Venice
May 1618

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

Year published

1909

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205-224

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'Venice: May 1618', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 15: 1617-1619 (1909), pp. 205-224. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=88676 Date accessed: 30 July 2014.


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Contents

May 1618

May 2.
Consiglio
de'X.
Parti Comuni
Venetian
Archives.
341. The Council of Ten to the Rectors of Padua.
Direction to continue the process about the injuries inflicted upon Dr. Robert Gaifardo, the Englishman, and other processes, delegated to them by their predecessors, with the same authority.
Ayes14.
Noes0.
Neutral0.
[Italian.]
May 4.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
342. PIERO CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador Extraordinary in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Having been previously invited to go to the Court yesterday, which was St. Georges day, to witness the ceremonial of the knights of the Garter, I had an opportunity of paying my respects to his Majesty, who immediately congratulated me on the election of your Serenity to the dukedom. I told him that immediately on receiving your letters I should give him particular account of the fact, and that in the mean while his Majesty might rest assured of meeting with the same observance on behalf of the reigning sovereign as on that of all his predecessors, as by reason of his most special endowments, merit and good services rendered to the state, he had been deservedly raised to the highest honour of the republic, and I individually beg to offer my congratulations. (fn. 1)
The king then told me that he hoped by this time all the difficulties between the Spaniards and the duke of Savoy were at an end, as he understood that prince had already restored all the fortresses and that Don Pedro of Toledo was to do the like immediately, adding that it had reached him from Spain that in like manner as they desired and were bent upon peace with the republic at any rate, so did they lay claim to the free navigation of the Gulf, and that the preparations now being made by the viceroy of Naples were for the sake of preventing the Dutch from entering Italy.
I answered his Majesty that it was already known that the duke of Savoy had performed all his promises and agreements, although there was no certainty hitherto of what might be done by the Spaniards whose actions were utterly at variance with their words; and that their present claim to jurisdiction in the Gulf of Venice was a pretext for disturbing the public peace, and realizing some evil project, as the claims of the republic to the free dominion of the Gulf were so strong, so ancient and so well founded that long before the Spaniards set foot in Italy, she exercised this supremacy without any impediment, as admitted universally, and that the surest way of preventing the Dutch from coming into Italy would be to remove all cause for suspicion and distrust, as after all it behoved the republic in self defence to avail herself of her friends and of the means best calculated to that effect, and after some little conversation on this topic, I took leave and departed.
On the day before yesterday I went to the queen, whom I thanked most amply for her good offices with the Danish ambassador in favour of the interests of the republic, assuring her the fact would cause your Serenity extreme satisfaction, and induce a special wish for opportunities of reciprocating similar good will. I said that I should certainly be commissioned to thank her warmly in your name. The queen assured me that although she was aware of the good disposition of the king her brother towards the republic, she had nevertheless, on her own part also, chosen to add this demonstration to prove to your Excellencies how anxious she is for your welfare and aggrandizement. She afterwards told me in great confidence that the ambassador had spoken with extreme warmth to the king, dissuading him from the Spanish marriage, as commanded by his master; who considered that his close connection with this royal family bound him to speak plainly. He even went so far as to say that it was sacrificing the prince to marry him to Spain, at which King James was greatly offended and replied that with all respect for the prudence and wisdom of the king of Denmark, he chose to dispose of his children according to his own fancy (che era un tradir il Principe a volerlo maritar con Spagna: di che il Re se ne era grandemente doluto, dicendo che sicome stimava il Re di Danemarca prudente et savio et cosi i suoi figluoli li voleva governar a suo modo). Her Majesty told me moreover that the king was not aware of her being acquainted with these particulars and would be much annoyed if he thought she were, so that she pretended to know nothing about them and requested me not to mention the circumstance to any one. She said to me besides that the king was now violently in favour of the Spaniards, who deceived him with these hopes of marriage and by promising him a considerable sum of money on this account, but that in short it was all pretence, devoid of any intention of a matrimonial alliance, against which there were too many objections, both on account of religion, and also because they meant to marry that princess to the king of Bohemia. The real object of this negotiation was to benefit their affairs, and she added that the Spanish ambassador here, through the immense sums of money continually spent by him, being vastly sagacious and crafty, had spoilt and corrupted the whole Court (il re non sapeva et haverebbe ricevuto gran disgusto, che ad essa fossero pervenuti questi particolari; però mostrava di non saperli, et pregomi a non parlarne con alcuno; mi disse in oltre che il Re hora era grandemente portato alle interesse de' Spagnuoli, che lo ingannavano con queste speranze di matrimonio et con promessa di darli per essa gran somma di denaro, ma in fine erano tutti artificii non per far le nozze, perche queste havevano troppo oppositioni per la religione et perche pensavano di maritar quella Principessa col Re di Bohemia, ma per proffittare con questo maneggio i loro affarri, et che questo Ambr di Spagna con molto denaro, che spende continuamente, ha guasto et corrotto la Corte, essendo huomo pieno d'accortezze et d'insidie). After discussing these topics at some length I made my bow and departed. I have thought fit to acquaint your Serenity with every detail.
London, the 4th May, 1618.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
May 4.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
343. PIERO CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador Extraordinary in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Herewith I forward the account of the payments made by me for the hire of the seven ships and for the levy of 500 infantry, amounting to 61,351 ducats and 22 soldi; for the balance of which bills of exchange will be presented to your Serenity by Sig. Peter Vandeputt for 7,051 ducats 22 soldi. The entire sum has been disbursed by me as follows:
For three months pay in advance to six of the ships and four months ditto to the seventh37,018 ducats,
For shipment of the soldiers, loan for the purchase of wines and four months pay20,000 ducats,
For ammunition powder and ball, cordage, flags, etc.4,333 ducats
as your Serenity may perceive in detail by the accompanying note.
To his Excellency the Captain General on the sea I have sent by each ship their authentic contracts, a note of the money received and ammunition consigned, as also of the period when their pay began. I have done the like with regard to the engagement of the Colonel and his troops, the money received by them and the deductions to be made. To your Serenity likewise I also send an extract of all the aforesaid ship contracts and agreements, that they may be yet more clear to you, although they do not differ in any essential point from the copies already transmitted.
London, the 4th May, 1618.
[Italian.]
Enclosed
in the
preceding
despatch.
344. Account of Expenses for the seven ships and 500 infantry. 1618 in London.
Pietro Contarini, knight, ambassador, debtor for remittances made by Cristoforo Surian from Amsterdam in letters dated 10 February, 20,000 ducats, equal to 4,444l 10s.
Item, taken here from Rycaut, payable at Venice according to bill dated 17 February, in favour of Guadagni1,000 ducats.
In favour of Manelli1,000 ducats.
In favour of Van Uffel and Van Mer6,000 ducats.
8,000 ducats
at 55½d. the ducat1,850l.00
Item from Burlamachi, payable at Venice by bills dated 10 March, to Guadagni, 8,000 ducats, at 55d.1,823l.68
Item 21 March from Vandeput, payable in Venice, 4,300 ducats, at 55d985l.84
Item 11 March from Burlamachi and Vandeput, payable in Venice, 8,000 ducats, at 55d.1,833l.68
Item 1 April from Burlamachi, payable in Venice to Vandeput, 6,000 ducats, at 55d1,375l.00
Item 23 April from Burlamachi, payable in Venice to Vandeput, 7,051 ducats 22 soldi, at 55d1,616l.14
Total, 61,351 ducats 22 soldi, equivalent to13,937l.130
Piero Contarini, knight, Ambassador, Creditor.
£
27 Feb.For money paid to the owners of the ship Centurion for three months hire at the rate of 355l. per month1,065
17 March.Item to the Masters of the ship Dragon, for three months hire, 355l.1,065
20 March.Item to the masters of the ship Abigail for three months hire at 400l.1,200
20 March.Item to the masters of the ship Matthew for three months at 400l.1,200
3 April.Item to the masters of the ship Hercules, for three months at 400l.1,200
11 April.Item to the masters of the ship Anadem for four months at 355l.1,420
11 April.Item to the masters of the ship Royal Exchange for three months at 450l1,350
16 April.To the colour maker for fourteen flags of St. Mark, seven for action and seven for the mast464
8 April.To William Felgate (Felghetto) store-keeper, for supplies of powder, ball, cordage, etc. for the ships and soldiers, as in the detailed account94618
12 March.At sundry times to Colonel Peyton and Captains Bellingsley and Manwood, to each their share, for the shipment of 500 infantry at 1l. per head500
12 March.To the aforesaid for the purchase of arms at the rate of 25s. per head, to be deducted from the first monthly payment, to be disbursed after arriving in the Venetian territories625
To the aforesaid at sundry times for four months pay in advance3,3106
To Rycaut for commission on 8,000 ducats95
Total13,937l.13
Store keeper's account. Round shot for falconets100weight 19½ cwt.
do. for half culverins650
do. for sakers2,000
do. for minions1,150
Total3,900at 12s. the cwt.1146
Spike shot for half culverins130weight 49 cwt.
do. for sakers430
do. for minions190
Total750at 18s. the hundred442
Chain shot for half culverins104weight 47 cwt.
do. for sakers263
do. for minions80
447at 23s. the cwt.541
142 barrels of powder at 4l. 5s. the barrel60310
7 ditto for the soldiers at 4l. 8s. the barrel3016
41 cwt. of musket balls at 16s. 6d. the cwt.3017
20 cwt. of iron bolts at 14s. the cwt.140
12 cwt. of cordage at 2l. 2s. 6d. the cwt.2510
80 quires of royal paper at 14d. each4134
52 doz. of wooden cartridge boxes at 4s. per doz.108
52 doz. of tamkins for the guns at 2s. per doz212
38 lbs. starch for paste at 16d. per 1b128
15 lbs. iron wire at 16d. the lb10
41 barrels for musket balls21
Casks for cordage18
Casks for iron bolts10
Cost of shipping the ammunition31
Total946180
Note: the English hundredweight is 112 pounds of Venice.
[Italian.]
Enclosed
in the
preceding
despatch.
345. Extract from the contracts of the ships.
The ship Centurion, of 500 butts, 22 guns and 60 sailors, hired for seven months certain and as much longer as the republic shall please up to eighteen months, with one month's warning. The price 1,420 ducats per month, three months paid in advance from 1 March N.S., and thereafter monthly in advance.
The ship Dragon of 500 butts, 22 guns and 60 sailors, upon the like conditions, the pay to begin on 10 March N.S. and to be paid every two months after the first three, after falling due.
The ship Hercules of 600 butts, 24 guns and 70 sailors, hired as aforesaid. The price 1,600 ducats per month, three months paid in advance, from 30 March N.S., and thereafter monthly in advance.
The ship Annadem of 500 butts, 22 guns and 60 sailors, hired as aforesaid. Price 1,420 ducats per month, four months paid in advance from 11 April N.S., and thereafter monthly in advance.
The ship Abigail of 600 butts, 24 guns and 70 sailors hired as aforesaid. Price 1,600 ducats per month, three months in advance from 18 March N.S. and thereafter monthly in advance.
The ship Matthew of 600 butts, 24 guns and 70 sailors, hired as aforesaid. Price 1,600 ducats per month, three months in advance from 30 March, N.S. and thereafter monthly in advance.
The ship Royal Exchange of 700 butts, 28 guns and 80 sailors, hired as aforesaid. Price 1,800 ducats the month, three months in advance from 20 March N.S., and thereafter monthly in advance.
Colonel Peyton and Captains Bellingsley and Manwood, for marching the men on shipboard have received 20s. a head; total ... 2,181 ducats 20 soldi.
In loan for the purchase of arms ... 2,727¼ ducats, to be deducted from the first payments made to them after reaching Venetian territory. They have received four months pay in advance, their service beginning on 10 March. The stipend being exhausted they are to be paid monthly in advance. He is bound to serve seven months certain after reaching Venetian territories and as much longer as the republic shall please with the obligation to serve by land or sea against any one soever except the king of Great Britain and the United Provinces,
[Italian.]
May 4.
Collegio,
Secreta.
Esposizioni
Principi.
Venetian
Archives.
346. The Secretary of England came into the Cabinet and said:
My ambassador has directed me to say that Sir Thomas Studer is here from England, having left the court of the archduke to come and serve your Serenity. He is much observed by all the ministers of his Majesty for certain reasons which his Excellency will lay before your Serenity, which greatly concern the king's interests; his Excellency therefore begs your Serenity to refrain from making any arrangements with this Studer until he has made his explanation.
Sig. Gio. Dandolo replied that they would have regard for his Majesty's interests. The Secretary returned thanks and asked for another favour. A brawl had arisen between Milander and Vere, an English gentleman, for which the former was detained at Palma and the latter at Udine. The former has been allowed some liberty of movement, but the latter is still confined. His Excellency begs that both may be treated alike.
Sig. Dandolo replied: Tell the ambassador that everything will be done to give him satisfaction to show our esteem for him. With this the secretary left.
[Italian.]
May 6.
Collegio,
Lettere.
Venetian
Archives.
347. To the Proveditore General of the Forces.
For reasons well known to your prudence, Vere is detained in the castle of Udine, and we are informed that Milander, his adversary, goes about wherever he pleases. The ambassador of Great Britain resident here has represented to us the prejudice that Vere suffers thereby, and we do not think it at all reasonable that Milander should enjoy such liberty. We direct you to give orders that he also be sent to the fortress of Palma and do not leave it without your orders. It may possibly facilitate a re conciliation between these two persons, if they are treated equally. You will send us word of what you do.
Ayes20.
Noes0.
Neutral2.
[Italian.]
May 8.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
348. PIERO GRITTI, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The English secretary has been to call upon me. He told me that he had spoken upon the affairs of Italy to his Majesty's confessor, who assured him that the galleons of Naples will be brought into the Mediterranean to join the fleet against the pirates.
Madrid, the 8th May, 1618.
[Italian.]
May 8.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
349. SIMON CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
His Majesty has sent orders to the governor of Lyons not to allow the ambassador from Genoa about the affairs of Italy to proceed beyond that city to this Court unless he gives complete satisfaction with regard to the person of Claudio Marini, agent of his Majesty. Thus the ambassador remains at Lyons and has sent back to ask for instructions. These proceedings create some concern in those who hear of them. The arrest of the ambassadors sent to this Court, such as occurred to me, the rough dismissal of the resident of the Grand Duke, quite recently, as well as that of the ambassador of the Bernese, who came to treat with the duke of Longueville, and the recall of the ambassador of England from London without appointing another, do not seem a very proper manner of conducting relations between princes.
Paris, the 8th May, 1618.
[Italian.]
May 8.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
350. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I have been here since last Saturday endeavouring to overcome the difficulties about sending off the ships. To-morrow or Thursday they have orders to proceed to Texel, and with a favourable wind I hope to see them sail hence. Before leaving the Hague I left instructions with M. Antonio Luz to send the three ships at Rotterdam to Brill. He wrote that they were to go down the river yesterday, and if the wind were favourable they would set sail for Falmouth in England, a suitable and convenient point for the admiral and other new ships to reach. The soldiers allotted to the three ships are already on board.
I have settled with the Scotch captain of whom I wrote to your Serenity last week. He is to have 25 florins a month, which I have set down in his patent as 10 ducats of Venice. This will last for the time of the war and five months after, and will not begin before he reaches the fleet and reports himself to the captain general at sea. Afterwards he will await such appointment as your Serenity may think suitable to his experience of arms. I told him that he should have his travelling expenses and he will make the journey in one of the galleys of your Serenity. Another good Scotch soldier will do the like, receiving his expenses only, awaiting his appointment and receiving what salary may be decided.
Amsterdam, the 8th May, 1618.
[Italian.]
May 9.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Padova.
Venetian
Archives.
351. BATTISTA NANI, Podestaà of Padua, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The faculty of theology here, anxious to please the pope by writing against the theses of the late Archbishop of Spalato, and invited to do so by the archbishop himself, has chosen Filippo Fabii and Mario Mazzoleni to ask leave of your Serenity to do so, and declare the said theses to be heretical, false and scandalous, their reply being first sent to the Reformers of the University to be licensed.
Padua, the 9th May, 1618.
[Italian.]
May 10.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
352. ALMORO NANI, Venetian Ambassador in Constantinople, to the DOGE and SENATE.
War with Persia is considered certain owing to the great preparations on both sides.
The last letters from Aleppo announce that a very large caravan had arrived there from Bagadet bringing 1,000 packs of silk, 2,000 casks of indigo, 5,000 cordovans and some loads of rhubarb and linen goods. The English ambassador told me that he also had letters from Aleppo from his consul relating that a Portuguese who came from Persia had told him that the ambassador of the king of Great Britain, who was nogotiating about silk with the Persian king, had been invited to dinner with another Englishman by Don Francesco di Garcia, ambassador of the Catholic king. (fn. 2) On the following day the English ambassador and his companion both died, so that every one believes they were poisoned.
Dalle Vigne di Pera, the 10th May, 1618.
[Italian; deciphered.]
May 11.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
353. To the ambassador in England.
After negotiations which lasted for more than a year our Secretary Surian at the Hague engaged for our service Sir Thomas Studer, an Englishman, owing to the good accounts we received of his military services in Germany, Hungary, with the Archduke Albert, with the Spaniards, in the Low Countries and especially for a long time with the king of Great Britain, which induced us to employ him more than anything else, and thus gratify his Majesty's desire, so frequently expressed by his ambassador here, that we should employ Englishmen in the present emergencies. When he arrived in this city recently to take up his service, the news reached the ears of the English ambassador, who sent his secretary to the Cabinet, to make the request of which we send you a copy. As we do not know what reasons moved him, we desire you, if you are addressed on the matter, to give the reasons adduced above, showing why we employed the man, and say that he has come here on the stength of a promise given to him. We will send you word of all further particulars.
That our Savio alla Scrittura tell the secretary of England, as if on his own responsibility, that Studer was engaged for our service some months ago, after negotiations which lasted for more than a year, for the reasons aforesaid.
Ayes147.
Noes0.
Neutral4.
[Italian.]
May 12.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
354. To the Captain General at Sea.
We hear that Ossuna is hastily arming twelve galleys, ostensibly to go to the east. We wish you to know that the galleys hired for our service in England put to sea on the 18th ult., and the twelve Dutch ships started on the 1st inst. You will have to keep a look out that the Naples fleet does not try to prevent them from reaching us.
We propose to use Colonel Rocca Lora and the troops serving under him to strengthen our fleet.
Ayes121.
Noes0.
Neutral2.
[Italian.]
May 12.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
355. To the ambassador at the Imperial Court and the like to the other Courts and to the Generals.
Constant frivolous pretexts are raised to delay the restitution of Vercelli, which have greatly angered the French ambassadors, who have protested to Don Pedro. His Highness is also much annoyed because he has punctually carried out all his obligations. Don Pedro shows his reluctance but the duke of Ossuna is even worse in his plans and preparations against us.
Ayes121.
Noes0.
Neutral0.
[Italian.]
May 12.
Cons. de'X.
Parti Secrete.
Venetian
Archives
356. To the Captain General at Sea.
Before you left this city you were informed by the Inquisitors of State of the reasons which made us suspicious of the French Captains Jacques Pierre and Langlad. Owing to what has since happened we direct you to put them to death together with another Frenchman, Rossetto, Jacques Pierre's secretary, in such manner as your prudence may suggest, without any display, and you will immediately seize their papers and send them to the chiefs of the Council of Ten, together with the particulars of their execution, keeping their belongings until further order.
Ayes13.
Noes1.
Neutral1.
[Italian.]
May 12.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
357. GIROLAMO SORANZO, Venetian Ambassador at Rome, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The pope and every one else are anxiously awaiting events from Naples. It is universally thought that your Serenity has a powerful fleet, and the Spaniards will not find it so easy to smash as they think. The sending of four galleons and fourteen galleys by Ossuna to the Gulf give rise to the belief of a serious attack upon the republic. They are thought to have orders to use every effort to meet the English and Dutch, who are coming to serve your Serenity and send them to the bottom, and if this does not succeed to wait to attempt something against the Turk.
Rome, the 12th May, 1618.
[Italian.]
May 13.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
358. PIERO GRITTI, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The secretary of England seems to entertain no hopes of a successful issue of the marriage negotiations. He says it is not true that the Spaniards are about to send commissioners to England, as is reported at Court. He asserts that the subjects of his king will hear with joy that the ambassador has left without having brought the negotiations into good train. They abhor this marriage so much that they are making large offers to the king to abandon the whole affair (abhorrendo essi di modo tal matrimonio, che fanno al Re grandi offerte perche abbandoni del tutto questa pratica.)
Madrid, the 13th May, 1618.
[Italian.]
May 14.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Proveditore
delle Armi in
Terra Ferma
et Istria.
Venetian
Archives.
359. ANTONIO BARBARO, Proveditore of the Forces, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I have asked M. Rochlor to have his men ready. He said they needed 600 muskets, for which I have written. He raised difficulties about the lieutenant colonel which I have not been able to overcome. He said he needed one to share the burden with him. I said that there was not so great need for one at sea. He still persisted, and I have gained time by referring the matter to your Excellencies.
The camp at Farra, the 14th May, 1618.
[Italian.]
May 17.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci.
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
360. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Luz has been obliged to leave Rotterdam upon his affairs, and so Pasini will endeavour to get them to send the three ships to Falmouth in England. I have met with some difficulties in this matter, but I shall overcome them all.
The Helder in the port of Texel, the 17th May, 1618.
[Italian.]
May 17.
Inquisitori
di Stato.
Busta 1213.
No. 44.
Venetian
Archives.
361. Gregorio di Monti, secretary of the English ambassador, being introduced into the presence of the Inquisitors of State as soon as he had been dismissed by the Council of Ten said:
He had been yesterday to see his master the ambassador, who asked him if he knew who were the latest persons arrested. He replied that one of them was known to his Excellency, as he remembered once having seen them walking together. In the course of the conversation the ambassador showed that he knew something about him, that he was a tall, aged Frenchman; at the request of the secretary, who wished to learn particulars useful for the republic, the ambassador decided to put in writing what he knew about this man. Accordingly he presented a paper beginning: Three or four times recently there has been to see me, and ending, he told me it was a short distance from Algiers. He added that if it contained anything serviceable to the republic he would be gratified, with other polite phrases. He added that the paper referred to a letter of recommendation to Sir [Thomas] Lake which he had given to Nicolo Rinaldi; (fn. 3) this letter seemed to be on his mind although he said it was a matter of no importance. The secretary remembered that the ambassador would have been gratified if when he went into the Cabinet they had shown some signs of satisfaction for this information delivered by him, and he said so in case, as he expected, the paper was sent to the Council of Ten without its contents being made public. They had replied courteously thanking the ambassador and that after the paper had been read they would be able to consider what it was proper to do.
He said afterwards that some Spanish Jews, who used sometimes to go to the ambassador's house, after they learned that Rinaldo had been with the ambassador, came to the house with extraordinary frequency, but he did not know their motives.
[Italian.]
May 18.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
362. PIERO CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador Extraordinary in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The king has received letters from Turin dated the 1st inst., announcing that Don Pedro has surrendered San Germano to the duke of Savoy and that the same would moreover have been done by Vercelli had not the overflowing of the River Sesia prevented the Spaniards from removing their baggage; intelligence confirmed by more recent letters from France. This has given great satisfaction to his Majesty, who now considers the peace of Italy assured, especially as he has heard from Spain that the duke of Ossuna is recalled from his government and that all the naval preparations were destined against the corsairs, who are in very great numbers and most troublesome on the coast of Spain and throughout that latitude.
The man named Gardiner, of whom the Resident Spinelli wrote lately from Naples that the Viceroy meant to make use of him for the purpose of obtaining from this country some good vessels for war service together with supplies of tin, lead etc. has arrived in this city. As yet I do not understand that he has put his hand to anything, but he shall be carefully watched, and should he undertake any operation deemed by me to be prejudicial to the service of your Excellencies, I will not fail to take the necessary steps to stop him.
The other day some coiners were executed for having forged considerable sums of the Jacobus, the current gold coin of this realm worth four crowns. As I understand that a brother of one of the culprits has gone out as a soldier on board the ships engaged by your Serenity, taking with him a certain amount of this base money, I deem it my duty to give respectful notice of the fact. I am also notifying the Captain General of the sea to prevent such confusion as might be caused in the fleet by the circulation of such false coin.
Persons of nautical experience are of opinion that the vessels which left here, if not already in the Strait must be very near it. God grant them a good and speedy voyage and that they may forthwith be able to render some good service.
After no little difficulty, Wotton, the ambassador at Venice, has at length obtained 4,000 crowns on account of his arrears. He remains creditor for 800 and as the scarcity of money increases daily whilst the means of procuring it becomes more and more difficult; they have taken in hand the reduction of expenditure and the royal household has been fixed at 80,000 crowns a year and it is intended to adopt a similar course with regard to many other matters (fn. 4) (et la casa del Re si è stata regolata di 80m. scudi all' anno come si pensa anco di fare in molte altre cose).
London, the 18th May, 1618.
[Italian.]
May 21.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
363. RANIER ZEN, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The duke said to me that if the French do not brandish the sword the Spaniards will never keep their promises. Don Pedro himself had said that he did not mind what the French said; they were disarmed and if he did not wish to surrender he could not be compelled. His Highness remarked that was really the case: his own forces were insufficient and your Serenity was engaged elsewhere. He showed me letters telling him that Don Pedro is writing secretly to the king and receives replies approving of what he is doing, although in other public letters which are shown to the diplomatists, he speaks after another sort. This falls in with what the English agent here said to me. He told his Highness and the French ambassadors, who made much of it, that the king of Spain himself in reply to the offices of the English minister about the restitution of Vercelli and attacking Don Pedro, had said that he sent wise ministers to his governments, that if they thought his orders were not to his best advantage, they did not carry them out, and in so doing they acted well.
Turin, the 21st May, 1618.
[Italian.]
May 21.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
364. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The nine ships of your Serenity, which were at the Texel, started on Friday the 18th inst. to join the three from Rotterdam, which left on the 16th at Pasini's request, at Falmouth. I have experienced many interruptions and difficulties in the course of this affair, but thank God everything has ultimately turned out right.
I have negotiated with Captain Anstenraedt about the eighty supernumerary infantry, but with all my efforts I could only obtain the remuneration of the 1,000 francs for the levy, to which Captain Lambert Hadam agreed.
Amsterdam, the 21st May, 1618.
[Italian.]
May 21.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
365. The Council of Ten to the Rectors of Padua.
Direction that notwithstanding the departure of the chief they shall expedite the cases of the insult against the podestaà of Montagnana, of May 8 last year, the arquebus fired against Thomas Turner, an Englishman, of 11 September following, and the threats against the vicar of Treviso of the 4th of the same month, in the same manner as those cases were delegated to them.
Ayes14.
Noes0.
Neutral0.
[Italian.]
May 22.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Proveditore
delle Armi in
Terra Ferma
et Istria.
Venetian
Archives.
366. ANTONIO BARBARO, Proveditore of the Forces, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I am awaiting the decision of your Excellencies upon the claims of M. de Rochlor about the lieutenant colonelship. With respect to the case of Vere and Milander I will see that your wishes are carried out. I have already written that as regards the duel, Vere's guilt was sufficiently proved by his own letter.
The Camp at Farra, the 22nd May, 1618.
[Italian.]
May 24.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
367. ALMORO NANI, Venetian Ambassador at Constantinople, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Two western vessels arrived in this port recently. According to the custom they fired the usual salvo with some pieces of ordnance near the kiosk of the Sultan. His Majesty sent to enquire what ships they were and what merchandise they had. The reply came that one of the ships was English and the other Flemish but both were without cargoes. As a matter of fact the English ship, which had been detained for over two months at Naples, had nothing but a little brazil wood, but the Flemish ship could not say so much, as she had brought a considerable quantity of spices, tin and other things. Accordingly the Pasha issued a buiurdi, in like form to all the ambassadors stating that it had come to his Majesty's knowledge that the two ships recently arrived in the Strait of Constantinople brought nothing with them, at which his Majesty evinced no small displeasure and commanded that those ships, when they left, should take away nothing prohibited, and announced that in future ships which come to these shores must bring merchandise or they may not take away prohibited goods under various penalties.
This order is said to have arisen from two causes, one private of the customs officials, to whose advantage it is to have it understood that ships must not come with light cargoes; the other public, the government officials suspecting that ships do not come from such distant countries with little or no merchandise unless they are pirates. In fact they have imprisoned the master of the English ship, where they found a Turkish hawser, easily recognised by the manner in which it was made. The master excused himself saying that he had bought it at Naples, but this did not suffice to prove his innocence, nor did the favour of the ambassador, so he had to open his hand to some of the officials here and in that way he obtained his liberty.
Dalle Vigne di Pera, the 24th May, 1618.
[Italian; deciphered.]
May 24.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
368. PIERO CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador Extraordinary in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The king having returned to London, I forthwith demanded audience and obtained it to-day, in order to execute your Serenity's commissions of the 7th ult., which only reached me this last post. I acquainted his Majesty with the accession of your Serenity to the dukedom, and that you would continue to bear the same observance towards this crown as your predecessors, and I presented your letter. The king expressed his satisfaction and said that he rejoiced extremely at the news as he was certain that those who had served their country well would not fail to be the good friends of its friends.
I then proceeded to acquaint him with the extreme delay adopted by the Spaniards, who kept postponing the surrender of Vercelli; although so many days had elapsed since the entire fulfilment by the duke of Savoy of all his agreements, whilst at sea likewise the duke of Ossuna continued to augment his naval preparations with very great earnestness and diligence although their object was yet a secret; so that other powers were kept in constant suspicion and subjected to incessant expenditure.
The king appeared greatly surprised that the surrender of Vercelli should be so long delayed, after the Spaniards had promised and vowed to everybody that they meant to restore it. He said that his ambassador had written to him from Venice that the Spanish ambassador told him everything would certainly be surrendered and arranged and that the delay merely proceeded from the necessity for preserving the dignity of the Catholic king. Whereupon his Majesty remarked that it appeared to him ridiculous the idea of wanting to gain dignity in the the mode of performing agreements, to which he was already bound by promise and in writing. With regard to the duke of Ossuna he expressed great surprise that the Spaniards should retain as Viceroy of Naples an individual whom they themselves considered a madman. He marvelled exceedingly that the pope, on whom smilar mediation was especially incumbent, did not interpose his authority to restore quiet to Italy forthwith and replace matters in their former state. After having discussed this topic awhile, I paid my respects and departed.
London, the 24th May, 1618.
[Italian.]
May 24.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
369. PIERO CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador Extraordinary in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The ambassador Digby arrived here from Spain on the day before yesterday, and went forthwith to the king, with whom he had a long interview. He was followed shortly afterwards by the Spanish ambassador with whom much business was likewise transacted yesterday. To-day he attended the Privy-Council, although the only members present were those few to whom his Majesty communicated this marriage with Spain, which is conducted with very great secrecy, it not being yet known what the real state of the case is, nor what sure hopes Digby may have elicited from Spain. The general belief is that matters are very far advanced, but I foresee that unless the Spaniards moderate their claims about the point of religion the conclusion will prove difficult. The truth, however, must very soon become apparent, upon surer foundations (hoggi si è trattato nel Consiglio coll' intervento pero d'alcuni soli pochi, con quali communica la Maestà Sua l'affare di questo matrimonio con Spagna, che viene portato secretissimamente, non intendosi per ancora con fondamento a qual termine si ritrovi; ne quali speranze certe rifferisca Dighibbi d'haver cavato di Spagna; in apparenza et communemente si tiene essersi il tutto grandemente avanzato, ma io vo pressentendo, che quando non siano moderate le pretensioni de'Spagnuoli intorno il punto della religione riuscirà difficile la conclusione, ma ben presto con più securi fondamenti se ne sapra il vero).
Two of the vessels of Sir Walter Raleigh have returned from the Indies with letters from him to this king, giving account of the failure of his expedition, the whole squadron having been dispersed with much loss of life, including that of his own son, who perished in trying to take some small place defended by the Spaniards. He is now alone with only two ships, in great need of everything, and incapacitated from advancing farther in those parts. The majority now imagine that to avoid a second imprisonment in the Tower, as he was merely released for the purpose of making this voyage to Guiana for the return of gold, he will now take to buccaneering. Many of the nobles of this court are in despair at such a result, for in the hopes of enriching themselves greatly through the metal which they fancied to exist at St. Thomas, they sold their estates to defray the cost of this fleet, on board of which they embarked their own sons and brothers, and thus those who risked their money are utterly ruined whilst many of their kinsmen have lost their lives (si sentono molti signori sconsolati di questa Corte, che col fondamento di arricchirsi grandemente coll'oro che speravano di ritrovare in quelle parti, hanno venduto i proprii beni, per impiegarli nelle spese dell'armata, et inviati li proprii figliuoli et fratelli con essa, et come degli primi restano del tutto spogliati, cosi degli altri molti ne sonno morti).
News was received here lately that the Dutch had attacked and captured two English ships in the East Indies, but as the account is not quite clear the confirmation is awaited by the first ships arriving from that quarter. Should the report be verified there is no doubt but that the misunderstandings with the Dutch will continue to augment.
London, the 24th May, 1618.
[Italian.]
May 24.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Capitano Gen.
da Mar.
Venetian
Archives.
370. PIERO BARBARIGO, Venetian Captain General at Sea, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The sailing of the entire fleet has only been delayed by bad weather. I am anxiously awaiting the arrival of the galleys from England and Holland, and possibly the dispositions I have made may facilitate their entrance into the Gulf.
I have been exceedingly glad of the arrival of Colonel Roccalaura and his men, not only because of the necessary reinforcements, but because he is a man whom I esteem.
The galley in the channel at Curzola, the 24th May, 1618.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
May 27.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
371. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
News has reached the States that the ships of your Serenity left Falmouth on Tuesday and were sighted proceeding with a favourable wind by about thirty sail. That they may arrive safe and sound is the universal desire.
The Hague, the 27th May, 1618.
[Italian.]
May. 30.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna:
Venetian
Archives.
372. PIERO GRITTI, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Before leaving for Aranjuez (Ransuez) the duke of Lerma came to visit me. He said he had always laboured to procure the peace of Italy and would continue to do so. Vercelli would soon be restored. There were the provisions made by the duke of Ossuna and the preparations of your Serenity, in introducing English and Dutch into Italy. If these continued he did not know how the galleys could be withdrawn or the preparations given up. He read him an order of his Majesty of the 13th February for the withdrawal of the galleys, but the duke of Ossuna replied that he could not obey owing to the preparations of the republic. I showed his Excellency that the preparations of the republic were for defence only. The duke promised that he would send orders to Naples for the withdrawal of the galleons.
Madrid, the 30th May, 1618.
[Italian.]
May 30.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
373. PIERO GRITTI, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE and SENATE.
In letters from Seville I hear that they have received news from the West Indies in a vessel sent post from the island of San Domingo, that fourteen ships of English pirates have proceeded to Guiana and the island of Trinidad where they inflicted immense damage, killing many, including the governor himself.
In Cadiz they are hurrying on the ships against the pirates.
Madrid, the 30th May, 1618.
[Italian.]
May 31.
Senato,
Mar.
Venetian
Archives.
374. To the Captain General at Sea.
The Commissioner Michiel has been sent to the fleet with the orders, of which we enclose a copy. You will give him every assistance in carrying them out. We hope that the ships from England and Holland will soon arrive for our service; we send a copy of the terms etc. made with the English ships; we have not received particulars of the others as yet. As soon as they arrive you will hold a review of the soldiers, sailors and gunners to see if they correspond with the agreement. You will also examine the artillery, its weight and quality as well as the ships themselves to see what condition they are in, whether they are old or new, or badly equipped and furnished, as after their arrival in the Gulf, they sail at our risk. The Dutch ships carry several pieces of artillery belonging to their admiralties, which are at our risk. You will inspect these carefully to see if they correspond with the lists sent. We expect these will arrive on the ships themselves, together with the muster rolls of the soldiers and sailors and the contracts made with them, and we also shall send you a copy for the sake of comparison.
Ayes127.
Noes1.
Neutral0.
[Italian.]
May 31.
Senato,
Mar.
Venetian
Archives.
375. To Agostino Michiel, chosen Commissioner in the Fleet.
Orders to go to the fleet, after making arrangements for the embarcation of the Dutch troops in Friuli, with instructions as to what he is to do when he arrives.
Ayes127.
Noes1.
Neutral6.
[Italian.]
May 31.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
376. PIERO CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador Extraordinary in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
At the last audience of the Catholic ambassador the king complained extremely that the surrender of Vercelli should still be delayed, seeing that the duke of Savoy had entirely fulfilled his part of the treaty, and that there was no just cause for protracting it, his Catholic Majesty in virtue of the promises so repeatedly made to Savoy through this crown, being bound to order the instant restitution of that fortress, lest on future occasions the credit due to the word of so great a sovereign be with held. The ambassador made answer that the delay in the first instance proceeded from the duke of Savoy and that immediately upon his complying with the terms agreed to the governor of Milan began to surrender, as had been done in the case of San Germano, Oneglia and other places, and ere now he imagined that the like had been done with Vercelli. He then read to the king a letter received by him from Don Pedro, in which he says, The king chooses and orders me to surrender Vercelli. I shall do so, because such are his commands, but hereafter he will repent of it.
Since the arrival of Digby the negotiations concerning the Spanish marriage are conducted with greater secrecy and closeness than ever, the king communicating them to but a few persons, nor does he even choose them to reach the queen, being aware how little her Majesty approves them. When I went to her four days ago she said that she was very much afraid the marriage would take place, because in Spain they had granted all the demands, promising to give the sum of money required by the king, who is anxious for the alliance on that account alone, although he might with greater ease obtain a yet more considerable sum from his own subjects, were he to choose to marry the prince to any other person, whilst here expedients are being devised for giving satisfaction in the matter of religion (Caminano sempre più secrete et ristrette doppò la venuta di Dighibbi le trattioni di matrimonio con Spagna et il Re le conferisce con pochi ne meno vuole pervenghino alla Regina, consapevole del poco suo gusto che si faccino: mi dise quattro giorni sono che fui da lei di temere grandemente seguissero perche in Spagna havevano accordate tutte le demande fatte, et di dare quella somma di denaro che si pretende il Re, che per haverla solo procura quest'allianza, se bene con maggior facilità la consegguirebbe anco maggiore da suoi populi quando volesse maritar il Prencipe con ogn'altra, et che di qua s'andava pensando di trovar qualche espediente che sodisfi nel particolar della religione).
The Prince Palatine continues to do his utmost to prevent the election of the king of Bohemia as king of the Romans. He is endeavouring to obtain that dignity for the duke of Bavaria, in the coming electoral diet, with whom he has linked himself closely, and induced him to write to the king here, which he never did before, returning thanks and acknowledging his obligations to the Palatine, his son in law, for the sake of thus getting his Majesty to interest himself and aid his project.
It is reported that two ships belonging to Lord Rich, which left England two years ago contrary to the orders of his Majesty, given at the request of the Spanish Ambassador, after enriching themselves in the Indies with the plunder of sundry vessels there, belonging to the natives and also to the Spaniards, have now shaped their course to Villafranca, a port belonging to the duke of Savoy, exposing themselves to risks from corsairs, in preference to coming here, where the Spanish ambassador and the parties concerned in the Indian companies, insisted strongly both on the seizure of the vessels and of their cargoes. (fn. 5)
I have received the letters of your Excellencies of the 11th respecting the representation made on behalf of the English ambassador at Venice with regard to Sir Thomas Studer. Should anything be said to me on the matter I will answer as instructed.
London, the last day of May, 1618.
Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]

Footnotes

1 The doge Giovanni Bembo died on 16th March, and was succeeded by Niccolo Donato, elected on April 5. Wotton wrote an account of this election, reprinted by Mr Pearsall Smith, Life and Letters of Sir Henry Wotton, ii. pages 132–138. Donato occupied the dogeship for little more than a month, dying on May 8th, 1618.
2 In a letter to the secretary of 12th Sept., 1618, Pindar relates that a Portuguese soldier arrived at Aleppo from Persia reported the poisoning of the English ambassador, 'so he termed him,' by Don Garcia di Selva. It had not been confirmed, though the French ambassador said he had confirmation and also news of the arrest there of all the goods for England. When, however, Pindar pressed for particulars, he refused to supply them. State Papers, Foreign, Turkey. Don Garcia di Selva de Figueroa had been sent out by Spain as the result of the mission of Sir Robert Shirley. The English ambassador referred to is Edward Connock who died on 24th Dec., 1617. He suspected not the Spanish ambassador but Edward Moxon. Cal. S.P. Colonial, 1617–21, p. 157.
3 Nicholas Regnault, one of the conspirators executed at Venice. See Mr. Pearsall Smith Life and Letters of Sir Henry Wotton. i, pp. 157, 159. On July 14th following, Wotton made a statement about an interview with Regnault, before the Collegio. See below. From the above paper he seems to have told them something about it two months earlier, before the execution of Regnault, which took place on May 22nd, his body being hung between the columns on the Piazetta on the 23rd.
4 This is a reference to the reforms of Sir Lionel Cranfield, though the statement seems premature, and probably refers to what was projected rather than to what Cranfield actually effected. Cranfield's operations are referred to as early as March, Cat. S.P. Dom., 1611–1618, p. 527, but in November following we find that in the 14th year of the reign the expenditure had been 22,244l. 15s. but of this only 1,392l. 4s. 3d. had been abated, with a possibility of abridging 3,265l. 14s. 8½d. Ibid p. 589. Gardiner (Hist. of Eng. iii. p. 200), says that Cranfield effected a saving of 23,000l., or more than the total expenses! It seems clear that the term household is used with different senses. Thus in March, Thomas Murray says the king hoped to save 30,000l. yearly by the reforms. Cal. S.P. Dom. 1611–1618, p. 531. If so, Contarini must use it with more restricted meaning.
5 At the Public Record Office there is a letter of the duke of Savoy to James of 6 January 1618, asking him to allow two ships sent by Lord Rich to the East Indies, the Francois, Captain Samuel Husse, and the Lyon, Captain Thomas Jones, to enter English ports to lay in provisions, so that they might proceed on their voyage to Villefranche, to unlade their merchandise. State Papers Foreign, Savoy. Apparently this request was not granted.