July 1525, 11-20


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'Spain: July 1525, 11-20', Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 3 Part 1: 1525-1526 (1873), pp. 234-252. URL: Date accessed: 16 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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July 1525, 11-20

12 July.133. The Same to the Same.
M. Re. Ac d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 35,
f. 39 v..
Has received his letter of the 8th inst., and is glad to hear that M. de Varena (Varennes) is to bring him shortly 3,000 cr. (scuti). Begs that the money be sent as soon as possible, that he (the Duke) may at once carry out his intentions.
Respecting the two caracks which he (Soria) says have been retained. for his intended voyage to Spain, the Duke thanks him for his activity and zeal, and begs that everything may be kept in readiness for the return of the Spanish fleet, so that he may sail at once.
With regard to the pressing wants of the Imperial army the Marquis de Pescara has written at full length. He needs not refer to his letter, and begs that one half of the last credit, after deducting the sums already spent, be appropriated for the soldiers' pay. This can very easily be done, as the last advices from Spain bear that a sum of 50,000 cr. (scuti) is about to be remitted for the wants of the army exclusively. Had the bills arrived there would be no necessity to make use of the former letter of credit, but that not being the case, and the wants of this Imperial army being on the increase. he Soria's hands be forthwith sent to the camp. On the arrival of the second and larger credit, he (Soria) may deduct the sums now advanced and apply the remainder of the money in his hands to the armament of the fleet. Such is the Emperor's intention, as he will see by his original letter, which he now encloses, begging for its return to be kept with other papers.
Does not write by this post to M. de Varennes, his steward, because he fancies that on the arrival of his letter he will be already on his road back.—Novara, 12 July 1525.
Addressed: "To Don Lope de Soria, Imperial Ambassador in Genoa."
Indorsed: "Copy of letter from the Duke de Bourbon to Lope de Soria."
Italian. Contemporary copy. p. 1.
12 July.134. The Duke of Sessa, Imperial Ambassador in Rome, to the Emperor.
M. D. Pasc. d.
G. Pa. r. a. l.
Hist. d. Esp.
Until the departure of Secretary Seron, who left on the 19th June, he (the Duke) has written several times, and at length, on the affairs of Rome and Italy. Since then, on the 2d inst., he has communicated verbally with the Lieutenant of of the Royal Chamber of the Sumaria [at Naples], who is gone to Spain; and, more lately, on the 8th, has written by a courier whom the Archbishop of Capua (Schomberg) despatched by way of France, though he hears that this last has been stopped and his letters seized.
What he (the Duke) has to advise since that date is that everyone [in Italy] is in expectation, he might almost say anxiety, as to what His Imperial Majesty may decide respecting the King of France, because they fancy, and hold even as certain, that the whole affair will terminate in the Emperor becoming the master of all Italy, and reducing its present rulers to such low condition that they will never be able to raise their heads again.
(Cipher:) The foremost in these conjectures and fears are the Venetians, who have not ceased negotiating—as they do at present—with the Pope, and, it is asserted, with the Queen Regent of France also, besides entertaining hopes that England will join them in their plans. The Bishop of Bayoso (Bayeux) and Tricarico has again left this city, on his way to Verona, as he says to visit his family, but in reality to go to Venice, where he met Il Sormano, already well known by this name. (fn. 1) He (the Bishop) is a creature of the French King, who holds him in great esteem owing to his ability and talents. Since the Bishop's departure another agent has come to replace the him, and it is understood that he has there [at Venice] character of an ambassador. He enjoys much credit at this court (Rome), and no small favour with the Datary, and it may be that they are at this moment brewing mischief. The Imperial ambassador in Venice (Alonso Sanchez) is of this same opinion; he thinks that both of them (the Datary and Bishop) are after no good. When the Duke called last on the Pope, he told him frankly that he thought this a very strange way of negotiating, and likely to bring suspicion on those who would not and could not be suspected.
The Pope answered in very fine words, protesting that his only wish had always been to look upon His Imperial Majesty as upon his true son, and to persevere in perpetual union with him, provided, however, he was not altogether cast on one side. That up to this hour he had more to complain of than to praise in the Emperor's behaviour to him, but although he did not deny that most advantageous offers had been made to him, he would listen to none until His Imperial Majesty's decision was made known to him.
The truth of the matter is that since the Viceroy's departure the Pope shows great mistrust and fear. There are many symptoms that in Lombardy the same feeling prevails, such as the sudden departure of the Bishop of Tricarica; (fn. 2) the longer and more frequent audiences granted by the Pope to the Venetian and English ambassadors; the discontent which this latter shows in public whenever he has an opportunity, besides his wonderful propensity to admit and propagate any news, however improbable, tending to confirm their (the confederates') suspicions and fears, all of which are to him (Sessa) so many signs of the feeling prevailing just now among the Italian potentates. The Chevalier Casal came here last and is now gone back to England. It is said that Cardinal (Wolsey) wishes very much to be solicited by these people. The Datary negotiates with them all; and it is publicly said at the Palace that the Duke of Milan is full of apprehension, and has again sent to Venice Chevalier Landriano [to inquire]; so that it would appear that they are communicating amongst each other as Italians; (fn. 3) on the other hand the partisans of France add fuel to the flame, thinking they may thereby obtain better terms for the King.
Many things do they say are to be accomplished through these plans, but the principal foundation seems to be the liberty of Italy.
His Holiness dissembles as much as he can with him. Yet the Duke thinks that if His Imperial Majesty only granted his request, the Pope would continue to be his faithful friend and confederate. On the contrary, should he be refused, he will try every possible invention, and trust to fortune for success.
(Common writing): Has already informed His Imperial Majesty of the receipt of the confirmation of the league which came by way of M. de Bourbon. Having at the same time received orders to present it to the Pope and have it ratified by him under his leaden seal, he (the Duke) had waited on His Holiness, who at once showed a desire that the ratification should be made by the copy of the treaty, which is here enclosed. But as this step seemed to him [the Duke] most prejudicial to the Emperor's interests, he consulted the Lieutenant of the Sumaria and the Imperial advocate thereupon, when both were of opinion that such ratification could not be accepted, because His Imperial Majesty not having confirmed the other articles, His Holiness could not be obliged to confirm these ones. Having since notified to the Pope that the said form of ratification could not be accepted, he has answered that if that is not to our liking, another may be prepared for his inspection. His (the Duke's) idea is that the Pope wishes to gain time until he hears the Emperor's decision concerning the Duke of Ferrara which is the thing he has most at heart.
(Cipher:) The ambassador's impression is that unless the Emperor give the Pope complete satisfaction in, such general matters, and especially in his own private affairs, he is sure to join the confederates [in their intrigues], though he is naturally inclined to a lasting union with His Imperial Majesty.
(Common writing:) Has received on the 8th inst. by the ordinary post the despatch brought by Capt. Bracamonte [to Italy]. Makes his excuses for not having written before, with protestations of his fidelity. Has not availed himself of any of the couriers whom the Archbishop of Capua has sent, because he did not consider them safe; whenever he has, he has, for greater security, used his own private cipher.
His Imperial Majesty's letter to the Pope was by him (the Duke) delivered into his hands. His Holiness seemed to be pleased with its contents. The whole question seems to be reduced to this. The Pope is determined to have Rezzo (Reggio) and Rubiera back, and has again told him (the Duke) to write to [Spain] about it. He (the Pope) cannot see what merits the Duke of Ferrara may have in his Majesty's eyes preferable to his own, nor why he is to be more trusted, nor what disturbance he (the Duke) can make in Italy as long as he (the Pope) remains united with His Imperial Majesty.
Such are the Pope's feelings on this matter; and the ambassador cannot help adding that if this article about Rezzo (Reggio) and Rubiera be included in the treaty, on no other one will His Imperial Majesty find him (the Pope) reluctant, whereas now-a-days the most trivial business, even in ecclesiastic matters, is indefinitely postponed; and it is to be feared that if his demands be ultimately refused, he will do us all the harm he can or dissemble until the time comes for gaining his point.
About the salt of Milan His Holiness makes likewise a great stand. One Domenico Sauli, a Genoese, has just arrived here, who says that he has contracted with the Duke (Francesco Sforza) on the same terms as before, so that the negotiation with the Infante must needs be at a standstill.
He [the Duke] had delivered to His Holiness the message about the memoranda which Don Hugo de Moncada took. He showed much satisfaction, saying that he would purchase universal peace at the price of his own blood; that he was sure His Imperial Majesty was in earnest when he made such offers, and that he waited confidently for the fulfilment of his promises, as from a good and affectionate son, always obedient to the Apostolic See. Notwithstanding this language, he (the Duke) thought that the Pope would not be sorry to be the medium of the negotiations above alluded to.
(Cipher:) Everyone here talks about this matter openly; some fear and others hope. The English ambassadors make no mystery of it, saying in public that the King of France is gone [to Spain] amply provided with the means to bring his case to a satisfactory issue.
(Common writing:) The Archbishop of Capua continues at the head of affairs, transacting all State business, though he now and then has to suffer a rebuke, owing to the reserves made in Spain in this matter of the ratification, as well as to the Viceroy's sudden departure, and to the bad impression which the latter is known to have carried with him of the Pope's late doings.
(Cipher:) The Datary conducts as usual the affairs of his office, but meddles also underhand with politics, and receives all those who come here for the aforesaid negotiations. True, he dissembles as much as he can, pretending that he has nothing to do with these matters, but he [the Duke] would swear to the contrary, since there is no affair, great or small, that the Pope does not communicate to him, he being his only pet son. He goes about as a frightened man, conscious of his sin; and it is to be feared that he is now treating with our enemies, knowing, as he does, that he has lost for ever the Emperor's grace, as some of his friends have written to him from Court.
Miçer Agustin Folleta is a good servant of His Imperial Majesty, and consequently has been deprived of his usual place [in the Council?]. He has been for several days wanting to see the Pope, but has not yet obtained an audience. He (the Duke) cannot guess what has occurred between them. Micer Agustin most humbly kisses His Imperial Majesty's hands for the pension of 500 ducats granted to him on the bishopric of Mazara.
(Common writing:) Letters from England have been received here of the 14th last. The English ambassador has told him (the Duke), almost in a tone of condolence, that Commander Peñalosa had made in the Emperor's name most preposterous demands, asking, among other things, that the Princess (Mary) should at once be delivered into his hands, and that they (the English) should contribute with 400,000 ducats towards the expenses of the war in those parts, besides 200,000 more for Italy. (fn. 4) They had answered him (Peñalosa) that they would wait until their ambassadors in Spain had sent the Emperor's answer to their representations. The Duke replied to the ambassador that the demand respecting the Princess [Mary] seemed to him a just one; she had been promised in marriage to the Emperor; the Spanish Estates General (Cortes) were continually urging him to contract matrimony, in order to get a succession, and he could not help giving them satisfaction on this head. That as regards the money, he (the Duke) did not think the sum excessive; on the contrary, a very moderate one, considering that the King of England claimed also the crown of France. In his (the Duke's) opinion it was the King's answer that was most strange and preposterous, not the demands made by His Imperial Majesty. He (the Duke) sees nothing in those people (the English) worthy of praise, neither in their doings in the last war, nor in any part taken by them in the victory [of Pavia]; and, as to money, they have only contributed a small sum out of the 50,000 ducats which they promised, and even those they gave on the most niggardly and humiliating terms.
(Cipher:) The negotiation with Venice has not advanced, in the least. They have agreed to offer 80,000 ducats, but though the sum is much lower than might have been expected, various pretences are put forward for not paying the money, and in the meanwhile the afore-mentioned intrigues are going on.
(Common writing:) Church provisions, and presentation to various bishoprics. Cardinal Colonna has resigned the archbishopric of Rosano in favour of a servant of his, named Penpinelo. He has also obtained that of Aquila in exchange for the bishopric of Sienna.
The Marquis of Pescara has written to him (the Duke) concerning the wants of the army under his command, and requesting that the Viceroy of Naples should provide for the pay of the men-at-arms. He [the Duke] has done what he could in the matter, and written to the Viceroy about it; he has, moreover, advised the Marquis to ask the people of Sienna to pay him the 15,000 ducats which they offered to Secretary Seron. For this end he (the Duke) has sent to Sienna Knight Commander Aguilera.
The bill of exchange which His Imperial Majesty announced as having been sent to the Viceroy of Naples, that he might pay the sums borrowed by him (the Duke), has not yet arrived. Waits anxiously for a settlement of his creditors, without which he and the Spaniards who became securities for the borrowed sum must need constitute themselves prisoners.
About ecclesiastical provisions, he (the Duke) will do all he can, though there never has been in this court so bad a prospect as there is now. Ever since the departure of Cardinal Sanctiquatro (Sanctiquatuor), who, not very pleased and under the plea of ill-health, has left for Florence the Pope has entrusted his office to Juan Vincle, a German, who, except in cases of extreme justice, or when a bribe is offered, transacts no business at all. In cases of grace his answer is generally that when His Imperial Majesty favours the Pope then it will be time for reciprocity. He (the Duke) thinks that the brief applied for by the Bishop of Siguença (D. Fadrique de Portugal) will be issued, but that they will refuse to confirm that of the Archbishop of Saragossa, the Pope having often told him (the Duke) that it had been the cause of all the troubles and rebellions in those kingdoms. Respecting the affair of Juan Baptiste de Diviciis, he (the Duke) has spoken to him (the Pope) in the terms prescribed by His Imperial Majesty, though without success. He will on the first opportunity repeat his application, as well as bring before His Holiness the case of Montaragon, Santa Christina, and other abbeys, about which, however, he (the Duke) sees no chance of a speedy and favourable decision.
Some days ago there came here a canon of the church of Avila, called Maldonado, with a letter from His Imperial Majesty to the Pope, and a petition asking for the revenues of the Cruzada. He (the Duke), before delivering the letter, sounded the Pope upon it. He answered in very fine words, but promised nothing. Conversing some days later with the Archbishop of Capua on the subject, he said: "How can His Imperial Majesty expect that the Pope will grant him grace, when he refuses him what is but just and reasonable? Let the Emperor give His Holiness satisfaction, and nothing shall be refused to him."
In short, having since had occasion again to speak to His Holiness on the subject, he expressed himself in very plain terms, saying that it was well known at Rome of what importance the grant of the Cruzada was, as now demanded by His Imperial Majesty, since it was the surest and quickest mode of procuring money in those kingdoms (of Spain), the revenues of that institution exceeding annually the sum of 500,000 ducats. It was no inconsiderable thing to make such a grant without previously consulting the Cardinals, who, seeing that His Imperial Majesty was so backward in conceding what so nearly touched his own honour and that of the Church, would necessarily hesitate in making so splendid a grant.
Respecting the Cardinal's hats to be given to the Chancellor and to the Bishop of Moriana, there is no need to say anything; it is a settled matter.
The affairs of Sienna continue in the same state. They (the citizens) attempted some time ago to pass sentence of exile (confinar) on all the absentees, who are upwards of eighty in number, and the wealthiest in the place, going so far as to confiscate and sell the estates of some of them under the plea that they were usurped from the people; and though he (the Duke) wrote to them not to interfere in such matters until His Imperial Majesty's pleasure should be known, they took no notice of his warnings, and went on with their arbitrary proceedings. But on the arrival of Commander Aguilera, whom he (the Duke) sent thither, as before stated, for the sake of the proffered money, they promised to refrain from certain acts, though without specifying which. He (the Duke) is of opinion that they ought to be summoned in due form, because if they are allowed freely to indulge in their passions, which they call liberty, no means is left to His Imperial Majesty to bridle them, and turn them to use in case of emergency. They have lately given to a brother of Cardinal Colonna the command of their cavalry, with an annual sum equivalent to that appointed for the maintenance of 100 men-at-arms of His Imperial Majesty. It is understood that they are about to send Severino as their ambassador [to Spain]. His Majesty ought to hear both parties. He (the Duke) has not been able to go thither, as he intended, for reasons which have been fully explained in his previous letters.
In Germany the Diet is being held. No intelligence has yet been received of what they have proposed, nor of the answer made by the Infante (Archduke), with the exception of a few articles about which the Archbishop of Capua has been advised. The 20,000 ducats which the Pope is to give are at very long dates. The peasants, it is stated, are every day losing ground, and many are slain in daily encounters.
His Imperial Majesty's arrival in Italy is generally credited, especially after the orders that have been given to the fleet of Genoa to get ready for sea-service. Most people wish for it, and are already dreaming of new dominions and changes of estates, but those now in possession are full of fear and confusion. His Holiness the Pope affects not to believe in the Emperor's visit, but to wish for it, saying that if it takes place it will be for the benefit of Christianity, as expected from so great a Prince. He hopes, however, that before undertaking the journey, His Majesty will inform him of it, and that the affairs of Italy will be in better plight than they are at present.—Rome, 12 July 1525.
Signed: "El Duque de Sessa."
Postscriptum.—After writing the above, he (the Duke) has seen the Pope again upon the Montaragon business. The first tiling he did was to show him the copy of a Royal ordinance which His Imperial Majesty has ordered to be promulgated in his kingdoms of Aragon for the protection of his jus patronati, adding: "After such a step as this taken by the Emperor, there remains nothing for me to do. If Church business is to be treated in this manner, I had better retire at once to Mount Soracte." It was of no avail telling him that no harm whatever was to be apprehended from the measure; he (the Pope) would not listen to him, and ended by saying that at first he was inclined to please His Imperial Majesty by committing the whole affair to the Legate, as requested; but seeing the present proceeding he could not help showing his grief at the manner he had been treated, and demand satisfaction from His Imperial Majesty. He (the Duke) placed before him the danger of not acquiescing at once in the Imperial wishes, and the evils that might result from the Holy See refusing to sanction similar ordinances; that greater evils might now be apprehended, and that it was very hard to deny to His Imperial Majesty that which was commonly granted to a private individual; that ecclesiastic causes were every day taken out of the Rotta and put into the hands of Cardinals, etc. To this the Pope replied that he was determined to act thus for the present, and that it would take some time before his resolution was changed. He (the Duke) has thought fit to inform His Imperial Majesty of what is going on, and that this affair is to be committed to the Pope's Nuncio at that Imperial court, in order that he may personally resent [the offence].
(Cipher:) Chevalier Casale has departed. He sent one of his men to make his excuses for not taking leave of him (the Duke), for whom he says he professes great friendship. He goes post-haste. As before stated, his departure at the present time has been so sudden, and is so much without motive, that it gives rise to much suspicion. Should he (the Duke) gain any intelligence as to the intentions and plans of the ambassador, he shall not fail to advise His Imperial Majesty.
Enclosed is the news received from Germany.
Signed: "El Duque de Sessa."
Addressed: "To the most Sacred and Invincible Emperor, King of Spain and of the two Sicilies."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1525. From the Duke of Sessa, 12 July."
Spanish. Original partly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet. pp. 11.
12 July.135. The Same to the Same.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 35,
pp. 35–37.
After writing the enclosed he (the Duke) has heard from a reliable source (fn. 5) that the Pope has sent orders to the Marquis of Mantua to increase his men-at-arms and light cavalry, and to raise besides 2,000 infantry. Similar orders have been sent by him (the Pope) to Count Guido Rangone, and to Joanin (Giovannino) de Medicis. Is not sure that this intelligence is true, but seeing the Chevalier Casale go away in haste at the present moment, and without any apparent motive, as he (Sessa)has already informed His Imperial Majesty, and hearing that the Venetians are also making great preparations, fears that his information is quite correct. As the rest [of the confederates] have money at hand, and His Holiness is pretty sure of prevailing on the Florentines to follow his opinion, and surmounting other minor obstacles in his way, he (Sessa) is very much afraid that His Imperial Majesty's affairs [in Italy] may suddenly be thrown into confusion. He is the more inclined to believe this that he sees the Pope practise dissimulation with him at times on the most trivial applications on Church affairs, openly showing his discontent and ill-humour on other occasions, or when he feels that he is observed, appearing more temperate and calm. Holds it as certain that the Archbishop of Capua is not aware of these secret negotiations going on between the confederates. As soon as he (Sessa) got a knowledge of them, he wrote to the Marquis of Pescara. He now informs His Imperial Majesty of the whole affair, though at the same time the matter is of such importance that he dares not vouch for the truth of the above report. Will try to obtain more positive information. As far as he can judge, it is through the Datary that the whole intrigue is conducted. His Imperial Majesty may be certain that there are negotiations on foot between these people, of paramount importance and very prejudicial to the Imperial service. They are mostly caused by despair. Is very much afraid that the farce will begin with the Sienna question. (fn. 6) Will do his best to procure positive information of the whole intrigue, and, when obtained, will not fail to apprise His Imperial Majesty of it by one or more express couriers if necessary. In the meantime, the whole thing must be kept secret, for it would not be prudent just now to let these people know that we suspect them. We must, on the contrary, treat them as if they were our most staunch friends.—Rome, 12 July 1525.
Signed: "El Duque de Sessa."
Addressed: "To His Sacred, Imperial, Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1525. From the Duke of Sessa, 12 July 1525."
Spanish. In Cipher. Contemporary deciphering. pp. 2.
12 July.136. Pedro Jurdan de Urries to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 35,
f. 41.
Most Sacred, Imperial and Catholic Majesty.—I, the undersigned, came to this city in company with M. de la Roche, for the purpose of pleading suit for the abbacy of Montaragon, which your Majesty was pleased to confer on me after the death of its late possessor, the Archbishop of Saragossa. (fn. 7) I have from time to time written home in order that your Majesty should be rightly informed of the state of affairs in this city; but as I am not sure that my letters have reached their destination, I send the present, humbly requesting your Majesty to appoint as an ambassador at this Papal court, one who may not be wishing to be created a cardinal and to hold benefices in the Church, and who may also prevent the Datary from interfering as he does in your Majesty's affairs and the provision of ecclesiastical benefices within the Imperial dominions. I humbly beseech your Imperial Majesty to come over as soon as possible here to obtain the empire of the whole world. It is no interest of my own that prompts me to speak out in this manner, but only the love of the Imperial service and of the increase of our Holy Faith, the importance and revenues of the abbacy of Montaragon not being sufficient to make me write things against the Imperial service. I am, and shall always be, a faithful servant of your Imperial Majesty, ready to execute your commands at any time, and if I wish for preferment and worldly weal, it is only for the better service of your Imperial Majesty.
And since the Viceroy of Naples [Charles de Lannoy] must by this time be in Spain, I firmly believe that, with his opinion and advice, your Imperial Majesty will soon make the necessary provision, and that by visiting these countries will have occasion to appreciate his true and loyal servants. —Rome, 12 July 1525.
Signed: "Pedro Jurdan de Vrries."
Addressed: "To the Sacred, Imperial, Catholic Majesty of the Emperor, our Lord."
Indorsed: "To His Majesty. From Pedro Jurdan de Vrries, 12 July 1525. Answered."
Spanish. Holograph. p. 1.
12 July.137. Paragraph of Letter from Protonotary Caracciolo to the Emperor. (In cipher.)
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 35,
fol. 75.
By letters dated from Antwerp of the 19th [ult.], intelligence had been received here that the ambassadors of France were about to sail for England, accompanied by Joachino. It is also reported that another ambassador has come from England [to France?] with proposals showing that the King is not at all satisfied either with His Imperial Majesty's growing power or with Rome. (fn. 8) It is, moreover, understood that the English ambassadors talk openly enough against the Emperor and his ministers, and against his recent increase of power, to arrest which they offer their co-operation and help. Gregory de Casale has left Rome, and is now returning to England. He is to take the route through France. In Italy, however, there is no stir of arms for the present. He (Caracciolo) calculates that the Princes are waiting to see what decision the Emperor will take respecting their affairs, after hearing the advice of the Viceroy of Naples, All are in a state of suspense.
Italian. Holograph. Contemporary deciphering. p. 1.
13 July.138. Lope de Soria, Imperial Ambassador in Genoa, to the Marquis of Pescara. (fn. 9)
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 37,
f. 452.
After writing the enclosed, Jaime Perez de Nueros arrived in this town (Genoa), bringing letters from him (Pescara) and from the Duke of Bourbon, besides a copy of what the Emperor writes to the latter respecting the use to be made of the money in his (Soria's) hands. No one is a better servant of the Marquis, but on the present occasion cannot comply with his wishes. The mandates of kings must be strictly obeyed, especially in State matters and with respect to money, which, when once spent, cannot be easily replaced. The Emperor's orders are that he (Soria) is to attend principally to the fitting-out of the fleet of galleys that is to take the Duke [of Bourbon] to Spain. This appears also to have been the Duke's wish. He now writes to say that, independently of the sums required for the above service, he (Soria) is to remit 12,000 ducats for the use of the Imperial army in the duchy [of Milan]. Cannot possibly attend to both demands. Sees by the copy of the Emperor's letter to Mons, de Bourbon that if the wants of the army are such as he represents, a portion of the money destined to the fleet may with his consent be applied to that purpose. Finds himself in a most awkward position, because, wishing to content both parties, does not know how to manage if he is to conciliate the Emperor's service with his own reputation. Is now writing to the Duke [of Bourbon] that if he thinks that the naval preparations for his intended voyage [to Spain] had better be suspended, and what has been already spent in that service thrown away, he had better tell him so at once, and depute a person properly empowered to receive the money. In this manner only can he (Soria) please the Marquis. Is aware how difficult it is to manage soldiers when there is no money to give them.
The Marquis, however, must bear in mind that this last remittance amounts only to 21,900 ducats, or rather less, for although the original bill was 24,800, the ducats are three libras or eight sueldos less than the crown (escudo) of this country, so that they will be reduced to 20,100. Out of these 3,000 have been remitted to the Duke; 3,000 spent in flour to make biscuit for the caracks that are to take the Duke's horses and heavy luggage, and in other minor expenses.
Should the Duke be absent, he (Soria) begs the Marquis to read his letter to the former. In a like manner has begged the Duke to open and read his letter to the Marquis, so that each of them may duly appreciate his excuses.
The brigantine that is to take a messenger [to Spain] is ready to set sail.—Genoa, [13 July 1525].
Indorsed: "Copy of what the ambassador, Lope de Soria, writes to the Marquis of Pescara."
Spanish. Contemporary copy. pp. 2¼.
13 July.139. Commander Aguilera to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 35,
f. 42.
Has come to Siena by the command of the Duke of Sessa for three different objects, more or less important to the Imperial service. 1stly. To demand from the Signory 15,000 ducats for the maintenance of the army now in Lombardy. 2dly. To inquire into the form of government established in this city, and see whether it is fit for God's service and the exoneration of the Imperial conscience. 3dly. To put a stop to the hostilities and feuds now existing between the citizens, and see that no damage is done either to property or person until His Imperial Majesty provides for the whole and decides on the form of government to be adopted, so that God's service and the Emperor's may be accomplished.
Since his arrival in this city Commander Aguilera has carefully attended to the above business, according to the instructions received from the Duke of Sessa; but as the Signory has since appointed ambassadors, who are to go to the Imperial court and report on the above and other matters—one of them being Hieronimo Severino, who is rightly held as the man best disposed to the Imperial cause—the object of the present letter is merely to state what he (the Commander) has done in fulfilment of his commission.
Respecting the service in money, the citizens are so poor at present, and so much in debt, that they are incapable of raising among them the 15,000 ducats demanded. The members of the Government, however, who seem all well disposed, and show a strong inclination towards the Imperial cause, have assured him (Commander Aguilera) that if His Majesty will only confirm the privileges granted to the city by his predecessors, they will be able to raise among the citizens the above 15,000 ducats, or any sum that may be required, as a contribution towards the maintenance of the Imperial army.
With regard to the form of government, he can only say that it is both orderly and just, and that no better one could be devised for the service of God and of His Imperial Majesty. Justice is administered to all classes of society, much better than it ever was of old, and nobody seems to complain. The citizens in general are so much attached to the Imperial cause that, in his opinion, the Emperor may command them as he would the inhabitants of Valladolid or of any other town in Spain. Indeed, San Severino, who is, without dispute, the most influential and active amongst them, is, heart and soul, an Imperialist, and hardly anything is done without his advice and consent, for which reason he is well deserving of the Imperial favours.
As to the suspension of all measures against the outlaws (foraxidos) which he (the Commander) has been instructed to procure, he can only say that at his request the Governors of Sienna have consented to stay all manner of criminal proceedings against them until the Emperor's pleasure be made known to them. These foraxidos, or outlaws, are the same who, following the banners of the Duke of Albany, took service in behalf of the French King, and supplied money and artillery; seven or eight of the principal citizens, who promoted the riot in which Alessandro Vique (Bichi) lost his life. It is said that their intention was on that occasion to have Severino assassinated, because of his being so much attached to the Imperial cause and their being afraid of things coming to the state in which they are now.—Siena, 13 July 1525.
Signed: "El Comenddor Aguilera."
Addressed: "To the Sacred, Imperial, Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1525. From Commander Aguilera, 13th July. Answered."
Spanish. Original. p. 1¼.
14 July.140. The Duke of Sessa, Imperial Ambassador in Rome to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 35,
ff. 46–9.
(Cipher:) Hearing that a courier was being despatched from Naples, he (the Duke) determined to send by him a duplicate of his letter of the 12th, and, if possible, to communicate such news as he had been able to gather since he wrote last.
As he (the Duke) could not ascertain the truth of the report mentioned in his last letter concerning the military preparations made by the Marquis of Mantua and other captains, and as some days must have elapsed before he could obtain the desired information, he determined at once to call on His Holiness and ask him about it, which he did, mentioning to him [the Pope] the rumours that were afloat, and expressing his astonishment. The Pope at once swore that it was a joke (burla), and that his intention was the same already manifested on another occasion; he would not change even if His Imperial Majesty entirely excluded him from the league, and treated him as a stranger. He (the Duke) answered as he best could, but, notwithstanding all the Pope's protests, he can certify His Imperial Majesty that the day before the departure (for England) of Chevalier Casal, Gismond, the King of France's secretary, left also post-haste (for Paris) to Madame the Regent, taking with him a memorandum of the plot that is being concerted here. His Imperial Majesty may be certain that His Holiness will hesitate and waver until he sees clearly what advantages he may derive from one or other party, and will then act accordingly. He (the Duke) persists in his first idea, that the Pope will always prefer moderate terms from His Imperial Majesty to very good ones from his (the Emperor's) enemies; should he be repulsed in Spain, and find here some stone whereupon to rest his foot, there can scarcely be any doubt that he will make use of it. For this indecision everyone here seems to blame him.
All has originated in the discontent shown in England. It is they (the English) who are now disturbing in their slumber those who ought to be reposing in their tombs. The Venetians, on the other hand, are doing all they can to foster the negotiations; their ambassador (Marco Foscari) here is never at rest; but it is to be hoped that his activity will meet with the same reward as before. Among the discontented is the Duke of Milan, whom they have succeeded in attaching to their cause by making him fear a change in the dominions of Italy. Neither have they forgotten the Duke of Ferrara, instilling into his mind similar fears of dispossession, &c.
(Common writing:) Respecting ecclesiastical provisions, he (the Duke) has advanced nothing of late. Finds great difficulties in his way, specially in what concerns the Abbey of Saint Envil and the Priory of Sancta Christina.—Rome, 14 July 1525.
Signed: "El Duque de Sessa."
P.S.—The departure of the Duke of Savoy (Carlo Emanuele) for His Imperial Majesty's court has been confirmed here; likewise that the Duke of Bourbon has been sent for. All this is a proof that the agreement with the King of France is not so much advanced as some affect to believe; and it need not be observed that the generality of the people here are very glad to hear it.
Addressed: "To the Sacred, Imperial, Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed: "Duplicate of the 14th July. To the King. 1525. From the Duke of Sessa."
Spanish. Original partly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet. pp. 2.
14 July.141. Lope de Soria, Imperial Ambassador in Genoa, to the Emperor.
M. D. Pasc. d. G.
Pa. r. a. l. Hist.
d. Esp. No. 36.
His last letters were of the 7th and 8th inst. The former went by Secretary Seron, the latter by a brigantine from Barcelona that brought the despatch of the 21st June last for the Duke of Bourbon.
On the receipt of the Imperial letter, in date of the 20th of June, and of the enclosed from the Duke of Bourbon, he (Lope de Soria) called upon the Doge and concerted with him the immediate fitting-out of the five caracks now in port. Hopes they will be ready and fully victualled against the arrival of the galleys, and that the Duke will be able to undertake his voyage [to Spain] whenever he wishes.
Encloses copies of letters received yesterday from the Duke [of Bourbon] and from the Marquis of Pescara, urgently asking for one half of the 24,800 ducats which His Imperial Majesty has lately remitted for the expenses of the fleet; and certainly he (Soria) has been thrown in great confusion and doubt by the said demand, because if, on the one hand, the wants of the Imperial army are very great, he has strict orders to apply the funds in his possession exclusively to the fitting-out of the fleet that is to convey the Duke to Spain. Has already sent 3,000 ducats to Mons. de Bourbon for his own private expenses, but, much as he would wish to comply with the Marquis' urgent request, he cannot, without further orders from Court, make up his mind to apply any funds to the wants of the army.
Cardinal Salviatis, who goes as the Pope's Legate to His Imperial Majesty, and the Grand Master of Rhodes touched at this port on the 8th inst.
Andrea del Borgo is at three days journey from hence, on his road to Genoa, where he is to embark for Spain, on a mission from the Archduke (Ferdinand). The Lieutenant of the Sumaria of Naples also left Home on the 8th, on a visit to His Imperial Majesty.
Addressed: "To the most Sacred Imperial Majesty."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1525. Lope de Soria, Genoa, 14 July. Answered."
Spanish. Original. pp. 2.
16 July.142. The Abbot of Najera. to the Emperor.
M. D. Pasc. d. G.
Pa. r. a. l. Hist.
d. Esp.
Wrote on the 8th inst., informing His Imperial Majesty of the scarcity of funds for the maintenance of this army, and likewise of the negotiations which Venetians and other Italian powers were conducting in France. Gave also other advices, as His Imperial Majesty must have seen by his letters.
What he has now to say is that, according to a letter of the 6th inst. which Jacopo Bannisis writes to the Duke of Milan and to Hieronimo Morone, Gregorio de Casal (Sir Gregory Casalis), agent to the King of England, had actually persuaded His Holiness, the Pope, to enter with the other Italian powers into a defensive and offensive league against His Imperial Majesty, with a view to diminish, as they say, the strength or check the growth of the Empire. It is said that, after many conferences held for that purpose, the Pope has consented to the said Gregory Casal returning immediately to England, that he may concoct there some sort of dilatory negotiation, and wait to see what His Imperial Majesty is likely to do after the arrival of the French King in Spain, and also whether the King of England intends to persevere in this new line of politics, devised, as is asserted, by the said Gregory Casale, who has not yet left Rome. Believes that when he does set out on his journey, he will come by way of Milan. Both the Duke and Hieronimo Morone have promised to do all they can to ascertain what the said Casale is going to England for, and, if they do, they will not fail to inform the Duke of Bourbon, the Marquis of Pescara, and Antonio de Leyva. He (the Abbot) will lose no time in acquainting His Imperial Majesty with anything that may come to his knowledge.
The Bishop of Vayus (Bayeux), they say, is trying to draw the Venetians into the league, but hitherto without success. They (the Venetians) have not yet declared their intentions on this particular, nor is it generally believed that the Signory or the rest of Italian potentates will enter into a league or in any way declare themselves against His Imperial Majesty, unless the state of suspense in which they all are is indefinitely protracted, or unless they discover that His Imperial Majesty is likely to come to an agreement with the King of France to their detriment, for in that case they are almost sure to join the Italian league. Only on this last supposition, or under the impression of fear, can it be anticipated that people who owe so much to the Emperor can be drawn into a confederacy against him.
On the 12th inst. the Marquis del Guasto took possession of Saluzzo, where the Marchioness was with her son. 1,500 Germans are already quartered on her estate. The Marchioness has lately sent a message to the Duke of Bourbon and to the Marquis de Pescara, asking for leave to occupy the castle of Rebello in the neighbourhood of Saluzzo, and to remain there a month in expectation of the Emperor's final decision. If at the expiration of the said period, the marquisate should be given to another, she will surrender the castle. Presumes that this capitulation will be accepted by the Duke [of Bourbon], provided the Marchioness delivers all her estates and castles.
The Count of Geneva is expected to-day in Milan to settle about the quartering of the troops in the estates of his brother, the Duke of Savoy (Carlo Emanuele). The inhabitants of walled towns offer some resistance against receiving our soldiers. They will in the end be compelled to do it, or make some sort of compensation in money that the men may be enabled to go elsewhere; otherwise there is no possibility of maintaining this army.
Lope de Soria has always refused, and still refuses, to give up for the wants of this army the 25,000 ducats which His Imperial Majesty ordered to be remitted to him for the expenses of the fleet, unless the Duke of Bourbon and the Marquis of Pescara ask him for them and send a person duly empowered to receive the money. The Duke was willing that only one half of the above sum should be used for the wants of this army, and wrote accordingly to Soria; but when the latter applied for the money, Estevan (Stefano) de Grimaldo showed letters from his brothers (in Spain) bidding him not to pay the bills until further advice. Estevan (Stefano), however, had already accepted the bills, and could not help honouring them; he has already paid about one third of the amount, or 7,000 cr. (escudos), out of which 3,000 were handed over to the Duke of Bourbon's agent; the remainder the ambassador kept to buy biscuit and other provisions for the fleet.
News have come from Naples that the bills for 15,000 ducats drawn from this city (Milan) have been accepted; that they had sent 15,000 more in bills by a captain named Sancho Lopez, and will shortly remit 10,000 more. Of the 10,000 ducats of Sienna, 5,000 of Lucca, and 5,000 more of England which remain to be paid at Venice, there is no means of getting a quatrino.—Novara, 16 July 1525.
Signed: "El Abbad de Najera."
Addressed: "To the most Sacred, Imperial and Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1525. From the Abbot of Najera, 16th July."
Spanish. Holograph. pp. 4.
17 July.143. Prothonotary Caracciolo, Imperial Ambassador in Venice, to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 35,
f. 75.
(Cipher:) Has heard by letters dated from Antwerp, the 19th June, that ambassadors from France, and, among them, Joachino (Passano), were crossing over to England. That another ambassador had come from England [to Lyons], proposing terms and conditions not very advantageous to His Imperial Majesty. At Rome it is a known fact that the English ambassadors speak their mind freely respecting His Imperial Majesty and his ministers, showing discontent at his (the Emperor's) aggrandisement, and promising that the King, their master, will readily co-operate in any plan tending to diminish the said growth of power. Gregorio Casale is coming back from Rome on his way to England; and he (Caracciolo) has been told that his intention is to pass through France. In Italy, however, there is at present no stir of arms, and his opinion is that all are waiting to hear the Emperor's decision. (fn. 10) —Milan, 17 July 1525.
Signed: "Il Protonotario Caracciolo."
Addressed: "To the most Sacred, Imperial, Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1525. From Prothonotary Caracciolo, 17 July."
Italian. Original in cipher. Contemporary deciphering. pp. 2.
20 July.144. The Emperor to the Duke of Sessa, Imperial Ambassador in Rome.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Muñoz, A. 56,
f. 225.
Has received his letters of the 18th, 23d, and 24th of May.
The Viceroy of Naples has come with the King of France to Spain. The King is already at Valencia. He (the Emperor) wishes to conclude a general peace, and thinks the King of France is equally inclined. Madame Dalanchon (d'Alençon), the King's sister, and Monsieur de Bourbon are likewise on their way to Spain, the former to negotiate about the peace, and contribute by her presence to the settlement of all differences between the King, her brother, and him. The King of England, on the other hand, is also desirous of peace, and has sent powers and instructions to that effect to his ambassadors in Spain. He (Sessa) is to request the Pope, in the Emperor's name, to send his Nuncio [in Spain] full powers to conclude peace.
Affairs of France.
The King of England, as his ambassadors represent, has no other intention save to conclude an honourable peace. It is quite false, as reported at Rome, that he advises a general attack on France. Hopes to God everything will end well.
Encloses an answer to the College of Cardinals concerning their application for a pension of 10,000 ducats on the see of Toledo. He (Sessa) is to deliver it in person.
Spanish. Original draft. pp. 6.


1 "Partido tomó. otra via y en un mismo tiempo fue en Venecia con el Sormano, que ya se debe conocer por este nombre."
2 The Bishop of Bayeux, named in a former despatch.
3 "De manera que parece que hablan entre si como Italianos."
4 "Y este embaxador me ha dicho casi doliendose que el Comendador Peñalosa fue [a Inglaterra] con demandas de V. Mag. muy estrañas; que demandaba que le entregassen luego la Princessa y que contribuyesen con 400,000 ducados para hazer la guerra por esas partes y con 200,000 para la destas."
5 "Me han avisado de un lugar do me suelen decir Turquia (Turkey). This seems to be a mistake of the deciphering clerk, who, instead of bue, which means verdad (truth), read buc, i.e., Turquia."
6 "De temor no comience la burla por lo de Sena."
7 Don Alonso de Aragon, natural son of King Ferdinand.
8 "Che propone partiti demostrativi de poca contenteza de la grandeza de V. Mag. et de Roma."
9 This letter, without either date or signature, but which must have been written about the 13th July, before Bourbon's voyage to Spain, is placed in the volume A. 37 of the Royal Academy of History at Madrid, among letters of papers of the year 1526.
10 Though bearing a different date this letter seems to be a repetition of the one at page 226, dated 5 July.