-conduct. Has determined to sail from Zealand, for the reasons which Madame will see in his last letters. Yesterday the ambassadors spoke to the Legate about his departure. The Legate's reply was strange and unusual, as Madame will judge from the ambassadors' letters to her. It would seem, indeed, as if the Legate intended to detain him (De Praet) here for punishment, as he says, without giving him a chance of being heard by the Emperor. Such an act would be equally dishonourable to the Emperor and to himself, as it would utterly ruin his reputation. Humbly beseeches Madame to instruct her ambassadors here to obtain permission for his speedy departure, and to represent strongly to the King and Cardinal that the Emperor and Madame could never allow their ambassador to suffer penalty from anyone but themselves, and that after having first heard his defence, especially in a case like the present, in which the plaintiffs, the King and Cardinal, would be the judges. Hopes in fitting time and place to prove to the Emperor and Madame that he has served them both well and loyally. Should it be found otherwise, he (Praet) will then bear with patience whatever penalty the Emperor may see fit to impose upon him.—London, March 31, 1525.
Signed: "Loys de Praet."
Postscriptum.—By the despatch which the present bearer, Cilly, has brought from the Emperor, Madame will see His Majesty's wishes, and the said Cilly will also inform her of the resolution taken thereon by the ambassadors and himself.
Addressed: "Louis de Praet to Madame"
French. Original. p. 1.
31 March.64. Henry the Eighth to the Emperor.
K. u. K. Haus-
Hof- u. Staats Arch.
Wien. Rep. P. C.
Fasc. 223. No. 27.
My most beloved Son:—This present letter is to congratulate you upon your recovery, as also upon the honourable victory which our Lord has been pleased to grant to your arms, having vanquished and taken prisoner the French King, our common enemy. Had it been possible for my most loyal and chief councillor, the Cardinal of York and Legate [of England], to endure—weak and infirm as he is—the fatigue of so long a journey as that from England to Spain, I should have sent him to offer the said congratulations in person, and also to treat of certain matters and things relating to our common affairs. As this my wish, however, cannot be accomplished, I have decided to send towards you my most loyal councillors the Bishop of London and Messire Richard Wingfilde (Wingfield), Knight of my Order, to whom, I pray, you will give full credence in what they may say in my name, promising to stand by and fulfil any engagements they may make for us.—31st March 1525.
Signed: "C'est de la main de votre père, frère, et cousin, et bel oncle, Henry."
French. Holograph. p. 1.

Footnotes

1 This was no doubt Martin de Salinas, who, in 1522, was ambassador of Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria, at the Imperial court.
2 The original has: De Urries, which is evidently a mistake for Du Rœulx or Du Rœux. He probably wished to be the bearer of the news to the Archduke. There must, however, be some error in the date, for if he arrived at Madrid on the 26th, the draft of the Emperor'a letter to Bourbon and Lannoy (see No. 51) must have been antedated.
3 This memorandum, entitled "Justification des, Anglais," under the date of 7th of March, is at page 62.
4 This letter was probably addressed to Commander Peñalosa. The minute has no date.
5 Piacenza and its district.
6 "Et d'auantaige de prendre le roy desmaintenant pour leur superieur pour commettre au regiment du royaulme d'escosse, tel qu'il luy plairoit."
7 Jean Brinon, President of Rouen, and Giovanni Gioachino di Passano, or Jean Jocquin, as called by the French.