Spain
July 1541

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Institute of Historical Research

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Pascual de Gayangos (editor)

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1890

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334-344

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'Spain: July 1541', Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 6 Part 1: 1538-1542 (1890), pp. 334-344. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=88053 Date accessed: 25 July 2014.


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July 1541, 1-31

2 July.168. Eustace Chapuys to the Same.
Wien, Imp. Arch.
Rep. P., Fasc. C. 232,
ff. 33–4.
Almost immediately after my return here this king, on Your Majesty's intercession, gave the people of Dunkerke permission to buy here a quantity of wood for their own use and also for the purpose of curing herrings (soriger harens). The permission was granted without difficulty, and with such good will that many a time since he has reminded me of it, telling me that he was surprised that the people of Dunkerke had not sent here a deputation to declare what quantity of wood they required. The deputation has arrived, and now, after keeping them thirteen days without an answer, they have been told that it is mere loss of time to solicit such things before Your Majesty has promised to release the harness, copper, and war ammunition, which this King had some time ago caused to be purchased at Anvers (Antwerp), and concerning which this Privy Council begged me to write as pressingly as I could to Your Majesty, signifying the pleasure and satisfaction this king would feel at hearing that Your Majesty had granted his request. Such is the state of the affair; Your Majesty, with your great wisdom, will decide what had better be done in the case.
For want of more agreeable intelligence, I am obliged to recount one piece of news which is by no means pleasant, namely, that lately, on St. Peter's Eve, towards nine o'clock in the morning, the Sieur Leonard, uncle of the marquis de Osceter (Exeter) and of the Chancellor's wife, was beheaded in front of the Tower. As far as I can learn, he was accused of having, during his government of Ireland, allowed the young count of Childare (Kildare), his nephew, to escape and cross over to France, and thence on to Liège. On the very same day, in the afternoon (a laprès disne), two gentlemen were hung, one of whom had a yearly income of upwards of 12,000 ducats, and was the handsomest and best bred man that could be seen here in England, only 25 years old, and married to a niece of the duke of Norfolk. He was sentenced to death and executed for having belonged to a set of eight rakish youths, one of whom had killed a poor old man in a sudden unpremeditated affray. For the same cause and occasion, on the said day of St. Peter's Eve, in the afternoon, Milord Dacres, (fn. 1) son of the duke of Norfolk's sister, and cousin of this queen, possessing a property of about 5,000 ducats a year, twenty-three years old, well-conditioned, and a man of letters, was hung from the most ignominious gibbet possible, and for greater shame dragged through the streets of this city to the place of execution, to the great pity and regret of many people, and even of his very judges, who whilst passing the sentence of death upon him could not help shedding tears, promising him that they would in a body ask for the king's pardon, as they actually did, though in vain. But the most strange thing, and one at which people were wonderfully taken aback, was that on the very same day on which Milord Dacres was hung, another young man, son of the treasurer of the Royal household, (fn. 2) who was one of the lot, and had also been present at the old man's death, was freely pardoned by the King, though he had already been tried for some like misdemeanour, whereas his friend and companion Dacres met, as I have related, with such a piteous death.
Whilst these lamentable executions were taking place here, the sword of Justice was not idle in the Northern counties, for only lately one Sir Johan Nivel (John Neville), and about sixty more, among whom there were at least twenty-five ecclesiastics, were executed, all of them for having taken part in the conspiracy of which I wrote to Your Majesty some time ago. May God in His infinite mercy have pity on their souls!
I have just been told that a Polish gentleman, followed by eight or ten servants, has arrived this very day. As soon as 1 learn who he is, and what he is coming for, I shall not fail to inform Your Majesty.—London, 2 July 1541.
Signed: "Eustace Chapuys."
French. Original. pp. 4.
7 July. 169. The Marquis del Gasto to the Emperor.
S. E., L. 638,
f. 106.
B. M. Add. 28,593,
f. 15.
The day before yesterday, which was the 5th, I informed Your Majesty by Pirro Colonna how Cesare Fragoso and Rincon had gone down the Po on their way to Venice, where both intended to negociate with the Signory, as I am told. Considering, therefore, that they must have reached their destination, since they were known to have sent forward by water their own horses and luggage, I limited myself then to send people to spy their movements. I then received a letter from Costanza, the wife of the said Cesare Fragoso, which a gentleman, accompanied by a servant of the latter, (fn. 3) brought me; in which letter she stated having heard that Cesare, her husband, was a prisoner in my hands, and that, although she herself was much grieved and concerned at it, and as a weak woman, that she was, might fear the worst, she had yet some consolation in knowing that Cesare was in my power, and, therefore, could receive no harm through it. That she begged and entreated me to allow the gentleman, bearer of the letter, to see the prisoner and converse with him, in order that she might learn from him how Cesare fared, and whether he wanted anything. I confess that such a letter took me by surprise; I was bewildered, and did not know what to think of so strange a piece of news Wishing, however, to know the truth of the matter, I interrogated Fragoso's servant, who said he had been present at the supposed capture, and then asked him whereabouts and in what particular spot the capture had taken place. His account was as follows: He said that about a week ago Cesare Fragoso, El Rincon, and all their servants and luggage, left Turin in the direction of a small castle on the Po, between Chivas and Verulengo, and that having arrived there, in order to deceive the spies who followed their track, they ordered their horses and heavy luggage to be put on board four barges to go down the Po, and that at the same time, along the shores and in the same direction, twelve horsemen half disguised (medio encubiertos)—to make people believe that they themselves were going by water in the barges or by land along the river—made their appearance. This being done, and both barges and horsemen having started on their journey, there only remained at the place Cesare Fragoso and Rincon, accompanied by a lieutenant of the former and one sergeant of Lodovico Birago, three more servants, and one "maitre d'hotel" (maestre de camara) of the said Birago. They concealed themselves, intending on the next day to go on board two smaller boats as soon as they heard of the four barges and horsemen having reached Piacenza in safety, thinking that no one after so many precautions would find them out. On the following Saturday the four principal parties above-named went into a small boat, their Servants in another, among them the one who related the above to me. Five miles before Pavia, close to the port of the Tube, a boat manned by about fourteen men came across the river, and boarded that in which Fragoso and the others were, taking all of them prisoners. The servants in the other boat, perceiving what had happened, pulled with all their strength towards the bank, landed, and hid themselves among the bushes and brushwood of the vicinity. After this Fragoso's servant went straight to Costanza and related to her what had happened, and she wrote to me the letter I have alluded to.
Having heard the man's declaration, I sent for the captain of Justice, and in the very presence of Costanza's emissary and Fragoso's servant, ordered him to repair to the spot where the seizure (exceso) had taken place, and make the most diligent inquiries so as to ascertain the truth of the case. It being quite clear from the joint evidence of Cesare's wife and servant that if the latter had been captured, it was certainly not by my order or that of my subordinates, people begin to suspect that Birago's maitre d'hotel may, from certain motives of his own, or out of enmity against one or other of the parties, have betrayed all of them, a suspicion which is daily gaining ground amongst the people. At any rate Your Imperial Majesty may be well sure of one thing, namely, that not one of your ministers in Italy has had a Land in this affair, knowing, as we do, Your Majesty's wishes and orders in this particular.
I have, however, deemed it opportune to send an express messenger to Mr. de Langes with a copy of the order I myself received (fn. 4) shortly before Fragoso and Rincon left Constantinople; but no sooner had my messenger left on his errand, than I received the enclosed communication from that ambassador bearing on the subject. It was brought by Captain Termes, and I have answered it as Your Majesty will see. That the Captain might see and be persuaded that on my own part no diligence has been spared to discover the perpetrators of the deed, and that the Captain of Justice [of this city] has actually left to make inquiries and ascertain the truth, I have shown him the proclamations lately posted up for the purpose of getting at the bottom of this mystery. The Captain owns that it is impossible that Fragoso and the others could have been tracked by any but the people under his command, who believed, as they themselves had reported, that Fragoso, Rincon and the rest had left Turin in the four barges that went down the Po. What Fragoso and the others did was so cleverly planned and concealed that those only who were present could know of it.
The affair being so important I have not omitted to inform Your Majesty's ministers in these parts of the whole, that they may be ready to state the truth when interpellated on the subject.—Milan, 7 July 1541.
Indorsed: "Copy of the marquis del Gasto's letter to the Emperor."
Spanish. Contempory copy. pp. 3.
9 July.170. The Same to the Same.
S. E., L. 638,
f. 106.
B. M. Add. 28,593,
f. 19.
1541.
To-day, the 8th of July, count Francesco Landriano, whom I sent with an express message to Mr. de Langes, has returned, bringing the enclosed answer, besides which he has told him verbally what Cavalier Cicogna, bearer of this despatch, cannot fail to repeat, &c. A reply to his letter has already been drawn up and sent, as well as a memorandum for king Francis, relating minutely the whole affair. Copies of both are appended. (fn. 5)
This very moment the Captain of Justice has arrived in Milan. He says he has found indications that three Spanish soldiers belonging to the Pavia garrison had intervened in the affair. Orders for their arrest and imprisonment have been sent, that they may be examined, and, if found guilty, punished as they deserve.—Closed on the 9th of July.
Spanish. Contempory copy. p. 1.
12 July.171. Don Diego de Mendoza to the Same.
S. E., L. 1317,
f. 8.
B. M. Add. 28,393,
f. 19.
No news from the Levant since the date of my last.
Having heard from the marquis del Gasto the mishap or loss (perdida) of Rincon and Cesare Fragoso, I exhibited before this Signory the letters I had from Your Majesty commanding me not to interfere in any way with Rincon, who as long as the present truce lasted should not have been hurt or offended. I also showed them two more letters from the Marquis to me, saying that he had made no opposition whatever to him, but had allowed him to pass undisturbed through the duchy of Milan. Hearing this the senators, with whom I conversed, looked at each other, conversed apart for a few minutes, and then one of them came forward and said: "Had Rincon been taken by the Emperor's order no truce would have been broken on his account, for he is an archtraitor and a bandit," after which the speaker and the rest thanked me for the information.
I have since tried to ascertain privately how the Signory have taken the whole thing, and I find that they are glad at the disaster having taken place outside the Republic's territory, inasmuch as it might have affected their peace with the Turk; otherwise they are not at all concerned, saying that if Fragoso and Rincon have been arrested by Your Majesty's order, there were no doubt weighty reasons for that act.
As to the alliance proposed to them by king Francis, they have assured me that even if Venice were to be ruined and destroyed through their not making it, they would remain as they now are Your Majesty's friends; and as to the defensive league against the Turk now offered, they will join it very willingly, provided Your Majesty and other princes do so.
The news of Fragoso and Rincon's misadventure reached the French ambassador here, who was so much taken aback by it that he fainted and fell behind a chest (area) in his sitting-room, and came to his senses with great difficulty. (fn. 6) On the 8th inst. he received a letter from Mr. de Langes, in which he advised that in a very short time mighty things would be seen in connection with Rincon's case. That this Signory was also bound to ask for a reparation of so gross an insult as that offered to the two ambassadors of France. To which message, officially communicated by the French ambassador, the Signory replied, as I am informed, that they did not believe the arrest to have been made by Your Majesty's commands, and that even if it were so they cared not, as the affair did not touch them in the least.
The day before yesterday a vessel from Alexandria entered this port. Her owner, a Spaniard, reports that all that coast is badly provided with artillery and men. That a considerable Portuguese force had appeared in sight of Suez with the intention of setting fire to the Turkish fleet there stranded. Bad weather, however, prevented them from doing this, and thereupon the Portuguese went to a neighbouring island which they took and sacked. When, three days after, the news reached Cairo, the bashaw of the place rode out with all the janissaries and other soldiers he had at hand, and arriving on the spot before the Portuguese could attack the Turkish fleet, nothing more could be done. However, at Alessandria, as the Spaniard related to me, there was all the time great panic. He himself saw many men's heads paraded through the streets, which the Bashaw had sent to Cairo to make the inhabitants believe that he had defeated the Portuguese, and that those heads were theirs. After that the Portuguese sailed in the direction of Mecca, but the chief (Xeque) of the place, having received intelligence of the intended invasion, managed to collect together 12,000 horse for the defence of the city, and naturally nothing more could be done in that quarter. The bashaw of Egypt in the meanwhile had issued an order for thirty galleys to be built [at Suez], but he had neither sailors to man them nor officers to command the crews. On the coast he had 60 more, but so old and rotten that they could never stand the sea.
Pietro Strozzi and the Prior of Capua left for France on Saturday, the 9th inst. Their mission, as far as I can learn is in the first place to ascertain whether, in case of war being declared in consequence of late events and the capture of Fragoso and Rincon, they will be encouraged and helped by king Francis in an attempt upon Florence. This they intend negociating at La Mirandola, for I hear that some time before their departure from this place, one of the two (Strozzi) visited the Count in his stronghold. Secondly, to ask for the command of some French galleys, he (the Prior) pretending to be a good sailor, and that he himself can and will arm some at his own expense. This latter individual has another object in view, namely, to ask for the post which Rincon once held in Turkey, not for himself, but for Lorenço de Medici, who now resides in France, and may probably consider Turkey a safe place for him to live in.
Count Galeotto has just received from the French ambassador 6000 (scuti) crs., for the purpose of disbanding his company of men-at-arms and raising 250 light horse, and perhaps, too, some infantry.
I have also heard that the Pope had advised king Francis not to send Rincon to Constantinople until his own Nuncio, the Datary, had reached France. I cannot however vouch for the truth of this report, because the person to whom I owe my information is by no means a friend of the Pope.
On the receipt of this news the French ambassador dispatched a courier to Constantinople by way of Ragusa, and on the 9th inst. he sent another one.—Venice, 12 July 1541.
Signed: "Don Diego de Mendoça."
Indorsed: "Copy of D. Diego's letters of the 26th and 30th of June and 12th July."
Spanish. Original. pp. 3.
n. d.172. Idiaquez' Report.
S.E., Con. de Cast.
L. 52, f. 359.
B. M. Add. 28,593,
f. 22.
This is the reply which, in my opinion, should be sent to the marquis del Gasto's verbal message through Pirro Colonna: That considering past engagements and the present state of affairs, Your Majesty is in nowise inclined to a rupture, especially at this juncture, for causes and reasons that he (the Marquis) may guess at, and which will hereafter be more fully explained. That Your Majesty cannot possibly approve what has been done, but at the same time Your Majesty cannot fail to acknowledge that the whole plan was cleverly conceived and well executed, and may perhaps prove a remedy for worse evils. That your Majesty cannot but praise the dexterity used, and acknowledge that for the sake of reaping the fruit of so meritorious a deed, it is necessary that the whole matter be kept a profound secret as far as Your Majesty and the Marquis are concerned; and that not only is absolute secrecy required respecting the deed, it must be equally observed with regard to the person who furnished the information. All possible care should be taken of this, as well as of the papers found on the persons of the prisoners. Let the Marquis inform Your Majesty of the contents of those papers, and of whatever else may have been said or written about Rincon's embassy, and let the Marquis consider whether it would be advisable to ask from the parties concerned a new oath (pleito omenage) to keep the secret. (fn. 7)
Spanish. Original in Idiaquez's hand.
16 July.173. Eustace Chapuys to the Emperor.
Wien,
Imp. Arch.
Rep. P., Fasc. C. 232,
ff. 15–18.
This very morning I received the two letters from Your Imperial Majesty of the 11th inst., which were promptly forwarded to me by the officials of this court. (fn. 8) It was a very good idea of Your Majesty sending me separately a deciphering of the one containing Your Majesty's recommendations upon certain points of my charge. Indeed, in my opinion, the deciphering will do as well, nay, better than any private letters in cipher, for it will enable me to show them to the parties concerned without any of the dangers which Your Majesty has so prudently calculated; it will also be more beneficial for the progress and good issue of the present negociation. The same may be said with regard to the recommendations touching the Queen.
As to the remainder, I will do my best to keep up the negociation for a closer alliance and friendship in the same state in which it is now, making such use of my instructions as I may deem most fit and convenient for Your Majesty's purposes, without amplifying or retrenching anything whatsoever, unless I receive Your Majesty's express commands. I will, moreover, use all diligence and spare no trouble in obtaining, if possible, from the French ambassadors man a copy of the cipher the former uses, as well as some original letters addressed to him, that may enlighten Your Majesty as to the doings of the French. In fact, I can assure you that no money shall be spared in bribing the said man, for were I to be ruined by the transaction, and have to sell myself, (fn. 9) he shall have as great a reward as he may ask for his services. The man, himself, has lately sent me a message to say that the last despatch which the ambassador (his chief) has received from the King (his master) is unimportant, and has been chiefly made out, as he thinks, for the purpose of acknowledging the receipt of his letters. True is it that one of king Francis' councillors has written to the ambassador a letter saying that whatever people may think of the deliberations of the German Diet, they cannot but be useful in the end, and highly advantageous for the King (their master), for if the result be favorable to Germany and to Your Majesty, the Pope is sure to go over to France, whereas if the Diet takes no resolution at all, and the affairs remain in statu quo, then the king of France will have closer understanding and connexion with, and more favor and assistance from, Germany than he ever had. (fn. 10)
The ambassador has also had letters from France, in which they tell him that the king of the Romans has lately lost at the storming of Buda nearly 4,000 men, and no longer has the means of taking that town, especially now that there is a Turkish army advancing to its relief. These very news the French ambassador imparted, some days ago, with a most pitiful countenance, to one of my men whom I had sent on the excuse of visiting him in my name and inquiring how he was (for he had the day before yesterday fallen from his horse and hurt himself), but in reality to try and get something out of him.
I have been told by the ambassadors man, the same one who as already stated has been for some time back my confidential informer, that when his chief, on the receipt of the above-mentioned despatch, called, on the Chancellor at his lodgings, he went thither for the sole purpose of communicating to him the above intelligence, and talking to him about some other mysterious affair, of which, however, I know nothing at present, but hope to be able to unravel in future. I say "mysterious," because for the last fortnight this King has dispatched several couriers to his ambassador in France, ordering them to make as much haste as possible. A s soon as I can get reliable information on this point I shall not fail in transmitting it to Your Majesty forthwith.
Nothing important has happened here since my last [of the 2nd]. Some days ago the King ordered the Estates of that portion of Ireland which is now under his rule to be convoked, for the purpose of communicating to them, among other things, that he wishes and intends to set up under the name of "Kingdom of Ireland" that part of the country where his lordship and rule are at present obeyed, and consequently to call and entitle himself king of Ireland; in expectation of which new title all business has been for some days suspended in Chancery, as well as in the Exchequer Court, in order that all of a sudden, and conjointly as it were, the King's name may appear decorated with his new title of "king of England and Ireland" in all letters patent, provisions, &c., emanating from those two offices, and that by that means the news may be spread and circulated in every quarter. (fn. 11)
The King has likewise sent to Italy for three shipwrights experienced in the art of constructing galleys; but I fancy that he will not make much use of their science, as for some time back he has been building ships with oars, according to a model of which he himself is the inventor. (fn. 12) —London, 16 July 1541.
Signed: "Eustace Chapuys."
Indorsed: "Copy of the letter of the ambassador in England to the Emperor."
French. Holograph, partly in cipher. pp. 2½.
16 July.174. The Same to the Queen of Hungary.
Wien, Imp. Arch.
Rep. P., Fasc. C. 232,
f. 35.
Your Majesty's letter of the 9th January, with the account of what passed between Your Majesty's deputies and this king's commissioners respecting the edict of Navigation, has come to hand. I can only say, after acknowledging its receipt, that should this king or the members of his Privy Council say anything to me about it, I will answer them according to instructions, and that in the meantime I will do my best to induce them to make a fresh treaty of commerce.
I will put an end to this letter by humbly thanking Four Majesty for the favor and distinction conferred upon me by commanding the deputies to follow the advice I once gave respecting the manner of conducting the negociation.
I am exceedingly poor, and cannot help importuning Your Majesty to give orders that the arrears of my pay be forwarded to me as soon as possible.—London, 16 July 1541.
Signed: Eustace Chapuys."
French. Holograph. p. 1.
25 July.175. The Same to the Emperor.
Wien, Imp. Arch.
Rep. P., Fasc. C. 232,
ff. 19–20.
1541.
By my preceding letter of the xvith inst. I informed your Imperial Majesty of the receipt of your letters of the last day of June, addressed to this king and to me. The day after, as I was preparing to go and meet the King, who is hunting here and there at a distance of 60 or 80 miles from this capital, (fn. 13) T felt so unwell and so unable to undertake the journey, that I was literally obliged to put it off, to my very great regret, especially as I wished on this occasion, more than on any other, to give a proof, or indication at least, of my own constant will and desire to obey Your Imperial Majesty's commands and do faithful service. For although for the good issue of the charge which Your Imperial Majesty was pleased to intrust to me, there was no necessity for such manifestations, nor for my visiting the King so far away from this city, I was nevertheless sorry, as I say, not to be able to comply with Your Imperial Majesty's strict commands, especially in a matter on which so many representations, remonstrances, and persuasions have been addressed by me to the Privy Council, especially some days ago, when a letter received from Mr. de Rogenndorf, at Peste (Pesth), informed me of the miserable state of affairs in Hungary. That letter I did show to Mr. de Norfolcq (Norfolk), and to other privy councillors, who offered to send forthwith a copy of it for the King's inspection, who, assuming, as he does, great understanding and knowledge of and experience in political affairs, does not take in good part any advice or representations tendered by other people, even in matters of gratitude or liberality, of which he likes to claim all the grace and renown. (fn. 14)
All these things considered, and unable as I was to go to the King on account of my sudden indisposition, I decided—the affair being too pressing and important to be delayed – to send one of my own men to the Privy Council in general, and to some of its members in particular, containing the substance of what I might have said to them if present, besides that which my secretary, sufficiently instructed by me, might say verbally if questioned on Hungarian affairs.
The councillors have since answered, as your Imperial Majesty will see by the enclosed. I shall not fail to use the utmost diligence in ascertaining what resolution they are likely to come to on the affair, and inform your Imperial Majesty of the whole. May God be pleased that the end be as favorable as I wish!—London, 25 July 1541.
Signed: "Eustace Chapuys."
Addressed: "To the Emperor. (fn. 15)
French. Original. pp. 1½.

Footnotes

1 Lord Dacres of Shenstanceaux (?).
2 At this time Kirkaldy of Grange had succeeded Fitzwilliam in the Treasury.
3 Me sobrevino una carta de Costanza, muger del dicho Cesar, con un gentilhombre y un criado suyo. Whose servant, the gentleman's or Fragoso's? This latter interpretation seems more natural from what follows a few lines lower down.
4 A marginal note in Idiaquez' hand has the following:—The order was thus conceived: "No impediment whatever is to be offered to Fragoso's and Rincon's journey on their return from Constantinople to France."
It is, however, remarkable that neither the order alluded to, nor the Marquis' letter to Mr. de Langes (Langenis), nor any other of the documents said to have been enclosed, are at Simancas, as otherwise Bergenroth would, no doubt, have obtained transcripts of them.
5 Not in the packet.
6 "Y le tomó tal sobresalto que cayo desmayado detras de un area, y tornó [en si] llorando con mucha dificultad."
7 On the margin, and opposite this last paragraph, I find, in the Emperor's own hand, the following words: Esto no: this by no means.
8 "Les quellos mont este envoyeez en grande diligence de ceste court."
9 "Et ne restera pour argent oires que je fusse completement ruine et me deusse vendre moi mesmes."
10 "Que la dicte germanicque ne pouvoit estre sinon tres utille et tres aduantagieuse pour le dit roy leur maistre car concluant icelle vostre maieste en faveur de la dite Germanie, le Pape seroit toutalement françois, et laissant les affaires dicelle dicte irresoluz, le dit roy, leur maistre, auroit trop plus dintelligence, faveur et assistence en la dite Germanie que oncques."
11 "Ce roy puis quelques jours a fait assembler en Hirlande les estatz du pays que luy est la obeissant pour entre aultres choses communicquer, comme il veult et entend eriger en royaulme la seigneurie et dominion (sic) quil a au dit Hirlande, et consequemment sen dire, appeller, et intuler (intituler) roy, et pour attendre la publication du dit nouveau tiltre lon a icy desia (despuis?) quelques jours faict suspendre les despesches de la Chancellerie et de leschecquier, affin que tout a ung coup sortent plusieurs lettres et provisions aourneez (adornées?) et enrichiez du dit nouveau tiltre, et que par ce moyen la dite publication sextende bientost en divers lieux."
12 "Aussi a ce dit roy faict venir ditalie trois maistres experts pour fere galleres, et crois quil ne les mectra en œuvre mesmes puisque il a commence a fere faire navieres avec environs (sic, avirons?) dont luy seul a este larchitecte et deviseur."
13 In Lincolnshire?.
14 "Joinct que icelluy seigneur pour presumer de grand sens doctrine et experience la plus part du temps ne prend en grey ny en bonne part que luy soient faictes remonstrances ny persuasions, mesmes en chose de gratitude et liberalite, dont il veult avoir tout seul la grace et renom."
15 The indorsement bears: "Copie des lettres de l'ambassadeur Chapuys au roy du Romains"; but this must be a mistake of the clerk who indorsed the letter, for it is decidedly one from Chapuys to the Emperor. Most likely a copy of that ambassador's letter to the king of the Romans (Ferdinand) was also in the packet, or, what is more likely, a copy of Chapuys' letter to the Emperor was sent to the former, since the contents refer almost exclusively to Hungary, at that time invaded by the Turks.


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