Venice
August 1623, 4-15

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1912

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80-92

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'Venice: August 1623, 4-15', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 18: 1623-1625 (1912), pp. 80-92. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=88892 Date accessed: 31 July 2014.


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August 1623

Aug. 4.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
100. ALVISE VALARESSO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Last Sunday his Majesty swore to observe the articles arranged. The ceremony was public and took place thus. In the morning the usual ministers preached before the king and councillors, when nothing was said about the marriage. They ended with the usual prayers for the king and prince, the Palatine and his wife. Afterwards the king awaited the ambassadors in a room a good while, not without impatience. They finally arrived well accompanied, with new and rich liveries, they themselves being dressed alike in gold. After exchanging compliments they entered the chapel. His Majesty sat in the middle with his back to the altar, with both ambassadors on his left, Inoiasa in front. The Secretary Calvert read the articles in a very low voice before the king, who on the completion of the reading took the oath on the testament handed to him by the Bishop of Winchester, it being recited by Calvert and drawn up so as to exclude all possibility of equivocation. Rising they went to the new hall to the banquet prepared. After the king had gone to the middle Inoiosa sat a little distance off on the left, and the ordinary, Colonna, at the head of the table on the same side. They had music and displayed great catafalques of gold and silver vessels. The king gave the first toast to the King of Spain, standing uncovered. At the end of the banquet, which lasted four hours, they went to a room where the lords of the Council who had signed the articles swore privately to keep them. However, of these, the Earl Marshal Arundel, was absent, having gone to meet his wife in Flanders, and also the Lord Chamberlain owing to indisposition. The articles have been kept very close so far, though an intimate has promised them to me and I hope to enclose a copy. However, in any case I will give a short resumé of their principal contents.
They grant twenty-four religious with a bishop or vicar as chief, having the usual insignia and authority. The education of the children for nine years; the Infanta to nominate all her Court at pleasure, but with the king's consent if they are subjects and they will give a definite oath which includes the superiority of the pope. The toleration of the private practice of the Catholic religion; the non-execution of all penalties against the Catholics and the annulling of the laws by parliament.
The oath is understood to be upon condition that the marriage takes place. This with all the ceremonies must be completed in Spain and merely recognised here afterwards. Not hurting the Catholics means unless they give cause by sedition or scandal. It is probably unexampled to demand a prince's oath for a marriage contract, but as if that were not enough they demand one of the councillors also, affronting the prince by such manifest distrust, and treating him as if he were a subject. The affront might have been less had the oath been taken in a private room, but apparently they want the bonds to be strong and mistrust the king's word, who may be disinclined to keep it, and much more the meeting of parliament, decidedly hostile to the contract, which may tear it up and punish the councillors as perjured, as has happened before. Moreover, as the execution of the things sworn pertains to many other ministers who did not take the oath and who have an almost independent authority, it may always remain doubtful.
The day of this ceremony was called unlucky by many and felt with universal discontent of the heart, expressed by the mouth, but so coldly and sedately that one may say the seeds of England's ancient generous liberty have utterly vanished, and no king has more control over his subjects than he of Great Britain. Every one fears evil and foresees the prejudice and destruction of the fundamental laws of the realm. The king feels that he has broken his coronation oath, but all bear it patiently. The Council and king plead urgent necessity to get back the prince. Certainly they dissimulate a deep hate towards the native Catholics, at whose instigation they believe these difficulties have arisen and such high demands. They certainly will not lack pretexts for revenge, and as those Catholics are naturally increasing their desires and claims it will be difficult to keep within bounds.
Almost at the very moment when the ambassadors were taking leave the prince's master of the horse arrived. (fn. 1) The letters he brought were read immediately and communicated to the ambassadors. They publish the news that the nuptials are fixed for St. James's day; the Infanta has already assumed the title of Princess of Wales, and they were having public rejoicings. These particulars increased the king's joy, which earlier in the day was slight or feigned. The news is certainly unexpected, but I do not know if it be true. I note with astonishment that they did not wait to send till after the event if the ceremony was to take place in eight or ten days. There are various comments upon the reasons for such a sudden decision, especially when we see that with reciprocal and remarkable confidence they have announced the nuptials in Spain without hearing about the oath, while in England they took the oath without knowing about the nuptials. Some even think that the prince has promised to become a Catholic. Others fancy that the weakness of the house of Austria in Germany may have something to do with it, while everyone concludes there is some hidden reason. For my part I think they wished to soothe the prince's melancholy with this plum, and in any case the news relates merely to the future. Even after the event the marriage is not complete without consummation, and if it will be completed before the prince's return. Nothing is known of what has been arranged about the staying of the wedded pair. Nothing is said about the dowry or the Palatinate either. Cottington has been sent to Spain with the oath taken.
The king is leaving for his progress and, thinking everything settled by this good news, he will abandon all business. The lords of the Council are also scattered to their country houses, with instructions merely to assemble at Salisbury in case of need. The day of the oath, in the evening the French ambassador took leave, with some misgivings about his Majesty. However, he left his house saying that he will return soon. The king being away, the Court far off, the city empty, may compel me to silence for some days, but will relieve the fatigue of my tired pen. The king gave me a fine stag he had taken when hunting. I enclose the articles.
London, the 4th August, 1623.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
101. CAPITA porrecta primum in Idiomate Hispano deinde versa in Latinum a Patre Magistro Didaco a Fuente, 1623 (fn. 2) .
Primum quod Matrimonium perficiundum est per dispensationem Sanctissimi Domini, sed hec per operam Catholici Regis habenda est.
2o. Quod Matrimonium semel tantum celebrandum est in Hispania et in Anglia ratificari debet in forma sequenti:
Mane postquam Serenissima Domina Infanta suas devotiones sua Capella absolverit ipsa, et Sermus. Princeps Carolus in Capella Regia seu in aliqua Palatii Aula, ubi magis expedire visum fuerit conveniant ibique procurationes omnes quarum virtute Matrimonium in Hispania fuerit celebratum legantur: et tam Sermus. Princeps quam Serma. Domina Infanta prefatum Matrimonium ratum habeant postquam in Hispania fuerit celebratum et approbent cum omni solemnitate ad hujusmodi actum necessaria modo tamen nulla Ceremonia seu res aliqua interveniat quae Religioni Catholicae Apostolicae Romanae contradicat.
3o. Quod Serma. Infanta servos et familiam pro suo servitio convenientem secum deferat et Personas omnes ad illam attinentes eligat, et nominabit Catholica Maiestas, modo nullum servum nominaverit qui sit subditus Regis Magnae Britanniae sine sua voluntate et consensu.
4o. Quod tam Serma. Domina Infanta quam servi et universa ejus familia habebunt liberum suum et publicum exercitium Religionis Catholicae in modo et forma prout infra capitulatum est.
5o. Quod habebit Oratorium et Capellam decentem in suo Palatio ubi Missae pro libera voluntati Ser. Infantae celebrari possint; et similiter Londini et ubicunque morabitur Ecclesiam Publicam et capacem habebit prope Palatium, ubi omnia officia solemniter celebrant cum Cemeterio et omnibus alius necessariis pro Publica verbi Divini Predicatione, et omnium sacramentorum Celebratione et administratione; proque sepiliendes Mortuos et baptizandis parvulis et quod prefatum Oratorium, Capella et Ecclesia cum tali decentia ornabuntur que Ser. Infantae videbitur.
6o. Quod servi et servae Ser. Dom. Infantae et servi servorum eorum filii et discendentes, familiares omnes quomodocunque suae Celsitudini videbitur inservientes valeant Catholici esse libere et publice.
7o. Quod Ser. Infanta servi et familiares praedicti valeant Catholici esse in forma sequenti.
8o. Quod Ser. Infanta habeat in Palatio secum Oratorium et Capellam ita capacem, ut dicti servi et familiares ut supra possint intrare et commorari in illa in qua una sit Porta Publica et Ordinaria pro illis et alia interior per quam Ser. Infanta habeat ingressum in dictam Capellam, ubi ipsa et alii ut supra divinis officiis interesse possint: quod Oratorium, Capella et Ecclesia Publica ornentur cum decenti ornatu Altarium et aliarum rerum quae necessariae sunt pro cultu divino, qui in illis secundum morem S. Rom. Ecclesiae celebrandus est, et quod dictis servis et aliis ut supra licebit se conferre ad dictam Capellam et Ecclesiam omnibus horis prout illis videbitur.
9o. Quod cura et custodia dictarum Capellae et Ecclesiae erit penes eos qui deputabuntur a Ser. Infanta cui licebit constituere custodes ne quis possit entrare ad faciendum quid indecorum.
10o. Quod ad administrandum sacramenta et serviendum in Capella et ecclesia viginti quatuor sacerdotes et assistentes nominabuntur qui hebdomadas aut menses prout Ser. Infantae videbitur inservient et eorum electio ad praefatum Ser. Regem Catholicum et Ser. Infantam attinebit modo non sint subditi Regis Magna Brit. vel si fuerint ejus voluntas aut consensus precedat.
11o. Quod si unus Minister in ordini episcopali constitutus superior cum auctoritate necessaria ad omnes casus qui accederint spectantes ad Religionem, et Episcopo deficienti illius Vicarius eandem habeat auctoritatem.
12o. Quod iste episcopus et Minister superior poterit corrigere. emendare et castigare Catholicos qui deliquerint et in illos omnes juris dictionem Ecclesiasticam exercere, et ultra hoc poterit etiam Ser. Infanta illos de suo servitio abdicare quando illi visam fuerit.
13o. Quod dictus superior in ordine episcopali constitutus, vel ejus Vicarius poterit servos et alios ut supra Ecclesiasticos punire juxta leges et penas ecclesiasticas et illos etiam Ser. Infanta a suo servitio abdicare.
14o. Quod licebit Ser. Dom. Infantae et servis ut supra acquierere Romae dispensationes, Indulgentias, Jubileos et omnes gratias quae videbuntur conscientiis suis competere.
15o. Quod servi et familiares ut supra Ser. Dom. Infantae qui in Anglia emigrabuntur suscipiant juramentum fidelitatis Regis Magnae Brit. modo nulla sit clausula neque verbum quod contradicat Religioni et Conscientiis Catholicorum; et si forte sint subditi Regis Magnae Brit. idem juramentum suscipiant quod Hispani utique in sequenti forma: Ego N. juro et promitto fidelitatem Ser. Jacopo Mag. Brit. Regi et Ser. Carolo Principi Vualiae et Mariae, Hipaniarum Infantae, quam firmiter et fideliter observabo et si quid contra Personas honorem et dignitatem prefatorum Regis et Principum statumve et commune bonum Regnorum intentari cognovero, statim renuntiabo dictis domino Regi et Principibus aut Ministris ad il constitutis.
16o. Quod leges quae sunt vel erunt in Anglia et aliis Regnis spectantibus ad Religionem dictos servos et alios ut supra, Laicos non attingent, qui cum legibus tum paenes contra transgressores eorum imposites erunt exempti et contra ecclesiasticos solum modo eorum superior ecclesiasticorum Catholicorum procedere valeat, prout apud Christianos fieri consuevit quod si Judex aliquis secularis ecclesiasticorum Virorum comprehenderet propter aliquod desictum ad hoc tamen faciet ut predicto suo superiori ecclesiastico et Catholico statim tradatur et remittatur, qui contra illum juxta regulas juris procedat.
17o. Quod leges contra Catholicos late vel ferende in Anglia et aliis Regnis Regi Mag. Brit. subjectis non attingent liberos ex hoc Matrimonio oriundos, et libere jure successionis Regnis, Dominiis Mag. Brit. fruantur.
18o. Quod Nutrices quae lactabunt liberos Ser. Dom. Infantae Catholicae valeant esse, earumque electio ad praefatam Dom. Infantam spectet, sive sint ex Natione Anglicana sive ex alia quacunque prout Ser. Infantae placuerit et familiae suae assumerentur ejusque privelegiis gaudeant et potiantur.
19o. Quod episcopus Personae ecclesiasticae et Religiosae ex familia Dom. Infantae poterunt retinere vestitum et habitum suae dignitatis professionis et Religionis, more Romano.
20o. Pro securitate quod dictum Matrimonium nullatenus aliqua ex causa dissolvatur Rex Mag. Brit. et Carolus Princeps verbo Regio pariter et honore astringendi sunt, praestabunt insuper quicquid a Rege Catholico propositum fuerit si tamen decente et commode fieri possit.
21o. Quod filii et filiae qui ex hoc Matrimonio nascentur penes Ser. Infantam, ut minimum usque ad novenium educentur et libere jure successionis predictos Regnos, ut dictum est fruantur.
22o. Quod quomodocunque locos servorum et servarum quos Ser. Dom. Infanta secum adduxerit, nominatos per Regem Cath. fratrem ipsius vocare contigerit sive per mortem sive per absentiam vel ex alia aliqua causa vel accidenti subrogentur per dictum dom. Regem Cath. Omnes servi et familiares ut supra.
23o. Pro securitati quod totum ut capitulatum et compleatur Rex Mag. Brit. et omnes Consiliarii Regis tractatum Chirographum firmari debent: Insuper predicti Rex et Princeps verbo Regio fidem daturi sint se facturos quod possibile est ut omnia supra capitulata per Parlamentum stabiliantur.
24o. Quod conformiter ad ea quae tractata sunt omnia ista proponenda et exponenda sunt a Sanctissimo Domino, quatenus ea approbare, Apostolicamque benedictionem ac necessariam dispensationem ad effectum Matrimonii concedire dignetur.
25o. Quoniam autem ad instantias et diligentias nomine Majestatis Catholicae apud Ser. Dom. pro obtinenda dispensatione factas, novissime Beatude. Sua tale dedit responsum.
Prescriptas scilicet conditiones securitatem Religionis et conscientiae Ser. Infantae ejus familiae respicere ad concedendam dispensationem petitam alia requiri ad utilitatem, auctionem et magnum aliquot bonum Catholicae et Romanae Religionis spectantia haec proponenda sunt ut Sancmus. Dominus deliberat possit an talia sint quae dispensationem suadeant, justificunt et mereant et conformiter ad haec Rex Cath. in conscientia propriaque reputatione tenetur attendere ut omnia et singula quae a Rege Mag. Brit. oblata sunt promissa executioni mandent, et ea insuper ad Religionem Catholicam spectantia quae decens fuerit statuere pariter observentur. Nam praeterquam quod aliam Sanctissimus Dominus dispensationem concedere non possit nec vellet infelicissimum valde pro Ser. Infanta esset ibi vitam degere et commorando ubi suae Religionis professores Religionis causa prosecutionem patiuntur. Quia tamen de his publice pacisse difficile nonullisque subjacet inconvenientibus Equum est ut subditi Catholici Regis Mag. Brit. bonum hoc et quietem ab innata sui Regia benignitate et clemencia illis provenire pateantur agnoscant: quo sic strictiores etiam fidelitatis vinculo in ipsum tenentur dictus dominus Mag. Brit. Rex Ser. filius Princeps Vualiae per suas litteras privatas et fide et verbo regio ad observationem et executionem eorum adstringentur quae verbo sepe Ministris Catholici Regis promiserunt, neminem scilicet Catholicorum in suis Regnis commorantium persecutionem ullam ve molestiam in posterum passurum ex eo quod Religionem Cath. Apost. Rom. profiteant, nec propter exercitiam omnium sacramentorum praefatae religionis modo tamen illos utantur sine scandalo, silicet inter Privatos Parietes.
Quod haec omnia observanda executioni que mandanda sint judicium erit quod hactenus praefatus Mag. Brit. Rex Ser. in hujus unionis et affinitates contemplationem in beneficium Catholicorum dictorum praestiterit et continuo praestat ut testari poterint Ministri Regis Catholici et ipsimet Catholici Angli.
Enclosure.102. Reply of the Prince of Wales to the Pope. (fn. 3)
Aug. 5.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
103. To the Ambassador at Rome, and the like to the other Courts, mutatis mutandis:
We hear from the Hague that the States are ready to take the field. The enemy would be ready by the 10th inst. The Spaniards clearly intend to take Mers, Piazza and Contea, belonging to the Prince of Orange, who has made provision. Mansfeld is marching towards Mippen, assisted by the Dutch.
Tilly's defeat is confirmed, Halberstat remaining master of the country. We hear from Vienna that Gabor has sent a strong letter to the emperor upon the carrying out of the Treaty of Edembergh. The emperor, advised by Saxony, has sent ordering Tilly to offer pardon to Halberstat, giving him six weeks to decide. He will probably decline, as he knows his strength.
Leopold's commissioners have left Milan, taking word of good hopes of support in men and money. They mean to continue the fort of Steich, despite Swiss protests, and it will certainly be carried out. In the Valtelline they are very secretly contriving means to prevent the restitution of the valley to the Grisons, with Feria's knowledge, and if this succeeds they will play some trick upon the ecclesiastical troops.
We hear that the Duke of Savoy has ordered 4,000 men at Mondovi to march hastily towards Vercelli and Asti. It is said he means to make some attempt against Montferrat while the Spaniards have to keep their troops in quarters on those confines. He may stop since the last news that the Spaniards have put eight fortress guns in Trino, two miles from Casale, with munitions and troops.
We send this to you for information.
Ayes, 119.Noes, 2.Neutral, 6.
[Italian.]
Aug. 6.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
104. ALVISE CORNARO, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Some points about religion still remain to be settled in the marriage, requiring the pope's consent, there being some difference from what the congregation of Cardinals determined. However, they announce the marriage as arranged for the 17th inst., and everwhere they are making preparations and festivities for the celebration, as upon such an occasion no one can avoid dressing himself as his purse permits. The prince has decided to leave for England immediately after the ceremony, and they say that the king will accompany him as far as Coruna, where he will embark. They say that his Highness has decided to leave because he has become aware that if he stays until the time when they promise to give him the Infanta, as he seemed very inclined to do, he will give offence, and he has further learned that if he does not leave, the marriage will not take place so soon, and even if it does they will not permit him more familiarity with his bride than he enjoys at present, which consists merely in sending frequent compliments and in seeing her when they perform comedies at the palace, at which the Infanta was not present before the agreement. There is a persistent rumour, however, that everything which as been done is merely a show on both sides, and for the final and perfect conclusion they will encounter great difficulties, especially on the part of the Spaniards, who admit that the articles which concern temporal matters are not yet properly settled, but that if the prince leaves they may easily be arranged, provided the points agreed upon in religion are fulfilled (e voce continuata però che tutto cio che si fa sia reciprocamente in semplice apparenza et che nell' ultima e perfetta conclusione si attraverseranno grandi difficultà massime dalla parte de Spagnoli i quali confessano tuttavia che li capitolationi pertinenti a cose temporale per ancora non siano ben concertate ma che andatosene il Prencipe facilmente si accorderanno, mentre si adempischino i punti accordati di Religione).
A cavalier has come from the Infanta of Flanders to represent the needs of that country and especially to urge a peace or truce with the Dutch, to which the Count of Olivares and the rest of the Council are not disinclined.
Madrid, the 6th August, 1623.
[Italian.]
Aug. 9.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Ceffalonia.
Venetian
Archives
105. We, the five Savii alla Mercantia, having seen the commission of the Senate to answer about the representations of the Proveditore of Cephalonia in his letter of the 2nd June last upon the distress occasioned in the island by the importation of foreign cloth by the English and Flemings, who come to take away raisins, state upon oath that we should like to have full particulars upon the subject. However, from what we have been able to gather we recognise that some difficulty has arisen through permitting the Flemings and English to pay for their raisins by bartering a portion of their cloth instead of with the money in circulation. But the prohibition of that cloth in that or the other islands of the Levant cannot be thought of, as it would occasion grave inconvenience and confusion, because it is admitted into all parts of our state, including the city, and it is also a consideration that this permission does not in the least injure Venetian cloth, because even if it were taken to those parts it would find no market because it is too costly, while the foreign cloth, which costs much less, is far better adapted for those inhabitants. There are some 8,000 persons to clothe and this foreign cloth is far more convenient and advantageous for them than any other soever.
We would also remark that in all places where trading goes on, bartering makes it easier than any other method. Each man puts a price on his goods as a rule which allows both parties to come to terms upon an equitable basis. We perceive that this happens now at Cephalonia in this very business of the raisins, for whereas last year these were appraised at no more than 18 ducats the migliaro, so now with an increase in the price of the Londons and the Kerseys, which those islanders receive from the English and Flemings at barter, although they also get a considerable sum of ready money according to the information we possess, yet raisins have risen to 30 and 32 ryals the migliaro. This clearly shows that your Serenity's subjects, being advised of the increased cost of the cloth also raise that of raisins, and thus an equilibrium is established between the two prices, with mutual advantage. Accordingly it is reasonable to suppose that the loss imagined in this matter does not exist. Indeed, on previous occasions your Excellencies have even contemplated removing the newly imposed duty in order to invite these English and Flemings to go more readily to those shores with their ships, owing to the advantages which occurred from that trade for private as much as for public interests. However, as this is an important matter it demands full discussion and mature consideration. We therefore think it both advisable and necessary that your Serenity should take information from the Rectors who have recently returned from the governance of those islands and from the present ones also, to learn what remedies they suggest, so that we may give our opinion upon these also.
Marc Antonio di Priuli.Savii (fn. 4)
Marco Zustignan.
Alvise Basadonna.
Lorenzo Valier.
Zorzi Corner.
[Italian.]
Aug. 10.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
106. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
At the very moment that Puysieulx thought that the English marriage was encountering difficulties, news arrived of its certain conclusion that it will be consummated next month and the Prince of Wales will then proceed to England by sea while his bride, accompanied by the Infant Carlos, will also pass through this Kingdom to Flanders. This will prove very troublesome here owing to the expense and the presents befitting the greatness of the king, and the difficulty of entertaining the Infant Carlos, as the queen desires her brother to have the same honours as the Prince of Wales received in Spain. Here, however, they consider the Infant as a Cadet and the Kings of Navarre, Aragon and Portugal have never in time past received the right hand from the Most Christian.
They fear, moreover, that the Infant may stay in Flanders for the purpose of taking advantage of this marriage to conclude a truce.
Poissys, the 10th August, 1623.
[Italian.]
Aug. 11.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
107. ALVISE VALARESSO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The absence of the Court does not altogether deprive me of news. An individual named Clari (fn. 5) has arrived from Spain, and went straight to the king without stopping. He said nothing of his news to those he spoke with here, which is a good argument that he has no action to report about the marriage. It is certain that while the prince seemed sad and angry at such delay, the King of Spain, breaking his long silence about the marriage has himself promised it; but as regards the effectuation one can only judge from the past.
I hear that they added some condition about first sending to Rome a fresh mission. The recent death of the pope (fn. 6) will provide a further opportunity for this, as coming at a time when the negotiations were still incomplete they could pretend from the expressed devotion for the Holy See, that they must have the confirmation from the new pontiff.
After the nuptials, it will be left to the prince to choose whether he will remain or leave, but they cannot agree to the consummation except after they have seen a start made in carrying out the things sworn to, putting it off until May at least; but in this way they could keep on postponing as long as they pleased. An informant from Spain writes to me that the prince, being in love, will choose to stay rather than leave alone. I do not know if he will be a prisoner of love or if he thinks that his departure might upset the marriage. Here the king announces that his son has written to him that he would like to come and kill a stag before the end of the season, which lasts until Michaelmas.
They have withdrawn the order to send four other ships with the two sent to release the Dunkirk ship, on hearing that the Dutch meant to fight her at all costs. On this subject there have been evil rumours and they are now hastening on the departure of this fleet as much as possible. But it cannot be very soon as they have to replace the provision for three months, consumed to no purpose, and although they are taking these from the warehouses of the trading companies, yet the lack of money is a heavy stone on the wing of desire. So say what they will, the ships will not be ready for a fortnight. If the prince really intended to leave and had full liberty he might easily do so on the two royal ships which he has with him. Certainly if he returns alone the marriage will vanish. There are examples of this, especially in the house of Austria. But granted that the pair lived together, the event of pregnancy would provide great advantages for the Spaniards.
I have discovered that they would do anything to insert a clause into the articles promising to abandon the Dutch. The king refused, not with a generous negative but with subtle and base excuses. He said he could not do it because his subjects would not obey his rigorous prohibitions. He promised to permit it so sparingly that certainly, as he said, feathers would not grow on these young birds. He told the ambassadors in conclusion that as his kingdom was divided into parties, the Spanish and the Dutch, the greater was devoted to them, as the Dutch was composed of merchants, and would break up and dissolve of itself owing to divided interests. This remark has some truth in it, but it is incredible and monstrous that a king should so far prostitute himself as to go out of his way to expose his own weakness to justify a refusal (il Re non con generosa negativa ma con sottile e vili scuse l'ha declinato. Disse che non lo poteva fare perche i suoi sudditi non haverebbero obedito alle suoi severe prohibitioni. Promise di permettarlo si scarsamente che certo non sarebbero cresciute penne (come egli disse) a questo giovine uccello. Considero in fine agli ambasciatori, che essendo il suo Regno diviso nelle fattioni Spagnola et Olandese, la maggior era a lor divotione, perche l'Olandese composta di Mercanti nella divisione dell' interesse si squarciava e dessolveva quasi da se stessa, consideratione che di certa verità a lor fece; seben sia incredibile e mostruoso che a tanto si prostruischi un Re che quasi stimi capitale il produrre le proprie debolezze per guistificar le sue negative).
I enclose a letter which has appeared since the oath, under the name of the archbishop of Canterbury. It is full of dangerous notions which in any soil but the English might do a great deal of harm. It is certainly not the archbishop's, who has protested his innocence to the king and begged him to punish the impostor. Some of the more narrow Catholics reprove as scandalous the presence in a heretical church of the ambassadors of the Catholic, with the music, prayers and ceremonies of the recent oath.
With my last your Excellencies will have received a letter of the prince in response to the papal brief. Of a surety either the king alone wrote it, without the participation of anyone, or it was composed in Spain in the prince's name; in any case it had an extraneous origin. The Palatine keeps postponing the day of signing, which is something and possibly not altogether displeasing to the king. His agent sent to thank me for my office with the king. Chichester's departure for Cologne is postponed. The prince sent a gentleman called Gorim to the Queen of Bohemia from Spain. (fn. 7)
The king has sent to the most Christian a present of horses and dogs for hunting as instruments of pleasure to involve him in the acts of peace. The Earl of Arundel has arrived with his wife. The eldest son fell sick at Ghent and died. His illness was the reason for the earl's departure, but much comment was excited because he went so near the time of the oath. The truth is, moreover, that he has not the confidence of the Spaniards and is mistrusted by the others.
London, the 11th August, 1623.
Postscript.—I hear the fresh postponement of the nuptials confirmed.
[Italian.]
Enclosed in
the preceding
despatch.
108. Translation of a paper presented to his Majesty in the name of the Archbishop of Canterbury. (fn. 8)
May it please your Majesty.
I have kept silence far too long, on which account I fear that I have neglected the duties of the office to which it has pleased God to call me and your Majesty to confirm. I now humbly ask leave to unburden my conscience towards God as well as my duty to your Majesty. I therefore beg you to hear me freely and then your Majesty shall do with me as you please. Your Majesty has decided to tolerate the Catholic religion. I beg you to ponder carefully what this means and what consequences may ensue. By that act, Sire, you labour to set up that most damnable and heretical doctrine of the church of the harlot of Babylon. Consider how hateful this will be to God and distasteful to your poor subjects, the true professors of the Gospel. Let your Majesty also examine your numerous disputes and most learned writings against these monstrous heresies, and how you should appear before the world as the defender of the doctrine that your pen has approved and your conscience show to be superstitious, idolatrous, and detestable. In addition to this there is your Majesty's action in sending to Spain your only son without the consent of the Council or the knowledge and approval of your people. Although you are deeply interested in the prince as your carnal son, your subjects have no less part in him, as the heir to the throne, on whom after your Majesty they fix their eyes and on whom they consider all their weal depends. Accordingly they took his going so ill, that on his return all those who advised this act, both dangerous to him and prejudicial to the realm, will not escape without being called to account and deservedly punished.
Besides this toleration, Sire, which you endeavour to set up by proclamation, cannot be decided without a parliament. Does your Majesty mean to show your subjects that you intend to arrogate to yourself the entire authority to reverse the laws of the realm at your pleasure. Let your Majesty only consider what terrible consequences these acts may bring, especially when done by your Majesty, because it cuts and breaks the true profession of the Gospel, in which God has blessed us and under which this Kingdom has flourished for many years. If your Majesty does not call down upon the Kingdom and especially upon your person the severe indignation and wrath of God, may I never be worthy to obtain the Divine favour. Thus in discharge of my duty towards God, to your Majesty and the place of my office I have taken humble boldness to deliver my conscience; and now, Sire, do with me what you please.
[Italian.]
Aug. 12.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
109. To the Ambassador at Rome and the like to the other Courts.
They are collecting troops in Alsace. The Archduke Leopold has gone thither. Three of his commissioners went to Coire. The ambassadors of the Catholic Cantons have returned from France and seem satisfied about their negotiations. Those Cantons will send an embassy to Milan to recover their expenses for keeping troops in the Grisons. At Naples they are still contemplating some design upon Dalmatia and Albania. Military preparations are going forward in accordance. They recently hired eight ships, to be ready by September, and are engaging sailors, not for the Ocean but for the Adriatic. The Duke of Savoy is said to have 3,500 men on the Montferrat frontier.
All this will serve you for information.
Ayes, 128.Noes, 3.Neutral, 9.
[Italian.]
Aug. 12. Cinque Savii alla Mercanzia. Lettere. Venetian Archives.110. The five Sages of the Board of Trade to the Proveditore at Zante.
The ambassador of the King of Great Britain has asked for our approval of Agesilao Seguro, chosen by him as consul for his nation at that place; we have taken information and approved of this individual; he must not take more than three ryals for each ship.
[Italian.]
Aug. 14.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
111. MARC ANTONIO MOROSINI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The English ambassador here came to this embassy the day before yesterday to inform me of the marriage arranged in Spain between his prince and the Infanta there. He protested, however, that his king did not mean to abandon his old friends or to make any other alliance to their prejudice, either with the Spaniards or with the Austrians.
The Hague, the 14th of August, 1623.
[Italian.]
Aug. 15.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Ceffalonia.
Venetian
Archives.
112. ANDREA MOROSINI, Venetian Proveditore of Cephalonia, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Money is so scarce here that it is practically impossible for to obtain the smallest amount from the debtors until the ships come to take away the raisins of the present harvest. The chamber here is exhausted for this cause and it is hard to pay the troops.
Cephalonia, the 15th August, 1623.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 Thomas Howard, Viscount Andover; he arrived on Sunday, the 20/30 July, the day of the ceremony described above. Cal. S. P. Dom., 1623–5, page 25.
2 An English translation of these articles as sworn to by James is printed in Rushworth: Historical Collections, vol. i, pages 86–88.
3 See No. 79 at page 60 above.
4 Also in Cinque Savii alla Mercanzia, Risposte.
5 Edward Clarke, who arrived on the 4th August.—Birch: Court and Times of James I., ii., page 415.
6 Pope Gregory XV. died on Saturday, the 8th July.
7 Sir George Goring. He arrived at the Hague on the 29th July, old style, as recorded by Carleton's despatch of the following day.—State Papers, Foreign, Holland.
8 Printed by Rushworth: Historical Collections, i., page 85.