September 1531, 1-30


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'Spain: September 1531, 1-30', Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 4 Part 2: 1531-1533 (1882), pp. 233-251. URL: Date accessed: 16 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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September 1531, 1-30

1 Sept.782. Francisco de los Covos to Miçer Mai.
S. E. L. 853, f. 8.
B. M. Add. 28,583,
f. 364.
No attention should be paid to what the duke of Albany may say. You must be very guarded in your answers, especially in what concerns Italy, and inform us of every new move. His Imperial Majesty is determined not to make any move, but leave things as they are at present.
Should the bishop of Oxerra (Auxerre) (fn. 1) speak to you about the object of his mission, or about the King's wishes respecting the Council, you will answer him in conformity with the Emperor's declaration to the Legate here, and you must also try to ascertain what other designs the said ambassador has.
No one desires more than the Emperor the complete settlement of the affairs of Germany. Once there he will see what had better be done.
Your own fears and the Pope's about the meeting of cavalry and men-at-arms in Saluzzo proved to be without foundation.
You must insist always, and whenever there is an opportunity, upon a cardinal's hat being given to the lord of Monaco (Agostino Grimaldi). I hear that all the benefices that bishop had once in France have been sequestered, and it is but just after proroguing—as His Holiness has just done—his reserve of Grasso (Grasse) for six months more, that he should get a more substantial reward for his services.
The wilful accusations proffered against the Emperor that he is about to take the duke of Ferrara and his estate under his protection, and that in Bus Holiness' disputes with the Venetians he intends taking the side of the latter, are wholly untrue. You may at once assure His Holiness that our common master, the Emperor, will not say or do anything against him or the Holy Apostolic See.
Escalengas (De Scalengues) has been written to.
With regard to the castellan of Mus (Gian Jacopo de' Medici) orders have been sent to prothonotary Caracciolo at Milan to try and settle his differences with the Duke (Francesco Sforza).
What you yourself wrote about an undertaking against Alessandria, and more recently against Cairo, or Modon, as recommended by the duke of Albany, has no foundation at all for the present.
Spanish. Original draft pp. 3.
1 Sept.783. Miçee Mai to the Emperor.
S. E. L. 853, f. 82.
B. M. Add. 28,583,
f. 371.
The Emperor's letters brought by Hieronimo Loarch (fn. 2) came duly to hand. Gave His Holiness that which came for him respecting the Council. He became rather thoughtful after reading it, especially as he knew already from his Legate what the answer was likely to be. Having been told not to press him on these matters, he (Mai) refrained from further allusion to the subject. Yet his silence must have increased the Pope's suspicions, for he said to him a few days since that whilst the French on the one hand claimed the merit of having succeeded in putting off (desviar) the Council, they had on the other threatened him that unless he did what they wanted in other matters they would have their revenge. On the whole, it may be confìdentlly asserted that this Council is for these people (the Romans) a sort of bug-bear (la piedra del Escandalo). So afraid are they of it that some time ago it was rumoured among the cardinals—and Cesarino repeated it to him (Mai)—that the Emperor was only promoting its celebration that he might keep them in subjection.
Wrote [on the 8th of June] that the Pope had stated that Tarbes had brought here [to Rome] letters from the duke of Saxony (George), the landgrave [of Hesse], and the free cities of Germany to the king of France, shewing that the French were likely to bring us soon into trouble. Tried to ascertain from His Holiness whether he himself had seen the letters. His answer was that he had not, but that he was convinced that such letters had been written; Tarbes could hardly have forged them. He (Mai) believes in them, for he recollects very well that a few days before the departure of that ambassador for France he and his colleagues were distinctly told that a secretary of the duke of Saxony (fn. 3) had arrived at the Court of France with letters of credence from his master. He said so to the Pope, who repeated it to Maestre Fernando, his physician, and to others. Even now the rumour is very prevalent among the cardinals of the French party.—Borne, 1st September 1531.
Signed: "Mai"
Addressed: "To the Sacred Majesty of the Emperor and King, &c."
Spanish. Original. pp. 2.
1 Sept.784. The Same to the High Commander.
S.E.L. 853,f. 77.
B..M.Add. 28,583,
f. 373.
I thank Your Lordship very much for bringing about Muxe-tula's recall. I cannot help declaring that the Pope never told him a thing that he did not say before to Miçer Andrea del Burgo or to me. If at any time he (the Pope) happens to tell him more than either of us two, Muxetula sells it so dear that we would not have it at any price. I make this statement because on many an occasion I have found the Pope perfectly well acquainted with facts and words which have passed between Muxetula and me, as Don Pedro de la Cueva and Monsieur de Bauri, who were here at Rome, can testify. This, as Your Lordship can imagine, is a great disadvantage in negotiation, for as the Castillian proverb says: "An enemy warned is only half assailed," (fn. 4) As he (Muxetula) is lodging at the Papal Palace, if he ever hears that I am with the Pope he comes in, and I cannot say a word without his takingpart in the conversation, and, absurdly enough, if I transact business, or finish an affair with His Holiness, or make a settlement of some sort, he immediately sends a messenger to the favoured parties and compliments them on their success, attributing all the merit to himself. For this last I care nought.
In this manner, by exaggerated reports of his influence with His Holiness, and by visiting cardinal d'Osma almost daily—a thing which I cannot well do owing to my many occupations—this man (Muxetula) has gained the confidence of that Imperial minister, though, to tell the plain truth, I know as a positive fact that far from being the Cardinal's friend, as he professes, he has on more than one occasion done him much harm behind his back.
Cardinal Santacroce told me once that all this aversion to the Council originated mostly in him (Muxetula) through the things he told the Pope, and that if the Council is not held it is as much Muxetula's fault as the Most Christian King's. This may easily be believed if we take into account that when count Baldassar [Castiglione] died, the Pope, as reported, wanted to appoint him (Muxetula) his Nuncio in Spain, and that this very year, on our return from Bologna, he got a bailiship (balliato) in Naples, worth about 3,000 ducats a year, besides an abbey of 600, and an archbishopric, out of which he has made his profit.
Muxetula, besides, has a nephew—the son of a man who was sentenced as a rebel in Naples—whom he has placed about the Pope as confidential chamberlain (camarero secreto). and I hear from Gayoso and the rest that this nephew is as much attached to the French party as his father was, and that in the Pope's apartments conversations go on which are anything but flattering to the Emperor, our master.—Rome, 1st September 1531.
Signed: "Mai."
Addressed: "To the very illustrious the High Commander of Leon."
Spanish. Holograph. pp. 4·.
1 Sept.785. The Same to the Same.
S. E. L. 853, f. 11.
B.M. Add. 28,583,
f. 375.
Count (fn. 5) del Borgo is rendering very good service in England. Some time ago he was suspected, but has already cleared himself from that suspicion. Here, at Rome, it is reported that he once asked for, and obtained, certain offices in Sicily, but was told by the Emperor's ministers that he had not behaved well during the Neapolitan wars. Thinks that answer was ill-considered. Begs him not to forget that the poor Queen is entirely in his power. If no favour is shewn him it is to be feared that he will do nothing for her. Such a man as he must not be exasperated.
Postcript of a letter dated 1st September 1531.
Addressed: "To the very illustrious and magnificent lord, the High Commander of Leon, first secretary to the Emperor."
Spanish. Holograph. p. ½.
4 Sept.786. Eustace Chapuys to the Emperor.
K. u. K. Haus-
Hof-u.-Staats Arch.
c. 227. No. 32.
Having lately sent to the King requesting an answer to the letter Your Majesty wrote to him concerning the meeting of a chapter of the Order of the Golden Fleece, he sent me word yesterday that he would in 10 days send a new ambassador to reside at Your Majesty's court, who would be the bearer of his answer, as well as of the papers required for the said meeting.
Dr. Faulx (Foxe) returned a week ago from France, where he has, as I have been told, worked to the utmost of his power to persuade the university of Paris to declare that "Oeres que le prince Arthur neust copule avec la royne que le pape ne peu dispenser ce second marriage, non point la copule." This pursuit the King has caused to be made, knowing for certain "que la royne vint pucelle a luy, et que cella se pourra prouver et veriffier."What resolution the said doctor [Foxe] has brought with him from France I have not yet been able to ascertain.
The Queen, owing to some of her own maids of honour [having been dismissed] has retired to a small residence close by. There she has been but scantily visited by the King's courtiers, nor has she received from them such consolation as her case requires. (fn. 6) She has granted certain measures most necessary to render valid all that has passed in her business, of which two instruments have been drawn up, one to be forwarded to Rome, to Your Majesty's ambassador, the other to the president of Castille [Tavera]. Please Your Majesty to have them sent to their respective addresses.
There is no other important news to be reported, except that the wild Irish (les yrlandois sauvages) have recently held numerous gatherings of clans together, and made several incursions upon the lands of this king's adherents, and it is further said that they are supported and encouraged by some Scots equally wild. Of what may happen Your Majesty will be particularly informed in due time.—London, 4th September 1531.
Signed: "Eustace Chapuys."
Addressed: "To the Emperor."
French. Holograph. pp. 1½.
9 Sept.787. The abbot of Llor to secretary Covos.
S. E. L.851, f. 74.
B. M. Add. 28,583,
Has not heard from him for a long time; no doubt press of business has prevented his writing. He (the Abbot) continues watching the course of affairs in this capital (Rome), and principally the natural direction (or rather misdirection) of the Queen's defence. (fn. 7) Persuaded as he (the Abbot) is that the Emperor and his ministers are fully convinced of the obstacles daily being raised in order to ward off the Pope's final sentence, he will say no more about it except that the Emperor being much more Christian in his doings than the French monarch, who assumes that title par excellence, it is to be hoped that God will be as favourable to him in this question as he has hitherto been in other matters, and that he may say with Job: Sit Dominus juxtu me et cuiusvis manus pugnet contra me insuper, &c.
The English ambassadors meanwhile work night and day. Perceiving that justice is not on their side, they are now trying by devices of all kinds to carry out their wicked purposes. He (the Abbot) can say that one of the ambassadors, also an official at this Court, bears him much ill-will on account of his attachment to the Queen, and of his zeal for her defence; but such is his independent character that he cares no more for him or any of his colleagues than he does for the dust he treads upon. (fn. 8)
The Imperial ambassador (Miçer Miguel Mai) begged him the other day to communicate with Master Johan Montedocca (fn. 9) respecting what he (the Abbot) had written at other times. Last night, at the house of cardinal Egidio, he again repeated his prayer, so that Montedocca being on the right side, and fully aware of the Queen's right, it has been settled that both will meet to-morrow, and reveal to each other their mutual secret. (fn. 10) As far as he himself is concerned, he (the Abbot) does not hesitate to state his opinion that God Almighty will be ultimately the judge of this cause, and will pronounce sentence since his ministers [on the earth] for their own private views and interests refuse to do it.
An ambassador from France has lately arrived here, a bishop [of Tarbes]. Has had occasion to speak with him, and found that he comes merely for the purpose of serving his master, bringing forth novelties, and stirring up war. May God forgive those who foster such dissensions, and let us trust in Him et viderimus inspirata et miranda.—Rome, 9th September 1531.
P.S.—His Reverence, cardinal Egidio, begs to be kindly and affectionately remembered to the Imperial secretary. He continues to be, as he always was, the Emperor's most devoted servant, and is now as ready as ever to obey his commands. It is principally on this account, and owing also to his great authority and influence, as well as to his integrity and honesty in refusing the English bribes, that he (the Abbot) remains attached to the Cardinal's household, as he considers that in serving him he serves the Emperor's cause. Such is his duty, &c.—Rome, ut supra.
Signed: "Ell abbot Llor."
Addressed; "To the most illustrious and most noble lord, secretary Covos (sic). the High Commander."
10 Sept.788. Eustace Chapuys to the Emperor.
K. u. E. Haus
Hof-u.-Staats Arch.
c. 227, No. 33.
The Queen, hearing that Agrippa had written that he had sound reasons and incontrovertible arguments to prove that her marriage was legitimate, has charged me to ask your Majesty in her name to order him to write in her favour. She has been very much hurt of late at the King's refusing her the use of certain houses (certaines maysons) whither she intended to retire, and having ordered her to reside at one of the worst in England (en une des pyres d'angleterre). She will obey the commands of the King, and go to the place designated for her residence, though she purposes immediately upon her arrival there to write a letter to the King saying, that if this kind of treatment is to last she would much prefer and would be indeed happy to be sent as a prisoner to the Tower of London, for as her sufferings could not be greater than they are now, she might, were her misfortunes generally known, hope that everyone would pray God to arm her with patience, and inspire him (the King) with better sentiments. (fn. 11) She is, moreover, afraid that the auditor of the Rota, who is coming here and to Scotland through France, may bring something to her disadvantage.
One of the principal servants of the young marquis [of Dorset] has been sent to the Tower on the charge of having tried to seduce some of his comrades, enjoying the most credit with the rest, to take up the part of their master, telling them that they saw well how matters stood, and that the Marquis could not fail to be king of England in time. Some time ago, as I informed Your Majesty in my despatch of the 17th ultº, the Marquis was forbidden the Court, but since then he has been allowed to return more to be under vigilance and some kind of arrest than otherwise.
Since I wrote last I have heard that the person appointed to go as ambassador to Your Majesty is called Maystre Vuyllot (sic). a gentleman of seven or eight hundred a year. He belonged once to the Cardinal's party, and now follows that of the Lady who, as I have been told, has promised to have him promoted to the office of Master of the Rolls the moment that its present owner, an old ecclesiastical doctor, now going to France in the room of [Francis] Brian, shall have started on his mission. (fn. 12)
I beg Your Majesty to think of my affairs, &c.—London, 10th September 1531.
Signed: "Eustace Chapuys."
Addressed: "To the Emperor."
French. Holopgraph. p. 1.
12 Sept.789. Miçer Mai to the Same.
S. E. L. 853, f. 76.
B. M. Add. 28,583,
f. 376.
Since my last the English ambassadors have met three or four times with the one that came lately from France, and with the duke of Albany. They went all together to see the Pope with a letter from the king of France recommending the English business.
It appears that what the English now want is that the cause be again committed to England to be judged there, or else that His Holiness make here a new decretal (decidiendo la causa a su, voto). No sooner did I hear of this than I went up to the Pope and said to him that I always thought the English would look out for excuses and shifty schemes (diffugios y bellaquerias). but was glad to hear that they had exhausted all their resources since they now came to ask for what they had asked 30 times before.
The English went on to say that in the expectation of Your Majesty's visit to Italy it was neither fair nor decent to proceed with the cause, for His Holiness' judgment would not be free. This being the very plea the English made once at Bologna, probably a mere feint (cauthela) to frighten the Pope, I reassured him by representing Your Majesty's filial affection for him, and the great desire you have of pacifying Italy and the whole world. But having since heard that the duke of Albany had said at a certain house that if sentence was given it would certainly not be obeyed, I said to His Holiness not to mind what the English and these people might say, hut pronounce sentence according to justice, and that God would take care that it was executed. "I know (said I to him) that the English themselves will consider this right, and the King will obey.'' Upon which His Holiness promised that the cause should go on and justice be done.
The English threaten us with two things: 1st. That they will produce their King's warrant ordering them to allegate (allegar) the excuses for his not appearing at Rome. On this point, however, we have already gained the point that he is not to be heard unless he gives full powers for all the cause.
The second is that they will challenge as suspicious all the auditors of the Rota who happen to be vassals of Your Majesty. This article we shall also gain, for right is on our side ; they will no doubt put us to some trouble and inconvenience with their delays, loss of time, &c, though on the other hand it will be very much in our favour if their applications for delay end here, and they do not ask for new ones, which, considering their fears of the sentence, can hardly be expected.
I beg for a copy of the original process instituted in England without which it is impossible to judge, for as the reporter observed the other day, this is really and truly a cause of appeal which cannot be sentenced without the above. Want also the dispensation brief because if its authenticity is brought into question it must be exhibited.
I have written to Castille to the cardinal president of the Council, and to the viceroys of Catalonia and Valencia, and to the governor of Aragon, begging them to examine certain witnesses in virtue of the remissory letters. I believe that this has been executed by this time, for I have seen letters of judges and other officials announcing that the examination of witnesses had already taken place, and that the amount of evidence collected was sufficient to establish our right. If such be the case let the papers come as soon as possible.
One article, and that a very important one, is wanting for the complete success of the case, namely, to prove that at the time of the Queen's second marriage there was war or apprehension of it between the kings of Spain and England, or between Spain and France, or between France and England. It would be highly advantageous if such information could be obtained in Spain, about the frontier of the Pyrenees, and if so let it come before the term of the remissory letters has expired. I have not the least doubt that with such weapons our victory will be complete. As to Dr. Ortiz, as far as theological points are concerned, he is doing his work well, and is prepared for the attack.–Rome, 12th September 1531.
Signed: "Mai."
Addressed: " S. C. R. Mt."
Indorsed: "Mai on the cause of England."
Spanish. Original. pp. l½.
12 Sept.790. The Same to the High Commander.
S. E. L. 853, f. 85.
B. M. Add. 28,583,
f. 379.
(Cipher:) The Pope spoke to me yesterday, and begged me to give him advice and help in a matter concerning the duke of Ferrara [Alfonso d'Este] about which he seemed much concerned. He complained that the Duke had done a most villanous thing (bellaqueria). he had forged one or two letters in cipher supposed to have been written by him (the Pope) to his Nuncio in France, and had sent the decipherings of the same to Your Majesty. The substance of the letters was to direct the Nuncio to say to the kings of France and England, as if it came from himself, that he (the Pope) was their friend and that they were to prevent at all risks the celebration of the Council. If so he (the Pope) would do anything they pleased, specifying among other things the marriage of his own niece to the son of the king of France, and a favourable sentence in the divorce suit.
This (he said) was not the first trick the Duke had played him, and he begged and entreated that I would write home for the original letters which had been forwarded to the Emperor, that the handwriting and cipher might be inspected here in my presence, and the forgery proved. He was an honest man, and not the bad one (fn. 13) which the Duke had made him appear ; though he was incapable of such a treacherous act, he wanted to justify himself in the eyes of the Emperor and of the World. Had he wished to prevent the celebration of the Council he would not have hesitated in opening his breast to the Emperor, as he had done with respect to the inconveniences he thought might arise from it. He would not have consulted the French, whom he mistrusts for several reasons.
(Common writing:) My reply was that I knew nothing about the letters, and believed the report to be untrue, for otherwise I should have been informed thereof. Even if the letters had been sent, the Emperor was too generous and too magnanimous, had too much filial affection for him to attach faith to such reports. (Cipher:) Such was my answer; but should the Pope repeat his complaint, and ask for the letters, I must have instructions as to what I am to say to him; for if no letters have been sent that settles the question, but if they really have, though the matter is one that requires secrecy and reserve, still His Holiness ought to have some sort of satisfaction given him. In any case I must know how to act, and what are the contents of the letter likely to be addressed to him or to his Legate or Nuncio about the Emperor.
Your Lordship wishes to know my own private opinion about this affair. I say without hesitation that I do not believe entirely in the contents of the letters, and yet I have my reasons to suspect that His Holiness may have thrown out some sort of distant hope to the above-mentioned kings, firstly, because whatever he and some of the cardinals may say about their willingness to accept the Council I know as a fact that he and they dislike it. Secondly, because the French are now notoriously trying to prevent it, and it is not to be presumed that they will work for nothing, especially when by doing service to the Pope they forward their own plans, which consists in preventing the final settlement of the Emperor's affairs. And lastly, that for some time past the French ambassadors have been visiting His Holiness very often, and holding frequent conferences with him, which is a proof that they are negotiating something.
In short, I believe the Pope to be in earnest; he loves the Emperor and knows him well, dreads his power, and is willing to follow his fortunes. On the other hand, whether it be his nature, or the advice of those who surround him, or the condition of Italy, he will be glad to temporize (entretenerse) with all parties, because he thinks that course the most in keeping with the office of a good pope as regards God and the World, and that he will be more respected in consequence. With this flaw (pepita) we must bear patiently, because I really believe he is for us, and even in the midst of his apparent neutrality he does more for us than for the others.–Rome, 12th September 1531.
The non-creation of the cardinals recommended by the Emperor is a thing at which I am much annoyed. (fn. 14) God knows it is no fault of mine.
Santa Croce is still absent.
A letter from prothonotary Caracciolo has just been received dated the 3rd inst., advising that he had sent the letter to Scalenga by a private messenger, and that the Grisons and Switzers object to the duke [of Milan] listening only to the other party (los demas). The Castellan and his brother were both besieged, one in Mus (Musso). the other in Lech (Lecco).
Spanish. Original. pp. 3.
12 Sept.791. Muxetula to the Emperor.
S. E. L. 852,
ff. 134–5.
The result of the duke of Albany's embassy is that no help against the Turks can be expected from his master, the king of France.
The Pope has been informed that the duke of Ferrara has accused him of writing letters in cipher to the kings of France and England, in which he (the Pope) speaks of the convocation of the General Council in a very different manner from what was expected from him. The Pope is much offended at this, and declares the whole to be an invention of the Duke. He never wrote or thought of writing such letters.
He has sent instructions to Aleandro, the bishop of Brindisi, concerning business to be transacted at the German Diet and leaves it entirely to him (the Emperor) to do what he considers best.–Rome, 12th September 1531.
Spanish. Holograph. Cipher. Contemporary deciphering, pp. 12.
12–27 Sept.792. MiÇer Mai to the Same.
S. E. L. 853,
f. 12.
B. M. Add. 28,583,
f. 384.
The Pope is thankful for what has been done at Modona. Pero Çapata received orders to deliver the castle to the Papal agent, and the delivery was accordingly accomplished.
Reports on a rumour of a conspiracy to assassinate Don Hercoles [the son of duke Alfonso] and take possession of Ferrara.
The affair of Rafael Geronimo has been, and will be, kept a secret.
The secretary's answer :— Letters have been received here stating as a fact that levies of men were actually being made in the lands of the Church. His Imperial Majesty has no doubt that this is without the consent or knowledge of His Holiness, but still it would be desirable that orders should be issued to stop any attempt of that sort.Levies of men in the estates of the Church, &c.
With regard to the interview the truth of the case is this :—His Majesty has been informed that the Papal Nuncio, and other ambassadors at the Court of France, had said that the Emperor had asked for an interview with the King which the latter had not accepted, and had said that he would never accept without letting the Pope know of it first. The contrary of this was the case; Balançon went to visit the king and queen of France to condole on the death of the Queen-mother (Louise), and has now returned. He never had charge of treating about an interview at all.His Holiness approves of the proposed interview between the Emperor and the king of France, sure as he is that nothing will be brought forward there to his prejudice.
Cardinal Gaetano, &c.
No longer question of the tithe, nor of the brief in help of the duke of Savoy. Has been able to prevent both.
Domenico Centurione, the Pope's chamberlain, remained at Genoa. No suspicion can be attached to him nor to the Pope's confessor, who went to Milan.
The Catholic cantons of Switzerland are pressing for help. He (Mai) tries to temporize with them as best he can, holding before them the prospect of the Diet.
The duke of Malfi (Amalfi) has written that the Sienese consent to pay the Imperial garrison for one month more. As to the Pope, he declares that after two months have elapsed he will not contribute any more towards the pay of the Imperial troops, his treasury being completely exhausted.
A cardinal's hat has been given to Pistoia (Ant. Puggi). (fn. 15) He (Mai) managed that the names of Monaco and Capua should also be recorded in Consistory, but all in vain; they were not voted. Toulouse was also rejected, although France recommends it.
Death of cardinal Sanctiquatuor (Pucci), owing to which all ecclesiastic business relating to Spain and Flanders has been necessarily suspended. The Pope is thinking of giving his office either to Cesis, or to the auditor of the Papal Chamber (Ghinucci ?); but he (Mai) has strongly protested and told the Pope that neither of those cardinals ought to see the minute of a brief addressed to the Emperor. It would be a service to send here Miçer Joan Vich.
He is now coming here to plead his cause and make his excuses.Scalengues goes on making excuses, but does not return the money. Venice has lately appointed three councillors in Milan to be superarbiters in their differences with king Ferdinand. Has written to the prothonotary (Caracciolo) asking for their names.
The ambassador is to do the King's pleasure in this particular.His Holiness has ordered all the cardinals who were out of Rome to return immediately, excepting Burgos and Siena, who have been allowed to remain where they are at present.
The hope which the Pope has of reducing the city of Nuremberg and the duke of Sassa (Saxony) to the true Catholic faith. His Holiness writes about it to the Emperor and to his Legate. Also that he will do his utmost to prevent the departure of Renzo's son, who wants to go and serve the Vayvod.
The Imperial ambassador in England has been written to and will procure the copies wanted; but he (Mai) must urge the Pope to have the case determined as soon as possible without further delay. His Majesty has spoken to the Papal Legate about this, and hopes that every attention shall be paid to his request.The English ambassadors have again petitioned that the divorce case be tried in England, or at least out of Rome, and that an authentic copy of the original proceedings enacted in England should be sent to him, as it is much wanted; without it no sentence can be given. In Spain, moreover, the remíssory letters must be attended to, and an answer returned as soon as possible. It will be very important for the issue of the case to prove that at the time the second marriage was effected there was war between the kings of Spain and England then allied, and the king of France, &c.
Indorsed: "Abstract of letters from Miçer Mai of 12th, 26th, and 27th of September."
Spanish. Original report to be submitted to the Emperor.
20 Sept.793. The Emperor to Gutierre Lopez de Padilla.
S. E. L. 1,558,
f. 39.
B. M. Add. 28,583,
f. 387.
The king and queen of France having approached the frontier of Flanders, We sent to them Silly, our Master of the Horse, with letters of credence. Silly, in the very presence of the French ambassador, told us that the King and Queen wished to have an interview with us, their near relative, saying that great advantages might be the result of it.
Considering that the king and queen of France had come so near to the place whereat We were staying, about 20 leagues distant, it would have offended the king of France had We refused. Sent, therefore, Balançon, gentleman of our household, to the Queen, and ordered him, in the presence of the Imperial ambassadors, to declare to her, with every demonstration of friendship, that We were obliged within a very short space of time to go to the Diet at Spires, but, nevertheless, that We could, and were willing to postpone our proposed departure for a few days in order to effect the said interview. Proposed any of the towns of Arras, Valenciennes, or Douay, and promised to be there in 10 days after receiving an answer from the King.
The conditions of the interview from the very beginning were that no negotiations concerning themselves (the French), nor alterations to be made in the treaties of Madrid and Cambray were to be discussed. The interview to be only a sort of demonstration of mutual friendship. We particularly insisted at the time on our inability to entertain any proposals for change in those treaties, since so many other treaties with Italian princes are founded on them.
The two queens, our sisters, may see one another whenever they like.—Brussels, 20th September 1531.
Spanish. Original draft in the hand of Idiaquez, one of the Emperor's secretaries.
23 Sept.794. The abbot of Llor to Covos.
S. E. L. 851, f. 75.
B. M. Add. 28,583,
f. 388.
In the English business the dishonest practices of the King's agents continue unceasingly; it is clear that never on any occasion have they sought for justice otherwise than by promises and bribes, and they have tried in the most strange and intricate ways to corrupt both the Cardinal [my master] and myself. (fn. 16) But those who like me have any regard for their duty and conscience, and for the Emperor's interests, do not yield so easily to attacks of that kind. Should more important affairs occur Your Majesty will be able to test what faithful servants and humble vassals you have in him (the Cardinal) and in me.
At the request, and by the express desire of Miçer Mai the ambassador, I have conferred with Master Julian de Monte Occa (fn. 17) respecting the English business, and we both have agreed as to the course to be pursued. But this is a cause for God to judge and determine, since men refuse to do it.
Addressed: "To the very illustrious and very noble lord, the High Commander."
Spanish. Holograph. pp. 2½.
23 Sept.795. The Same to the archbishop of Santiago.
S. E. L. 851, f. 75.
B. M. Add. 28,583,
f. 388.
................................ In the English business, as we had occasion to write to the Emperor, the King's ambassadors have never sought for justice except by means of promises and bribes; they have never ceased tempting the Cardinal, his Lord, and himself (the Abbot) also in the most direct and plausible way. And yet his duty towards his conscience and towards His Majesty forbids him to admit of bribery of any sort. Should other more important events occur the Emperor will see what devoted servants and faithful vassals the Cardinal and he (the Abbot) are.
Following Miçer Mai's instructions he has communicated with Master Johan Montedocca (Montes de Oca) concerning the English business, they both hold the same opinion, but since men refuse to act with justice the whole affair must be placed in the hands of God, who, since the Emperor lives and acts in fear of him, will no doubt protect and favour him on this as on other occasions. His is after all the only true assistance, for he never deserted those who loved and feared Him.
The bishop of Girona is very ill, and most likely will never rise from his bed, as his (the Abbot's) friends and relatives write from that city. His Lordship must already be aware of the state in which the whole see is. Begs to be remembered in case of that prelate's death. (fn. 18) The Emperor cannot have forgotten how obstinate and unyielding the Bishop was when the Cortes first met at Barcelona; he (the Abbot) was not, and never will be, one of those who compel their King and natural Lord to do things against his will; he wishes to serve faithfully, and that grants should proceed solely from liberality, not be procured by force and extortion (extortas y forçadas). —Rome, 23rd September 1531.
Signed: "El abbot Llor."
Spanish. Holograph. pp. 2.
26 Sept.796. Eustace Chapuys to the Emperor.
K. u. K Haus-
c. 227, No. 36.
The King having within the last few days granted the archbishopric of Yort (York) to Dr. Lee, and the bishopric of Winchester to Dr. Steve (Stephen) without waiting, as usual, for the whole year of vacancy, the Queen fears that he may have acted thus hastily for the purpose of having two more prelates under his hand at the next session of Parliament. But she is much more afraid still that between the Pope and this king there may be some new understanding to her disadvantage, observing that notwithstanding that the latter has had himself declared chief and head of the Clergy in England, and has forbidden any recourse to Rome, he has now allowed an application to be made for that purpose.
Dr. Fox has again been sent [to France] to obtain from the university of Paris a declaration in favour of the article about which I wrote to Your Majesty, and that he may have better occasion of urging the same, the Lady has granted him several benefices, and given him the charge of almoner, which Dr. Lee formerly had.
Five days ago the seigneur de Ris, brother-in-law of the duke of Norfolk, was re-arrested and lodged at the Tower. He was let out on bail, on the plea of bad health, but has again been constituted a prisoner. He is accused of having tried to procure the means of escaping [from England] and going either to Your Majesty's Court or into Scotland, where, owing to the credit and favour he enjoys in Wales (au pais de Galles). he hoped to be able to undertake something against this king.—London, 26th September, anno 31.
Signed: "Eustace Chapuys.''
Addressed: "To the Emperor."
Indorsed: "Angleterre."
French. Holograph. p. 1.
27 Sept.797. Miçer Mai to the High Commander.
S.E. L. 853, f. 12.
B.M. Add. 28,583,
f. 384.
Modena. The Pope is satisfied with the Emperor's decision. Orders have been sent to Pero Zapata (fn. 19) to evacuate the place. A plan to assassinate Don Hercules and to take Ferrara is spoken of [at Rome].
Raphel Geronimo.—Domenico Centurione.—Swiss.—The duke of Malfì and Siena, &c.
Levies made in the estates of the Church. (fn. 20)
The Pope hopes to reconcile the city of Nüremberg, the duke of Saxony, and others.
Renzo da Ceri.
As the English have for the third or fourth time renewed their application, it is most important that a copy of the proceedings on the divorce case in England be sent to us as soon as possible. (fn. 21) —Rome, 27th September 1531.
Proposed interview between the Emperor and the king of the French. Respecting the interview the ambassador must already be aware how matters stand. It was reported that the Papal Nuncio and the rest of the ambassadors in France had been told that our master was the first to propose the interview, and that the king of France had answered that on no account would he agree to the meeting unless His Holiness was previously acquainted with it. The very reverse was the case. Balançon went to visit the king and queen of France, and condole with them on the death of the Queen-mother (Louise), but had no mandate to treat of anything else.
Indorsed: "Abstract of letters from Miçer Mai to the Emperor and to the High Commander of Leon."
Spanish. Contemporary copy. pp. 2.
27 Sept.798. The Same to the Same.
S. E. L. 854, f. 33.
B. M. Add. 28,583,
f. 389.
Raphael Geronimo, and his case.
The king of France wishes to have an interview with the Emperor.
Decima.—Genoa.—Swiss.—Marquis del Vasto.—Death of cardinal Sanctiquatuor.—Milan.
The Pope has given orders for all cardinals to be in Rome by the 1st of October.
Has often begged that the original proceedings in the divorce cause in England should be sent to him (Mai). Repeats the request in the most pressing manner. No time should be lost; the papers to come by a special courier. Hopes to be able to commence proceedings in eight days from this date. Everything is ready, and there is now a good chance of success. A copy of the proceedings in England is, however, absolutely necessary, for this is not a simple "advocation ;" it is an appeal on behalf of the Queen. Even if it were an "advocation," it would be necessary to have here a copy of the proceedings instituted in England. The reporter (relator) has positively declared to him (Mai) that without them he can do nothing, as he must see first what was done in England.
As the Pope (fn. 22) has advices from Germany which lead him to believe and hope that there is a disposition on the part of the people of Nuremberg as well as of the duke of Saxony (George), and other princes and towns to return to the Faith, and the matter is very important, they (the Imperial ambassadors) have decided that the Papal Legate should first bring it before the Emperor.—Rome, 27th September 1531.
Spanish. Original. pp. 4.
29 Sept.799. The Same to the Emperor
S. E. L. 852.
f. 129.
B. M. Add. 28,583,
f. 391.
Writes in favour and commendation of the people of Lanchano, who want a bishop. (fn. 23) —Rome, 29th September 1531.
Addressed: "S. C. C. R. M."
Signed: "Mai."
Spanish. Original. pp. 2.
S. E. L. 854,
f. 162.
B. M. Add. 28,583,
f. 392.
800. The Conditions (fn. 24) under which pope Clement VII. consents to the convocation of a General Council, and the answer made by the Emperor.
With regard to the convocation the Emperor refers to what he himself said verbally to the most Reverend Legate and to the bishops of Vasona (Vaison) and Tortona, and his own instructions to his ambassadors at Rome.Should His Imperial Majesty after mature consideration decide for the convocation of a General Council His Holiness and the Sacred College of Cardinals stipulate the following conditions:
It seems that in order to preserve the order followed in other Sacred Councils, and the established custom, and also to avoid slander and contempt (menosprecio) it would be preferable to make the convocation simplicitor, and after the Council had met His Holiness might very well determine what is to be discussed and resolved therein.1. The Council to be convoked and held solely for the purpose of the Turkish war, the subjection (reductur) of the Lutherans, the extinction of heresy, and the punishment of those who still persist in their errors.
Much injury has already been sustained by the delay, yet should a prompt measure be taken, the Emperor will make no difficulty in putting aside all other private or State affairs, to attend the said Council and remain there as long as is thought necessary for its good issue.2. The Emperor to be personally present at the meeting from the beginning to the end; the Council itself to be dissolved immediately after his departure.
The Emperor has no objection to the Council being celebrated in Italy, and in one of the towns named by His Holiness, although the German princes and others insist upon Mantua or Milan, which are also considered by other princes to be fit places for the assembly.3. The Council to be held in Italy, at one of the towns already designated by His Holiness, not elsewhere.
Let this be done according to right, and to the established custom of Sacred Councils.4. No one to have a voice (voz definitiva) unless the right of deciding belongs to him according to the letter of the Sacred Canons.
The bishop of Tortona declared that he did not insist upon this last article, and he was right; because although at first sight such a course might appear advisable, it is not prudent to set it down as a condition, owing to the notorious obstinacy and pride of heretics, and to the danger of having to contend with them on such points, besides which it is well known that the chief object of the convocation is to provide measures against them.5. The Lutherans themselves to apply for the Council, and send sufficient powers to that effect. This seems very fitting and proper (mucho convenir). that they may be the more easily put down and brought back to the true Faith.
Spanish. Original draft. pp. 2½. (fn. 24)


1 "Francois de Dinteville, bishop of Auxerre, on the Yonne (Bourgogne).
2 So written that it might also be read Exarch, but I have reason to believe that Lasco or Lascho is meant.
3 "The original has Jassa for Sassa, as Saxony was at that time called by the Spaniards. Hesse was also written Hassa and Hassia by them, and hence the frequent mistakes which occur in the correspondence of Martin de Salinas and others who seem to have occasionally mistaken the landgrave of Hesse (Philip) for the duke of Saxony (George).
4 "Un apercibido es medio combatido."
5 Baron seems to have been bis true title.
6 "La royne, Sire, a cause daueunes sieunes damoysclles quont [este renvoyees] sur cest (sur ce sest) retiree en une petite mayson cy apres, la ou elle a este assez povrement visitee et consoulec de la court du roy combien le cas le requeroit autremant; elle a passe certaines procurations fort necessayres pour la reualidation,"&c.
7 "Aqua se sigue la solita natura y misma via (o por mas conveniente hablar digo devia y no via) del negocio."
8 "Y sé dezir a V.S. que uno de los ambaxadors y ofitial (sic) desta corte no me tiene buena voluntad por respetto de esta causa y selo (zelo) que teugo por la defensa de la Reyna; empero mi condition es muy liberta e ingenua; ago menos caso de semejantes que no de lo que piso."
9 Juan Montes de Oca, a native of Seville, and a collegian of Bologna, where he read philosophy as early as 1499. He was some time attached to the household of Albert, count of Carpi, who sent him to Flanders and Germany on various missions. Having afterwards entered the service of Clement VII·, he was appointed professor of philosophy and ethics first at Pisa, and then at Florence, until upon the landing of Charles at Genoa in August of 1529, he was appointed secretary and interpreter to Hippolito de' Medici, one of the three cardinals sent by the Pope to welcome and compliment the Emperor. He was killed by robbers in 1532 near Perugia. Sepulveda, who was his friend and panegyrist, calls him "Joannes Monsdocus,"and mentions him frequently in his Antopologia pro Alberto Pio Carpensi in Erasmum, Romœ 1532, as well as in his Historia Ægidii Albomotii seu Descriptio Collegii Bononiensis. (Rome, 1521, 4to.)
10 "Y ell mismo hallandose en estos dias en casa del Señor Cardenal Egidio me lo rogó, y pues es de nuestra parte le comunicaré mi secreto, y él á mi el suio."
11 "Que si ce trayttemant a de durer elle se tiendroit pour plus heureu[se] destre detenue en la tourd de Londres comme prisoniere, car oultre quelle ne souffriroit point plus quelle fayt, estant a lheure son infortune notoyre a tout le monde chascung prieroit dieu pour luy fere impetrer bonne pacience et pour inspirer le roy a mieux fere."
12 "Il a este au cardinal et maintenant est a la dame, laquelle, ainsy que lon ma dit, la promeu a ceste charge quant et luy partira le maystre des rolez, quest ang vieux docteur ecclesiastique que va en france pour successeur de brian."
13 "Que él es hombre de bien, à lo menos que no es mal hombre."
14 Capua and Monaco, as appears from another despatch. The Pope appointed Fistoja instead.
15 There were three cardinals of this family (Puggi) : Lorenzo, Antonio, nad Roberto, all three bishops of Pistoia and Prato (Pistoria et Pratum), but the one alluded to in this paragraph must be Antonio.
16 "En lo de Ynglatierra no se dexe (sic) aquá aun de hacer pruevas egenas de los buenos, y estos del Rey demuestran apertamente que nunca han sollicitado por la justieia sino con dadivas y prometimientos, y no han dexado por vias exquisadas (exquisitas) provar el Sr. Cardenal y á mi tambien." I have had frequent occasion of pointing out the vicious style of this abbot, who, though a native of Catalonia, seems so to have forgotten his own native language as to reader it necessary to translate his letters into Latin first in order to understand their meaning. The passage quoted above, and it is certainly not the worst written in the Abbot's correspondence, would read thus in Spanish: "En lo de Inglaterra no se deja aun acá de hazer pruevas agenas de los buenos, y estos [embaxadores] del Rey demuestran abiertamente que nunca han solicitado por la justicia, sino con dadivas y promesas, ni han dexado por vias excusadas de probar al señor Cardenal y á mi tanbien."
17 Elsewhere Montedocca; his true name was Montes de Oca.
18 The bishop, whose name was Guillen Boil, did not die until the 28th of November 1532, according to Gaspar Roig y Ialpi in his Grandezas de Gerona. Barcelona, 1678, fol. p. 298, and then he was not succeeded by Dr. Ortiz.
19 Pero Zapata or Çapata, according to Sandoval and others, had been appointed governor of Modena, pending the arbitration of the quarrel between Clement and the duke of Ferrara.
20 "Several letters received here [at Brussels] report that in the lands of the Church levies of men are being made. The Emperor has no doubt that this has been done without His Holiness' consent or knowledge, yet it would be advisable to prevent any future armaments on any plea whatsoever without the latter's express commands." Covos.
21 Another note in Covos' hand is thus worded: "Letters to be written at once to England asking for the papers, and they (the Imperial ambassadors at Rome) to wait until they receive them. In the meantime the papers sent from Spain are to be used so as to accelerate the proceedings as much as possible. No delay. His Imperial Majesty has spoken to the Legate, who has promised to write [to Rome] and see that the cause is proceeded with."
22 "El Papa tiene ciertos avisos y speranza de reducir la ciudad de Nuremberga, y el duque de Saxe (Saxony) y ahun algunos otros. Tovimos por bien por ser cosa de importancia que el legado lo consultasse primero con su Magd., como mas largo scriviran estos señores á los quales me remito."
23 Angelo Maccafani, bishop of Lanciano, the ancient Ansanum in Naples, died on the 1st of December 1517. He was succeeded on the 10th of April 1532 by Ægidius of Viterbo, whose death occurred on the 12th of December 1532. See Gams, Series Episcoporum Ecclesiœ Catholicœ, p. 888.
24 A Latin translation of this paper, which most prabably was drawn out in Italian first, is also at Simancas, and a copy of it may be found in Bergenroth's collection, vol. xiii. (Add. 28, 584, f. 158.) The answers on the margins seem to be by Covos. The draft itself bears no date.