Venice
September 1618, 18-30

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

Year published

1909

Pages

315-328

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'Venice: September 1618, 18-30', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 15: 1617-1619 (1909), pp. 315-328. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=88684 Date accessed: 23 November 2014.


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September 1618

Sept. 18.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
536. CHRISTOFFORO SURIAN, Venetian Secretary in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
For the reasons given last week the English ambassador neglected to visit M. de Boissise, and now the latter has returned he still has not been to see him. His Excellency sent to ask the ambassador to visit him so that he might tell him of the actual state of affairs and of his intentions to act fairly, but Carleton simply sent his secretary to congratulate the ambassador on his return here. But he has not yet paid his respects to anyone and indeed he has done nothing to induce anybody to go and see him.
In virtue of the proclamation issued by the States upon the book against Carleton, the printer has exonerated himself by giving up the original composition. The author, a minister of Utrecht, has taken to flight and is said to be at Bolduch. Another minister of the Hague here, a dependant of M. de Barnevelt, has also taken to flight and others will do the same from fear of what may happen to them. (fn. 1)
The Hague, the 18th September, 1618.
[Italian.]
Sept. 18.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Capitano
Gen. da Mar.
Venetian
Archives.
537. PIERO BARBARIGO, Venetian Captain General at Sea, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Late yesterday evening a ship arrived here from Santa Maura, with news that the Turkish fleet was in the channel of Corfu and had landed men. I enclose the depositions of one of the sailors.
The galley at Santa Croce de'Ragusi, the 18th September, 1618.
[Italian.]
Enclosed
in the
preceding
despatch.
538. 1618, the 17th September.
Examination of Antonio Mesty of Santa Maura, sailor. Heard that the Turkish fleet had arrived at Sancta Maura and was sailing towards Corfu. We afterwards heard that they had arrived at Butintrè. Last Saturday we fell in with an English ship. Our master went on board in exchange for an English sailor, who is here, as security that our ship was in obedience to the Captain of the ships. A high sea prevented our master from returning, and the ships separated.
[Italian.]
Enclosed
in the
preceding
despatch.
539. On the same day.
Examination of Robert Lech, a man of 24 years, helmsman on the English ship Matthew, captain Tocle of England. Left Calamotta for the direction of Brindisi. A contrary wind carried us to a place whose name I do not know, where we stopped a ship now at Meleda. We heard sounds of firing when in the neighbourhood of Bari.
[Italian.]
Sept. 19.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Grisoni.
Venetian
Archives.
540. MODERANTE SCARAMELLI, Venetian Secretary with the Swiss, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Ambassador Donato arrived here on the 15th on his way to England and crossed the mountain of Morbegno on the following morning. He travelled with so many carriages and with such a well ordered and numerous train, and in so splendid and exquisite a manner as to excite amazement everywhere.
Dalla Piazza, the 19th September, 1618.
[Italian.]
Sept. 24.
Inquisitori
di Stato,
Dispacci,
agli
Ambasciatori
in Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
541. The INQUISITORS of STATE to the ANTONIO DONATO, Venetian Ambassador in England.
Recommendation of one Angelo Nodaro of Padua, a musician, as a secret agent. He has already been engaged upon an important affair for two years. He seems apt to render useful services. You will know how to employ him to advantage.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Sept. 21
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
542. PIERO CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador Extraordinary in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The king came to London the day before yesterday, but merely passed the night there, and yesterday morning he left for Wanstead (Vnstod) to which place I sent to ask for audience, to execute the orders of your Serenity in the letters dated 28th ult. Should I not see any occasion to allude to the complaints made by his Majesty's ambassador concerning the punishment inflicted in the fleet on the ringleaders of the mutiny, I shall pass it over in silence. Hitherto I do not discover that he knows anything about it, for this morning when I sent to Secretary Naunton on another pretext, it was not possible to collect that Wotton had written on the subject. I have given orders to watch the arrival of the chaplain who is expected here, with a view to try and dissuade him if possible from making any complaint, or, if necessary, to take measures in anticipation.
I had a visit to-day from Burlamachi, who being most devoted to the state, readily offered security for the payment of the ships engaged by your Serenity. He is now in the deepest distress, and with tears in his eyes he told me that he ran great risk of losing the credit and fair fame which he enjoyed on this mart and on others and that he should be utterly ruined unless your Serenity gave orders for the payment of the ships, whose owners summon him daily to keep his promise as otherwise they will have him sent to prison for their security. I did my best to comfort him and assure him that he had nothing to fear, promising that all would speedily be paid without loss to him, and that although accidents may occasionally retard payment, everybody remains fully satisfied at the end. I cannot do less than add this to what I wrote, for the relief of this man who is most urgent that I should do so, and also because I am aware that with this distrustful nation it will prove very advantageous for your Serenity for them to witness the punctual execution of what has been promised in your name.
An ambassador is here from the duke of Courland, who is the nephew of his Majesty, his mother being own sister to the queen. He has not yet had audience but is expecting it momentarily, and it is said that his object is to urge the king to send a special envoy to Poland, where a diet is about to be held, principally to discuss the question of reinstating him in his territories from which the king of Poland had expelled him.
Since the intelligence received here from Holland through the ambassador Carleton, and the statement made by Caron, nothing more has been heard about the imprisonment of Barnevelt. The king is anxious to see the end of the business and to be better acquainted with its details, and has sent back word to his ambassador to be diligent in sending him word about it.
Their Majesties expected the Princess Palatine here this month, but she apologises for not coming on the plea of having within the last few days discovered herself to be pregnant. She promises however to come at some other time, when able to make the journey without risk.
London, the 21st September, 1618.
[Italian.]
Sept. 21.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Svizzeri.
Venetian
Archives.
543. PIERO VICO, Venetian Secretary with the Swiss, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Ambassador Donato has left this city on his way to England. He was most honourably received and entertained, but in order not to lose the good weather he continued his journey. However, he cannot travel very fast owing to his great equipage and the numerous company of gentlemen and servants accompanying him, as he is travelling with his usual splendour.
Zurich, the 21st September, 1618.
[Italian.]
Sept. 21.
Cl. VII.
Cod. MCXXII.
Bibl. di
S. Marco,
Venice.
544. ANGLIPOTRIDA.
In the present sixth addition to the English narratives I confess that I have fallen to some extent into the error of inexpert vintagers who, when grapes abound, rush greedily to gather them without any method and thus, leaving many in their rear, endeavour subsequently from fear of their employers, to take a fresh survey of even the small clusters. In like manner I have now to discuss certain things which might have been more opportunely inserted before, as for instance concerning fruit and vegetable gardens and other matters together with news recently gathered.
This island, as mentioned by me heretofore is in great part gravelly to the depth of six or seven feet and upwards beneath the surface, its culture must therefore prove very sterile in such wise that unless aided by industry, the soil would yield no vegetables or very few, especially in the environs of London where they are needed. It is therefore customary to dig up this substance, which they employ not merely as ballast for the ships and for the repair of the muddy streets, but they incorporate its finer particles with building mortar. The voids thus formed in the fields are then filled up, to the depth of four or five feet with the filth of the city, which serves as excellent manure, rich and black as thick ink and which is conveyed at small cost by the innumerable carts which are bound to cleanse the streets, so that in a very short while many spots are improved and fertilized, their proprietors enclosing them immediately for their safe custody, in various ways, at small cost. Some effect this by means of palings; others sink very deep ditches; some again form the enclosure of soft mud mixed with half rotten straw, and this being raised to a sufficient height from the ground they surmount it with a thatch of rye straw, which serves for eaves. On the top of this thatch, which projects a foot on either side they place a parapet, also of mud, to consolidate the eaves and preserve this mud structure which soon becomes very hard. In these places, although the climate is not entirely favourable for them, they nevertheless raise a great quantity of vegetables. I will only mention their most beautiful and fine flavoured artichokes, of a sort different from ours, that is to say much larger and of a reddish tinge. Of these they gather an immense quantity during ten months of the year and sell them at a very cheap rate. I think I have already mentioned the size of the cabbages, which sometimes weigh 35 lbs. the pair, to such an enormous size do they grow. But that is nothing; on this very day, the 19th of September, when his Excellency went to inspect certain gardens and a sorry melon ground where the sbotteghe however cost us 35 pence a piece, we saw a number of cabbages weighing 28 lbs. each, a marvellous thing. There are extremely white and very large potatoes, cauliflowers, parsnips, carrots, turnips etc. In these enclosures they endeavour to rear an immense number of suckers, which being subsequently engrafted are sold in due season to the curious to be planted in orchards or to embellish gardens. The apples are really very good and cheap, of various sorts and procurable all the year round. The pears are scarcely eatable and the other fruits most abominable, their taste resembling that of insipid masticated grass. The numerous sorts of cherries and egriots which one sees in Italy may well be desired in this kingdom, though certainly not enjoyed, for generally in the markets they only sell one single sort of very bad morella. Yet the English are extremely greedy of them, especially the women, buying them at the beginning of the season in bunches at the cost of an eye. Then these gentlewomen go with their squires to the fruit and flower gardens and orchards, to strive who can eat the most. It occurs to me here that a few months ago a leading lady ate 20 pounds of this fruit in competition with a cavalier who was scarcely seventeen. It is true that she ran the risk of her life, the exploit having confined her to her bed for many days.
I observe a bad habit prevalent in this nation. They eat very little bread at table, placing it near the salt-cellar in the trenchers, and each one takes a bit by way of condiment, but meat they devour. They do not generally put fruit on the table, but between meals one sees men, women and children always munching through the streets, like so many goats, and yet more in the places of public amusement.
With regard to the grafts of the fruits, the greater part are made by budding. Although this is much more dangerous than incision, I should think it very desirable to adopt it, at least for the peach, which is hard to take in any other way. They almost always plant the suckers near the walls, spreading them out like espaliers, so that they may be well sunned, fastening their shoots with leather thongs neatly nailed to the wall. Others distribute through their flower and fruit gardens certain low walls, a single brick in diameter to divide the walks, planting the suckers on their sunny side, and then by means of a quantity of holes, of the diameter of half a brick, and which are coeval with the wall itself, they draw some of the shoots through to the opposite side and form an espalier there likewise. What struck me as worthy of note is the mode of varying the plan of the gardens and even of the orchards. Thus for instance, in the midst of a large space they raise a circular mound four feet high, placing a column in its centre for the sun dial. From this mound four walks diverge cross wise, terminating so as to form a square. They are made to slope, the sods being covered with very close grass. The walks at the end are beautifully laid out and one ascends to them by wooden stairs adorned with pyramids and balls on the balustrades all round. Sometimes they make the steps of turf, surrounding the walks and the space with privet or thorns or any other plant, in lieu of the balustrade. Others merely make a raised walk all round the square, serving as a causeway, and ornamenting it on one of the ways mentioned above. Walking on this terrace one has a good view of the general arrangement, the fountains and all the designs.
I know not what to commend in their buildings as for the most part they employ timber, driving posts in very deeply like a rough scantling, which they coat with mortar mixed with the hair of animals; instead of which the poor use very finely chopped straw. The staircases are almost all spiral and the distributions of the rooms sorry and irregular. The windows project, their glass being in large panes, though they have only certain wickets not large enough to admit even the head, so a Genoese gentleman exclaimed smartly the other day: O luckless windows, it is impossible to open you by day or to shut you at night, as you have no shutters.
The timber used by them for building is for the most part oak, but they have a great quantity of elms which they plant along the public roads and walks and even by the side of the field ditches and causeways. They thus derive great profits, converting them into planks and even into beams for various purposes. In places subject to inundation they plant willows as usual in every other country. The poplar is, I believe, unknown in these parts; I have not seen a single one, for a wonder.
A law has lately been passed that at least one half of all structures is to be of brick, perhaps because they saw that timber was failing them or even for the sake of building more durably.
Here I may describe their excellent method of baking bricks and tiles in furnaces or kilns, which cannot be done in Italy for lack of the convenience afforded by their mineral charcoal of Scotland and England, whereby they bake them marvellously. At the bottom of the kilns they have a number of small furnaces for the sole purpose of lighting the fire, and when they pile the bricks and tiles they place a layer of coal dust between each tier in succession up to the very top of the kiln, so that when the furnaces below are lighted, the fire spreads throughout, and when the coal is consumed the kiln remains seasoned, without the superintendance of anyone, while the bottom becomes cool long before the extinction of the flames above.
I remarked previously that the Lord Treasurer's fine palace in the country would scorn to remain in his hands because of its regal magnificence. My saying is now beginning to be verified. A few days ago the king deprived him of his office by reason of too obvious maladministration. He has caused his accounts to be rigorously examined by certain experienced commissioners, so that one may predict the total fall of one who of yore enjoyed great favour. But it is really no wonder in this climate, where everything smacks of instability and one daily sees a change in the fortunes of various persons, although for the better in many cases. Here also, as in the guise of Rome, it is customary to make promotions, knighting a simple gentleman, then making him a baron, next viscount, earl and marquis, and even duke. These grades give his Majesty an opportunity of legally possessing himself of many thousands of crowns, and yet it is notorious that he has never a penny, either in his public or private coffers, as he generally expends everything.
The chief wealth of this kingdom is in the hands of the merchants and of some few noblemen, both one and the other living by the Bodanaican hammer (mazzetta Bodanaica), at so much percent. The other day a sheriff, an official of the order of merchants, died and left a million and a half of gold in ready money. He left directions for a funeral to cost 20,000 crowns, a part being for the dress of 600 mourners. Each of these had a black cloak of fine cloth, with silk braid three fingers deep, hanging from the shoulders and falling nine inches below the cape, a mourning custom which is usual throughout the whole country. The remainder of the sum was spent in a banquet for the multitude which took part in the ceremony, in addition to those invited, and in alms. (fn. 2)
On last Bartholomew's day the fair was held in London. There was nothing very surprising, except a quantity of woollen cloths, hides etc.; but we saw an infinite number of cattle, which filled the meadows near London, and were all disposed of in one day or a little more.
On the 11th September a general muster was made of the greater part of the London militia, all unpaid artisans, commanded by merchants, in the presence of the Lord Mayor, their chief. They numbered rather more than 6,000, including musketeers and pikemen, all fine fellows and in very good trim. The review took place in the presence of 50 or 60 thousand spectators and of his Excellency's coach, which made its way in every direction, owing to the convenience of a very spacious field, and by reason of the address of our coachman. On returning from the muster, some companies passed in file, through his Excellency's apartments, and each captain caused a salute of musketry to be discharged, exclaiming: To the health and honour of my lord the ambassador of Venice.
London, the 21st September, 1618.
[Italian.]
Sept 22.
Collegio,
Secreta.
Esposizioni
Principi.
Venetian
Archives.
545. The Secretary of England came into the Cabinet and said:
Colonel Peyton has informed the ambassador of the good treatment of his troops by General Barbarigo. His Excellency desires me to say that he thanks your Serenity and that his Majesty will be duly informed.
The doge replied: Our general knows our intention to treat the English favourably, and though he has been compelled to take severe steps upon one occasion, he will for the future show his esteem for the nation.
The secretary thanked him and promised to report to the ambassador. He had instructions to present two memorials. They had been sent by the Captain General, but were translated by an Englishman and not well expressed, so the ambassador had made another translation. In one the Colonel asks for a salary befitting his rank; the other relates to the payment of the men, which has been diminished an eighth and a seventh from the first payment in England.
The doge asked that the memorials might be left to be examined. He then spoke of some other matter, after which the secretary departed. The secretary afterwards said that the English who had given their ships to his Serenity were creditors for about 50,000 ducats, and had sent letters of change hither, from which they have not hitherto been able to obtain anything. They have decided to make a protest at the first opportunity. He reported this as a good subject, as he could not prevent it. The doge replied that all would be paid without fail.
Most Excellent Lord:
When I negotiated with Sig. Piero Contarini in England, I trusted him so completely and I was so carried away by my desire to serve the republic that I did not think of the difference of values. Thus I reckoned in English money, but I was afterwards informed that the promise of current money in the agreement meant bank money, otherwise it would be a great loss. The time was short and the negotiations were already on foot while the opposition of the Spanish ambassador showed clearly that an open complaint on my part would have been music to the enemies of his Serenity. Therefore I resolved to await the graciousness of the prince himself rather than ruin the affair by my complaints. Now that I know the value of the money better I find that we are docked of at least one seventh of our pay; I am therefore compelled to have recourse to your Excellency for justice.
On the dorse: 1618, the 22nd Sept. Memorial presented by the Secretary of England, Gregorio:
I have considered what the Savio says about the pay of Colonel Peyton with just astonishment at seeing him compared to a gentleman who came without the risks and without having abandoned such honours and charges as our friend held in the Low Countries under the Prince of Orange. Where he says that the other brought more men, we may reply that ours made up in quality what they lacked in quantity, being largely of noble blood, and in any case the numbers were arranged by his Serenity and not by Colonel Peyton. These men have cost him as much as if there had been several thousands and there has been more danger. To these considerations I must add the respect due to our master, in permitting this levy under such a noble leader of such high attainments, so that the enemies of the republic tried every means to prevent him from going. You will put all these points to the Savio with your usual discretion saying that you hope that the Colonel will not have reason to repent of having trusted the public beneficence. If you are asked what are the pretensions of the Colonel you will say that he makes none but throws himself upon their favour.
Yours,
The 5th October.HENRY WOTTON.
On the dorse: To Gregorio di Monti, secretary of the Ambassador of England in San Mauricio, Venice.
Most Excellent Lord:
It is now six months since I entered the service of the republic and submitted to the discretion of his Serenity as regards my salary. As the public service does not permit me to appeal personally to the doge, I beg your Excellency to represent the distance of my home, the difficulties of the voyage, the damage to my affairs and the quality of the men who have followed me. I gave up all my charge to come, and I am the first of my nation to bring English troops to this service with his Majesty's permission. I therefore beg your Excellency to grant me a good salary which will give me the greater cause to expose my life in your service.
1618, the 22nd September.
Memorial presented by the Secretary of England upon the salary of Colonel Peyton.
[Italian.]
Sept. 25.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
546. RANIER ZEN, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I have seen the English agent. With respect to this mission of the Cardinal to France, he said the duke would have done better to send him to Spain. He could not discover the reasons for this idea unless it be matrimonial interests, as the duke can hope for little from that Court and risks a great deal, as from the French he has always received more words than deeds.
He further told me that the Count of Mansfeld had gone to Bohemia with 2,000 foot and 500 horse, and he had received a letter from him from Prague. He may be expected here soon since he has been summoned by his Highness. The agent begged me not to tell the duke these particulars. From this I gather that the duke can easily continue to give them 20,000 ducats a month for the help of the princes, but secretly. This suspicion is augmented because when his Highness gave me a receipt the other day for the other 20,000 ducats, which he has assigned to Mansfeld, he would not put the usual words, and I know he acted thus in order not to excite their suspicion.
Turin, the 25th September, 1618.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Sept. 28.
Senato.
Secreta.
Mar.
Venetian
Archives.
547. That in compliance with a request made in the name of the English ambassador, that if there be at the Lazaretto two pieces of black tabby stuff (tabino), (fn. 3) a bale of strusi (fn. 4) and 70 pounds of silk thread, the person concerned, after the proper period of quarantine, shall allow that property to be laded to go to England by the same English ship which brought it from Naples, and which came with a cargo from Zante to this city. That the necessary orders be given for the execution of the grant of the said property.
Ayes173.
Noes1.
Neutral4.
[Italian.]
Sept. 28.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra,
Venetian
Archives.
548. PIERO CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador Extraordinary in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
From Wanstead (Vnstod) the king went to Havering (Euerling) (fn. 5) where he let me know that he would willingly give me audience. So having betaken myself thither on Sunday I executed the two commissions enjoined upon me by your Serenity, acquainting him in the first place with your grateful sense of his courteous congratulations on your accession. After this I proceeded to assure him how much your Excellencies were beholden to him for the interest taken by him in your affairs, as expressed by his letter, on receipt of which you had immediately desired me to come to him not merely to bear witness to your obligation, but to communicate to him in confidence all the particulars of the plot so craftily laid since so long a while, for the overthrow of the republic, acquainting him with the particulars one by one without overstepping the limits prescribed to me by your Serenity.
His Majesty seemed gratified by my statement and after thanking your Excellencies for this mark of confidence, said to me that although it looked like vanity to offer any suggestion to so extremely prudent a Signory, yet of his affection he could not refrain at least from saying that so far from thinking it injurious he should deem it extremely profitable to issue a declaration or manifest, specifying the reasons for the punishments already inflicted. If for the interest of the republic and owing to existing circumstances it should be considered advisable to say nothing of the source or of the encouragement given to the conspirators, that might be done. Because the French, wishing to clear their nation of the infamy of the crime, and the Spaniards, for fear of the suspicion attaching itself to them, accuse the republic of having acted thus from motives the very reverse of those alleged. It is already seen that they have availed themselves of the pope, to make him assert that the republic had put these Frenchmen to death, not for treason, as pretended, but at the suit of the Grand Turk, because of the escape of one of them from the towers of Constantinople. I told his Majesty that the guilt of the persons executed was so clear, upon their own confession and confirmed through divers channels, the proofs being certain and manifest, that it was impossible to entertain any doubt of their evil projects, and that those who went about speaking to the contrary were possibly the authors of this infamous act, which they represented thus falsely in order to screen themselves. The king added that he had chosen to say this much to me as a mere mark of his affection for the republic, not because there was any need to remind her of anything.
I then acquainted his Majesty how by the blessing of God, all the disputes between your Serenity and King Ferdinand had been ended; that you had withdrawn your troops and surrendered the places, everything being settled to mutual satisfaction; and that he had already begun to disband many of his troops, which was not the case with the Spaniards, who, after reducing a few companies in the Milanese, still kept up the main body of their troops, whilst at Naples likewise, the construction of vessels and others hostile preparations continued, which could not fail to inspire grave doubts of their intentions. The king answered me that with regard to the Duke of Ossuna he could only repeat what is said on his account by the Spaniards themselves, who call him a madman, and that in Spain his proceedings would certainly not be approved unless he represented them in a false light to the Cardinal Duke of Lerma and the Duke of Uceda, and that they guarantee them with their authority against which no one dares to utter a word. But for the Duke of Feria he said he promised something, that he was half an Englishman, (fn. 6) and that he knew him to be friendly to peace and quiet. He had indeed chosen to pay him a compliment not hitherto conceded to former governors of Milan, by desiring his resident at Turin to visit him in his name and endeavour to put the finishing stroke to what is wanting for universal tranquility. Passing on to other topics he told me that he was very glad of the imprisonment of Barnevelt, of whom great suspicion might be entertained, because since his arrest he has repeatedly enquired of the gaolers themselves whether the populace was stirring, what the troops were doing and if the Spaniards had made any demonstration; he informed me further that one of Barnevelt's sons having gone to Naples was received with extraordinary honours by the Viceroy, who sent his own coaches and gentlemen several times to bring him to the palace and keep him company. These compliments being beyond his rank, clearly show that there was something bad behind, but his Majesty hopes that now everything will go well in the United Provinces and that after the removal of so prominent a chief the rest will subside of itself. As he said nothing more, I presented your Serenity's two letters, took leave and departed.
London, the 28th September, 1618.
[Italian.]
Sept. 28.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
549. PIERO CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador Extraordinary in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
His Majesty understanding that the interpreter of the Secretary of France held some conferences with Sir Walter Raleigh since his imprisonment, and that he may possibly have negotiated with him previously, summoned this individual to appear before the Council. He went accompanied by the Secretary in person, and on their entering the chamber, the latter was desired to withdraw. This he did, and after the interpreter had been subjected to a very strict examination, they arrested him. The Secretary complained loudly at this, pretending that as a person belonging to his establishment he ought not to be seized. As he perceived that his remonstrances were of little avail, he forthwith sent an express to his king to acquaint him with the fact, and he is now awaiting instructions. There is no doubt that the Council took this step the more readily because his Majesty, being offended at the expulsion from France of his physician Mayerne, chose to avail himself of the opportunity to show his resentment.
Those who remained behind at the house of the Spanish ambassador, perceiving how much the populace, which already detests their nation, would resent the punishment of the rioters who attacked that house, have besought his Majesty to pardon them, contriving to have a printed proclamation published to this effect, that everybody may be aware that it proceeds from them. This has been done in so ample a form that the king enjoins the Mayor of the city and the other authorities for the future to punish severely in a summary and military fashion all those who may dare to molest the persons or dwelling of any foreign minister, declaring that in default he will not only degrade them from their posts and offices, but will also deprive them of every other privilege and of all authority. (fn. 7)
The late Spanish ambassador is sending his chaplain to the king in consequence, it is supposed, of having met some orders from the Catholic king on the road, the execution of which he now entrusts to this individual, who may arrive any day. It is not yet known whether his mission concerns details about the marriage or other matters.
His Majesty has issued an order for all the wooden houses built in London, and others of stone erected on sites where none existed before his accession, to be demolished and levelled, with a view, it is supposed, to obtain money, by compelling the proprietors to pay a composition. In like manner the summons has been renewed to a number of merchants and especially Flemings, to appear before the Star Chamber and swear to not having exported gold, and that being naturalised themselves they have not lent their names to the dealings of foreigners, which are liable to heavier duty; all possible means being resorted to in order to procure money, of which the scarcity is such as to curtail the daily necessaries of his Majesty's own household.
London, the 28th September, 1618.
[Italian.]
Sept. 30
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
550. SIMONE CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in France to the DOGE and SENATE.
His Majesty and the Council are more than ever displeased at the imprisonment of Barnevelt by the States, and the king has sent back to Holland M. de Boissise his ambassador, especially as M. Cornelius Vandermini, Barnevelt's son in law, arrived here recently to inform the king of his danger and to ask for help. I understand that they are in favour here of openly defending Barnevelt, especially as it seems that the King of England is engaged on the other side. Accordingly his most Christian Majesty has instructed Boissise to warn the States to keep an eye on Prince Maurice lest one day he take away their liberties. The king objects to the prince owing to his increasing greatness and because he is the chief of the faction opposed to his Majesty.
Paris, the 30th September, 1618.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Sept. 30.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
551. RANIER ZEN, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The cardinal will leave in six or eight days, accompanied by the Count of Verua. The duke said he had decided to send him because the king insisted so strongly. He did not tell me that the marriage was settled, but he did not deny it. I have discovered from conversation with his Highness that he expects a breach between France and Spain, because he thinks the dissolution of the marriages is certain. The duke did not seem quite sure of the motives of the French in desiring this union with him; on the one side the departure of Monteleone for Flanders seemed to point to a decision at the time when the Huguenots were being attacked in France, to break with the States also, when the French ambassador extraordinary was favouring the party of Barnevelt, that is to say, the dissentients and the Spanish faction. He further said that the sending of the Jesuit father Arnoux to the queen mother, the disputes with England, the sending of a special person to Bohemia to settle matters there, which meant confirming the imperial crown to the house of Austria, and the arrangements made at Milan in conjunction with the Spaniards with the Swiss and Grisons, go to show that they are good friends with Spain, and they only want the cardinal and this alliance to prevent the duke from moving. On the other hand the Ambassador Monteleone might have gone because he did not wish to be at court at the reception of the cardinal and he may have suspected a dissolution of the marriages.
His Highness went on to say that this would be the very time to smash the house of Austria, but your Serenity would never listen to him. The French king was good but unfit to manage so great a machine. The ministers showed signs of disunion. If the marriages were dissolved France would make war and the States also. He felt sure that England would too, or would at least permit ships to go buccaneering and to sail to the Indies, the two things most feared by the Spaniards. In Germany they would run the risk of losing the Imperial crown. He thought your Serenity would have done well to afford a little assistance to the Bohemians.
Turin, the 30th September, 1618.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 Writing to Naunton on September 8th, old style, Carleton relates that Taurinus, author of the Balance, had fled to the archduke's side, and Vandermyle had fled to France. Letters from and to Sir Dudley Carleton. page 291.
2 Sir William Craven, who had been Lord Mayor of London 1610–11. He died on the 28th July and was buried on the 21st August, 1618. Cokayne; Lord Mayors and Sheriffs of London, page 46.
3 A kind of waved silk. Skeat Etymological Dict.
4 Ostrich feathers, as struzzo means an ostrich.
5 James was at Havering on Sept. 17/27 1618. Camden: Annals of King James I., in Dennet's History of England ii page 650.
6 See note at page 293 above.
7 Proclamation dated Sept. 10th, old style. Cal. S. P. Dom. 1611–18, p. 569.