Spain
November 1540

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Institute of Historical Research

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Pascual de Gayangos (editor)

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1890

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286-294

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'Spain: November 1540', Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 6 Part 1: 1538-1542 (1890), pp. 286-294. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=88045 Date accessed: 02 September 2014.


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November 1540, 1-30

3 Nov.137. The Emperor to the Marquis de Aguilar.
S. E., L. 869,
f. 116.
B. M. Add. 28,592,
f. 221.
The enclosed was already closed and sealed, and about to be given to this courier who goes to Naples, when yours of the 14th ulto. came to hand. We condole with you on the death of your brother the Cardinal. (fn. 1) Idiaquez has spoken to Us of your petition; it shall be attended to. No particular answer is required, except to recommend to you the settlement of the 150,000 ducats on the daughters of Ottavio Farnese and Our daughter, the Duchess, in case of their leaving no male children behind; the settlement to be made in the manner established by Us and approved by the Pope. We have written to Naples about Rocca Guillerma.—Gante (Ghent), 3 Nov. 1540.
We were about to sign this letter when the Papal Nuncio came in, and shewed Us those he had received from Rome; the news of the Duchess [of Camarino], &c. He also spoke to Us about the election of the bishop of Feltre (Laurencio Campeggio), for the conferences of Germany in the room of the archbishop of Verona (Giberti). We dare say that the election is good, and that with Granvelle's advice and experience the matters to be discussed will go on much better than they did in the time of his brother, the Cardinal, at the Diet of Augsburgh, for although his intentions were good, that prelate did not obtain all that could have been obtained from that assembly. (fn. 2)
The Nuncio also spoke to Us of the German protectorate at Rome for cardinal Farnese, saying that the latter would consider it a great favor under present circumstances, especially when a marriage is being arranged between his own sister and Mr. de Guise, thus giving people to understand that he still adheres closely to Our person. The answer was that We had already selected for that office cardinal Santa Croce, whose services We were anxious to remunerate; but still We would reconsider the matter and see what could be done for his sake. All this you will tell him, without either giving him hopes or taking them away from him.
After this the conversation turned on the projected marriage of Mr. de Guise and His Holiness' granddaughter, the Nuncio assuring Us that the marriage was not yet concluded as you once wrote to Us, and that by Our providing a suitable husband for the lady, and granting besides some ecclesiastical benefice or other to cardinal Sanctaflor, all His Holiness' wishes in temporal matters would be accomplished, and he might then devote his sole and exclusive attention to spiritual matters and the welfare of Christendom. Hearing this from the Nuncio's lips, We could not refrain from telling him that His Holiness had began to negociate the said marriage at a time when the Duchess, Our daughter, shewed some discontent, and it might be suspected that by refusing the consummation of marriage to his grandson Ottavio, she might be acting by Our orders. It was then that in order to annoy and put a pressure on Us the Pope had begun to negociate that other marriage in France. But let it be understood (said We to the Nuncio) that were the Duchess' conscience and honor to be safe-guarded, and were it possible to undo what has been done, We should not feel the least difficulty about it, were it for no other reason or purpose than to let His Holiness know that such is not the way of dealing with Us, and that if His Holiness is disposed to act towards Us as a good father, We will be his good son; otherwise, We will, whilst we remain good Christians, attend to what is most convenient for Our interest. (fn. 3) That though His Holiness once said to Us that he was a good Roman, he nevertheless followed in the steps, and observed the same conduct, as his predecessor in office, Pope Clement VII., who whilst treating of a marriage between his own niece (Caterina) with a relative of Ours, all of a sudden had her married to the second son of Francis. (fn. 4) His Holiness is now doing the very same thing to worry and molest Us, as stated, trying all the time to make Us believe that notwithstanding the most brilliant offers from other quarters, he still intends making Us the arbiter as it were of his grand-daughter's marriage, alleging that if he has listened to French overtures on that score, it is owing to the negligence of Our ministers, who having first proposed to have her married to the prince of Piedmont, and afterwards to Cosmo dé Medici, the duke of Florence, have not decided for one or the other of the said marriages. But the fact of the matter is that the duke of Savoy (Carlo), when interrogated by Our ambassador on the subject, answered that the above-mentioned marriage had been proposed to him by His Holiness, but that he himself (the Duke) felt no inclination at all towards it; that being precisely the reason why no more was said about it at the time. As to the duke of Florence (Cosmo), when the overtures were made to Our ambassador at Rome (Manrique), he was already engaged to the daughter of the marquis de Villafranca. The count of Benavente (D. Juan Alonso Pimentel) had also aspired to his grand-daughter's hand, and certainly his nobility, rank, and fortune were not inferior to those of Mr. de Guise. If Royal blood be required, certainly the duke of Berganza (Braganza, in Portugal) is not wanting in it; he might also have been addressed on the subject as the son of the duke of Guise has. In short, all this was done by His Holiness to compel Us to make him some offer to be accepted by him, if preferable or more convenient than the Lorraine marriage, so as to bind Us to gratitude by saying that out of respect for Us he had refused the other, which seemed to him far more advantageous.
In short We told the Nuncio that such ways and tricks (medios y mañas) would not do with Us; that was not the way to treat political and other affairs with Us.
Having touched on the death of your brother and the other cardinals whom God has been pleased to call to His presence, We said to the Nuncio by way of a joke: "Now I have no doubt that the king of France, considering the number of cardinals he has at his devotion, will have no difficulty in making him of Lorraine Pope, as the rumour is; but if the election falls on him, I fancy that it will be an easier job to expel him and all his parentage from Rome, than send Us out of Our own house."
This is in substance what has passed between Us and His Holiness' Nuncio. As We have no doubt that he will write home, We have deemed it necessary to inform you beforehand. The Nuncio bears Us some affection; We are sure that in writing to His Holiness he will use the most moderate terms with regard to Our complaints. Should His Holiness make any allusion to the subject, let your answer be as prudent, modest, and courteous as possible, and yet expressive of Our feelings in the matter. His Holiness ought not to treat Us in the manner he is doing. We consider Ourselves fully entitled to more respect and consideration than that which is shown towards Us.—Cortray (Coutray), 3 Nov. 1540.
Spanish. Original minute, unsigned. pp. 7.
3 Nov.138. The Florentine Ambassador in Rome to Duke Cosmo.
S. Pat. Real Div.
Cap. c. Pont. y
otra Pot. de Ital.
Cap. c., L. 595.
B. M. Add. 28,592,
f. 220.
Went to attend mass in honor of the Pope's coronation last evening, with the other ambassadors. The Master of Ceremonies came to tell him that the Pope had heard his voice, and wanted to speak to him. Went accordingly to the Pope's rooms; who said to him calmly and "sotto voce" that the had news that the Twenty-five of Perugia had assembled, and intended to do something against that city. Ridulphi had gone thither by way of Cortona and joined them. After this the Pope changed his tone, and began by degrees to speak in so loud a voice, that all those who were in the adjoining rooms could hear him, openly accusing him (the duke of Florence) of being the promoter of that revolution, and saying before the cardinals there present that he could not suffer such indignity, and that retaliation must ensue, &c. He (the ambassador) replied in anger: "If such be the case, let His Holiness send first a declaration of war, and then commence hostilities."—Rome, iii. Nov. 1540.
Italian. Original. p. 1.
4 Nov.139. The Marquis de Aguilar to the Emperor.
S. E., L. 869, f. 115.
B. M. Add. 28,592,
f. 225.
By Polidoro, who left on the xvth ult., I wrote to Your Imperial Majesty answering the letters of the 13th and 16th Sept. No other has since been received.
Micer Latino Juvenal, His Holiness' chamberlain, who went on a mission to France for the purpose of concluding the marriage of the Pope's grand-daughter with the son of Mr. de Guise, has returned. I hear from a very good source that there are great differences respecting the lady's dowry, they of the house of Lorraine asking 150,000 ducats, whilst His Holiness will not give more than 50,000. The duke of Castro, it is true, says that king Francis has written that he will try to prevail on the bridegroom to be contented with 100,000. On this very business cardinal Neocort (fn. 5) went to France at the end of October.
The duke of Castro keeps telling me that his wish is that his daughter may be married at Your Majesty's pleasure, and as it were by your own hand. That some offer or other ought to be made to His Holiness; if so, he (Pier Luigi) would prevail on him to relinquish his negociations with France. He also suggested that the prince of Piedmont would be very acceptable, and that, although for the time being the contract of marriage, if made, ought to be kept secret—His Holiness' dignity and office preventing its publicity—yet it would be very beneficial for Your Majesty's affairs in Italy, for the Pope could not do less than help the Prince to recover his father's estate, &c.
Cardinal Sancta Croce died at a village 40 miles from Rome after eight days' illness. He had gone thither posthaste to visit my brother, the Cardinal, on his death-bed, (fn. 6) and fulfilled well his promise to him, for he said: "I only came to see you off in your journey to the other world; I shall follow you soon." The death within a short space of time of three Spanish-born cardinals, so distinguished as they were, cannot but be felt in the College for the transaction of Your Imperial Majesty's affairs, both ecclesiastical and political; and as it is almost certain that His Holiness will make a new creation this next December, I beg to be instructed, as soon as possible, as to which Spanish prelates Your Majesty wishes me to recommend. Should the instructions not come in time, though I have no doubt there are in Spain many prelates well worthy of that dignity, I might venture to propose the bishops of Jaen (fn. 7) and Pamplona, (fn. 8) who being both men of letters, of good family and fortune, and having great experience of the affairs of this Roman Court, owing to their having resided some time in it, might be of use, especially if Your Majesty recalled him of Santiago, who, being in bad health, cannot attend to business. Your Majesty must be aware that for some time back His Holiness has engaged to grant two cardinals' hats: one to the Infante of Portugal, and another one for a prelate of Your Majesty's election, provided neither archbishop Colonna nor the abbot of Farfa were the candidates.
His Holiness has told me this very morning that an express from Perosa (Perugia) has arrived with letters of the bishop of Puçol, (Puzzuolo) Bernardino Barba, informing him that Rodolpho Ballon had returned to Cortona with the Perugian "fuorusciti" and others from Florence, and had been the cause of great disturbances in Perugia. The garrison of that city was only 500 strong, and the governor wanted reinforcement, if he was to keep it under Papal obedience. On this occasion His Holiness indignantly remarked to me that, setting aside Rodolpho Baglione's treachery, he had to complain much of Cosmo de Medici, who, he said, had sent word through his ambassador that he promised not to take Baglione into his pay, or countenance him in the least; and now, instead of keeping him under surveillance in Florence, or in some remote town of Tuscany, he has allowed him to march on Cortona at the head of the fuorusciti of Perugia and Florence, most perfidious and treacherous conduct (he said) on the part of Cosmo, who, he says, had written to Your Majesty in favor of the said Baglione. Last night he ordered Juan Baptista Sabello to go to Perugia with the light cavalry, and such infantry as he could pick up on the way. He also sent thither all the captains who are now here with the duke of Castro, and wrote to Alessandro Vitello to go with them. I myself sent for the Florentine ambassador and told him of the ill-humour in which His Holiness was against his master, and intend also writing to duke Cosmo about it.
His Holiness complains also of the viceroy of Sicily (Gonzaga) respecting the hats.
The marriage of the Duchess and Ottavio Farnese was consummated on the 18th ulto., at which His Holiness is much pleased. According to Mos. de Andalot the mutual discontent is being remedied and there is a decided improvement. Last night, Coronation day, the Duchess supped with His Holiness, who presented her with a jewel (joyel) and a ring.
At the next consistory, and previous to the consignation of 150,000 ducats for the daughters, in case of there being no males, the duchy of Camarino is to be made over to Ottavio Farnese.
The viceroy of Naples—Rocha Guillerma—Giovanne di Montepulchano—Purchase of Altamura and Castellamare.
Your Majesty must be in receipt of news from Genoa, advising the taking of Susa and Monesterio in Africa. I myself have not heard from the viceroy of Sicily nor from prince Doria, but have had letters from Francisco Duarte announcing the loss of those towns. Nor is it known here what happened, for since the departure of the viceroy with his 20 galleys to La Mahometana to take up the king of Tunis and convey him to Monesterio no news has been received.
The report of Don Bernardino de Mendoça's victory over the corsair and the Turkish sails that had some time ago done damage at Gibraltar the Pope was glad to hear, as well as the intelligence lately received that his own galleys have taken a galley belonging to one of the most formidable corsairs of these parts named Xiroco.—Rome, 4 Nov. 1540.
P.S.—I hear this very moment that Jeronimo Ursino (Girolamo Orsini), the son-in-law of Mme. Constanza, is dead after live days' illness.
Signed: "Aguilar."
Spanish. Original. pp. 9.
7 Nov.140. The Duke of Florence (Cosmo di Medici) to the Marquis del Gasto.
S. E., L. 869,
B. M. 28,592,
f. 220.
Incloses a letter from his ambassador at Rome. Complains bitterly of the dastardly manner in which the Pope has treated him, not only on this occasion, but on all others for a long time since. Can easily defeat the Pope's accusations; but if attacked, he must defend himself.—Firenze, vii. November 1540.
Italian. Holograph. p. 1.
16 Nov.141. High Commander Cobos to Luis Sarmiento de Mendoza.
S. E., L. 49, f. 328.
B. M. Add. 28,592,
f. 230.
Will answer your letters of the 3, 6, 11 and 20 ulto. To begin with the last received, the death of the Infante of Portugal, Dom Duarte, has been much felt here by all of us. The Prince, our lord, has deputed you for the customary visit of condolence.
Glad to hear that the King has been pleased with what was done at Rome on behalf of the bishop of Viseu, and also of the arrangement made for his return to Portugal. The marquis de Aguilar writes from Rome that His Holiness had assured him that no amount of money, however considerable, would help that Bishop to obtain a cardinal's hat; he (the Pope) had never consented to open such a door to ecclesiastical ambition, and cardinals' hats were not for sale.
False doubloons—The gentleman of the queen of France returning from that kingdom passed through this town. He does not seem much satisfied with the answer he has received, saying that he has met only with fine words and no corresponding action. He thought that the King, his master, would shortly send an ambassador of his to France, because the Infanta is no longer of an age to wait. I agreed with him on all points; but I fancy that he goes away rather disappointed and displeased with the reception he has had.
Of what passed between that King and you respecting the fears of a naval expedition of the French against the Indies, we are aware both by your own despatches and by private letters. His Highness, however, is in my opinion right; there is no fear at all of their undertaking anything of the sort this present winter, but it must be borne in mind that when the spring sets in, and the weather is fine and the winds are favorable, they may all of a sudden be tempted to carry out their bad intentions.
For the orders given by His Most Serene Highness, the king of Portugal, to the captains of ships sailing for Malagueta to favor and assist the Emperor's subjects on their return as much as they can, I beg you to thank him in the Imperial name.
With regard to the Infante Dom Luiz, and what you write to us on the subject, we should very much like to know what foundation there is for it. It is for you, with your usual dexterity, to try and find out what his grounds for complaint are, for I myself cannot guess what reason he may have for such an act.
The money for the redemption of Christian captives in pursuance of the late Empress' will is ready, and about to be remitted to you in a few days, that with the King's concurrence the redemption may take place as economically as possible.
I wrote to you once about Lope Hurtado and Paravicino, (fn. 9) the friar. The upshot of the affair has been that the latter denied every charge he had brought against Lope, and all he himself had declared under torture. So His Holiness sent for Don Lope and gave him his blessing, immediately after which the latter left Rome. He is now at Viterbo, and writes that he intends soon to return here with his wife, Da. Margarita, but that he must go first to kiss the Emperor's hands and inform him verbally of all that has passed. It has been a most miraculous and providential discovery that of Lope's innocence of the wicked charges brought against him, and I take this opportunity of apprizing you of the result of the suit, knowing, as I do, that in that, as well as in other courts, there has been a variety of rumours about it.
No news from Flanders save that on the 22nd ulto. the Emperor was in good health and purposed to leave for Germany on the 26th, intending to visit on his road thither the provinces he had not seen before. Granvelle had already started for the diet (colloquio) of Worms. The king of the Roman's affairs are now in good trim. It was confidently expected that the army he had sent to the relief of Buda would soon take possession of the place, for the Turk would not be able to relieve it on account of the winter season having already set in.
The fleet under the command of Doria and Ferrante Gonzaga [the viceroy of Sicily] had retaken two cities on the coast of Barbary, called Susa and Manasterio (Monastir), whose inhabitants, owing to there being only a handful of Turks in them, had been persuaded to shake off the yoke of the king of Tunis.
From the Levant the news is that the Sophi of Persia, Thamasp II. was going on prosperously against the Turk, and had already recovered the fortresses which the latter had taken from him—all except Bagdad—and that Cásim-baxá, who the year before had deserted him and gone over to the Turk, had now come back with twelve more sangiacs.
Towards the Red Sea the Portuguese fleet had taken possession of several places belonging to the Grand Turk. The news has come from the Imperial ambassador in Venice, but I dare say there, where you are, more is known about these achievements of the Portuguese.—Madrid, 11 Nov. 1540.
Signed: "Francisco de los Cobos."
Spanish. Original. p. 5.
24 Nov. 142. Luis Sarmiento de Mendoza to the High Commander of Leon.
S. E., L. 50, f. 169.
B. M. Add. 28,592,
f. 233.
Has paid the customary visits of condolence on the death of the Princess.
With regard to the fleet which this King sent to the coast of Malagueta, the news is as follows:—It sailed away upwards of 25 days ago with 700 men on board. We have since heard that a few days after it encountered a most terrific storm at sea, and that one of the ships foundered with all hands on board; that two more went to the coast of Galicia, and that of the rest nothing is known. Intelligence has been received here that several war-vessels had left the shores of France, and the King told me also that a ship lately arrived from the Canaries had met at sea, not far from those islands, several French privateers, &c. If in such months as November the French venture so far from their own coasts, what, I ask, will they do in the spring? I have forcibly spread out the argument to the King and to the Infante Dom Luiz, but I am sorry to say have not met with the warm response that I expected. The latter, especially, who in former times was so warm and expansive is now cold and dissembling. I see therefore no chance for the present of the Portuguese consenting to join their fleet to that of the Emperor, and should the war with France break out—which I hope will not be for many a year—I fear these people will do every thing they can to keep neutral, though, on the other hand, should the Emperor put some pressure upon them they will hardly dare to decide for the French.
If a vessel from France happens to meet with bad weather at sea she makes for the coasts of this kingdom, shelters and takes in provisions. The same thing they do, as if they were the friends and confederates of Portugal, in the lands and territories which this King has on the other side, such as the Terceiras and the island of Madeira, and there prowl about for Spanish vessels returning from the Indies. Should it be known and published that these Portuguese are the friends and allies of the Emperor, the French would not venture on such expeditions.
I am certain that His Imperial Majesty never gave any cause to Dom Luiz to be angry and disappointed, and yet I cannot help thinking that his discontent, if he really has any, must proceed from a letter which Alvaro Mendez wrote to him, when the duke Francesco Sforza died, announcing that the Emperor was about to invest him with the duchy of Milan. As this has never taken place, I fancy that the Infante's disappointment must have been great; besides that, as the King himself is losing one by one all his sons, and the one now living is sickly (dolentejo) and has no hopes of a long life, he thinks of nothing short of gaining the affections of the people for the future, and marrying his own niece, the King's daughter, of which there is at present great talk.
Spanish. Original. pp. 6.

Footnotes

1 See above, p. 279.
2 "Que aunque tenia buena intencion no se huvo tan bien quanto con viniera."
3 "Porque Su Santidad entendiera que por estos medios no se ha de tractar ni acabar nada con nos, pero que hallando que para complir con las dos cosas dichas no podia dexar de aver (haber) effecto ordenamos y proveimos lo que para ello convenia, como se ha visto. Y que si Su Sanctd como lo merescemos de la dignidad pontifical y sede Apostolica por nuestras obras en beneficio comun de la Xpiandad y favor della, y particularmente por su Sancta persona, por la observancia y respeto que le havemos tenido, y tenemos por las otras causas de conjunction que entre nos ay, nos fuere buen padre, nos le seriamos buen hijo, y quando de otra manera nos tractare todavia seremos Xpĩano, pero haremos lo que nos conviene."
4 That is to Henri de Valois, then duke of Orleans, and subsequently Dauphin of France. Clement's niece was Caterina dé Medici.
5 "Sobre esto es partido el cardinal de Neocourt á Francia á ultimos del passado."
6 Pedro Fernandez Manrique, bishop of Cordoba; he died on the 7th of October 1540. He had been appointed Cardinal of St. John and St. Paul in March 1538, and in the same year, in December, "protector for Germany." See above, p. 280.
7 The see of Jaen in Andalucia was then filled by Francisco de Mendoça, who died at Spires in 1543.
8 Pedro Pacheco, bishop of Pamplona from 1539 to 1545, was promoted to Siguenza in 1554. He did not become cardinal until 1545, attended the Council of Trent, and died at Rome in 1560.
9 Palavicino, Pallavicino.