Venice
August 1624, 16-31

Sponsor

Institute of Historical Research

Publication

Author

Allen B. Hinds (editor)

Year published

1912

Pages

413-428

Annotate

Comment on this article
Double click anywhere on the text to add an annotation in-line

Citation Show another format:

'Venice: August 1624, 16-31', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 18: 1623-1625 (1912), pp. 413-428. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=88918 Date accessed: 24 November 2014.


Highlight

(Min 3 characters)

August 1624

Aug. 16.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
540. To the Ambassador at the Hague.
The commission which we gave you on the 3rd inst. to direct Lieutenants Colonel Thine and Vere to come immediately to our state to be employed, will also enable you to let Captain Scot understand that we can on no account allow him the prorogation of six months which he has asked for, as we desire him to return to command his company.
Ayes, 119.Noes, 2.Neutral, 19.
[Italian.]
Aug. 16.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
541. ALVISE VALARESSO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Three days ago the gentleman resident here for the Palatine went to find the king by his master's express order. He took word of the recent decision of the Elector of Saxony to recognise the Duke of Bavaria as elector, being led to this chiefly by the offices of Mayence. This decision involves the worst consequences and is, perhaps, the most fatal blow that the Palatine could receive at the present time. After this they expect an electoral diet, which is already intimated, and there with the final subjection of Germany, everything will be arranged for the emperor's satisfaction. God grant that here they may attach more importance to the present evils than they have to the past. But besides lack of will they also lack a real knowledge of the laws and interests of Germany. Few remedies can avert this imminent evil, even if it has not taken place. Everything now depends upon the fortunes of the Ambassador Anstruther and the success of his offices; he might possibly prevent the fulfilment of Saxony's promise. I fancy this is what the king hopes, and upon that he may perhaps base his reply to the remonstrances of the Palatine. It is certainly probable that the unexpected and precipitate decision of that elector is in great measure the result of the tardy expedition of Anstruther. Thus the king's long irresolution or his lukewarm resolutions only serve to redouble the suspicions of the Austrians, make them draw closer to their dependants and win over neutrals, while they are insufficient to resuscitate in his friends and those well inclined the lost hope that they will ever do anything here adequate for the public necessity, and thus in despair of the usual assistance from England that have thought it necessary to make terms with the emperor.
The Ambassador Fiat keeps with the king on his progress, and will certainly remain some days yet. In the Court, now over a hundred miles away, they celebrated yesterday the anniversary of the Scotch conspiracy, a function that usually consists of unlimited drinking (fn. 1) .
Kensington, now Earl of Holland, will have arrived in the Most Christian Court by this. Amid the buzz of hopes about the marriage I hear a silent voice that the king does not want it, and that the Ambassador Carlisle is the sole repository of his real wishes. I am assured that he himself has enlarged to the prince upon the slight benefits and the numerous drawbacks that marriage may involve. He said in particular that it would serve to separate the English from the Scots, and would thus utterly thwart his original objects and prove most prejudicial to this crown. The belief appears to be growing that the Count of Tillierès will return here as ambassador extraordinary. The true reason for his removal was the offence he gave to the queen-mother by reason of that Friar Ravoletto, who in her name brought the first words about the marriage and the desire for it.
The deposed treasurer will certainly have to pay 30,000l. sterling, and he is already getting ready. The king spoke very sharply against him; his evil actions are constantly coming more to light and may easily involve his utter ruin.
Bret, his brother-in-law and practically the original author of his ills, was sent to prison for having slandered Buckingham since the last repulse received from his Majesty. Bristol has been sent to his country house until he is sent for; this practically amounts to a sentence of punishment and exile. However, he still speaks of Buckingham in the most injurious way, while he publicly maintains that if the prince had not gone to Spain and Buckingham had not precipitated the business, the marriage would certainly have taken place; that England cannot subsist without the Spanish alliance, and the prince is so bound by his promise to the Infanta that he cannot shake himself free. It is impossible that Bristol has not so far received secret support from the king's benevolence, but I think that he is not now far from his well merited disgrace, which will remove at length a powerful instrument of the king's disposition, and better establish the party of the prince and Buckingham.
The wind which remains contrary has prevented the passage of the colonels and of 2,000 of the men, the only ones left to embark of the levies for Holland. The disputes between the Earls of Oxford and Southampton have been settled by the king passing sentence in favour of the latter, as the older soldier who has already acted as general.
The letter intercepted at the Hague directed to Inoiosa, praised his contrivance against Buckingham. They seem to consider this refers to some treachery he prepared. In my opinion, from a consideration of the time and circumstances, it is nothing but an allusion to the accusation drawn up and presented against Buckingham, which I sent to your Excellencies.
Many of the gentlemen have fallen sick from their sufferings in the progress owing to the extraordinary hot weather prevailing in this kingdom. Among them the Duke of Lennox succumbed in three days to a raging fever (fn. 2) . He was the only brother of the Duke of Richmond, who died six months ago. He was an excellent gentleman and remarkably friendly to your Serenity.
The business of the glass is all going exceedingly well, as I am writing to the heads of the Council of Ten, the ministers here have received the necessary orders and henceforward the glass can be brought here with the utmost freedom. The promise about the raisins is likewise about to be fulfilled, God willing.
This week's letters from France have not yet arrived, so I know nothing about the departure of the Most Excellent Pesaro.
London, the 16th August, 1624.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Aug. 19.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
542. ALVISE CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The affair of the English at Amboyna grows more and more bitter. The king demands the punishment of the governor, compensation for the English traders who have abandoned the trade in alarm, and reparation to his subjects whose honour he considers seriously impugned. The English ambassador told me the particulars saying that his king felt the matter very keenly, and he dreaded some mischance. He had spoken in the Assembly and afterwards to the four deputies, and meeting them afterwards with the Prince of Orange, he had found them much inclined to give satisfaction. The India Company offers strong opposition, being composed of persons deeply interested, who enjoy a complete monopoly of that trade, the alarmed English leaving them a free field. They have recently printed a small book at Amsterdam with a biassed account of the incident. The ambassador remonstrated very strongly and the book will be prohibited. They will make a full enquiry to discover and punish the authors. They have written a very friendly letter to the king sending copies of the process and of other papers which have arrived from the East Indies on the subject, offering to send for the Governor and others whom his Majesty may suggest to make another careful enquiry. They hope by this to satisfy the king, but others feel sure they will not.
The Earl of Essex, one of the four English colonels of the last levies, has arrived. Some quarrel arose between them, Vere and Cecil, on the question of precedence. The king assigned the first place to Vere, and also placed the others. The remaining levies are expected very soon.
The Hague, the 19th August, 1624.
[Italian.]
Aug. 19.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
543. LORENZO PARUTA, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Ambassador Wake, after long negotiations with the duke, about Mansfelt, has arranged, provided your Serenity approves, that the Count shall proceed with his officers to Basel or Berne and stay there until the others have an opportunity of employing him. Wake let it be understood that at the dissolution of the Diet of Baden he proposed to go to the Swiss, to carry out commissions from his king in those parts, for the interests of the Valtelline as well as the Palatine. He would come back here to fetch his wife, before proceeding to Venice.
Turin, the 19th August, 1624.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Aug. 19.
Consiglio
di X.
Parti Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
544. In the Council of Ten.
That the letter of our ambassador with the States of the 22nd July last to the Chiefs of this Council about letters arrested by order of the States between Namur and Brussels, and communicated by the Prince of Orange to the said ambassador and the ambassador of the King of Great Britain be read by a secretary of this Council and remitted to the Sages of the Collegio and to the Senate, after imposing the oath of secrecy. Exp. pap.
Ayes, 13.Noes, 0.Neutral, 1.
[Italian.]
Senato,
Secreta.
Comunicazioni
dal
Consiglio
di X.
Venetian
Archives.
545. ALVISE CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the CHIEFS of the COUNCIL of TEN.
The intercepting of the letters for Italy was quite true. They were taken to the Hague on Wednesday by the soldiers who took them between Namur and Brussels, in full Spanish territory. Before opening the packet the Prince of Orange sent it to me so that I might take out my letters, as I did with those of Valaresso and Moresini. Mine were not opened, but some of the others were. I complained to the prince who laid the blame on the soldiers. The same evening the prince sent one of his secretaries to me with a great bundle of intercepted letters, saying that he wished to show confidence with the English ambassador and me, sending us the letters which were going to London and coming from Italy, so that we might read what concerned our princes, asking us to inform him if we found anything of importance about these Provinces. I found many letters in cipher from Rome, Naples and Milan, which I handed over to the prince; in the other letters, and the mutual communications between the prince, the English ambassador and myself I noted the following important particulars:
A letter from Alva, Viceroy of Naples, to the Marquis of Inoiosa contains these words: I am sorry for the persecution which they are beginning in England against the Catholics. It all arises from the perverse counsels of Buckingham. The contrivance devised by your Excellency for his overthrow is certainly worthy of the keenness of your intellect and of your devotion to his Majesty's service. (mi spiace la persecutione, che si principia in Inghilterra contra Cattolici; tutto nasce dal Consiglio perverso di Bocchingham; et certamente la machina inventata da Vestra Eccelenza per batterlo è stata propria della vivacità del suo ingegno, et della applicatione di lei ad servitio di Sua Maestà). At this point the Ambassador Carleton said, This is certainly some great treason arranged, and I feel sure that the letter will go to England with his comments; what results it may produce, I cannot say; they should reasonably be good for the common welfare. I will not fail secretly to advise the Ambassador Valaresso about it.
There is another letter from the Duke of Pastrana at Rome to the same Inoiosa. He begins, Bethune has arrived in this city and makes rodomontades about the Valtelline. The rest is in cipher, which I have not yet succeeded in unravelling. If I wanted the letters I do not think they would be denied me, or that I should be treated differently from the English ambassador.
There were other letters from Rome from the Capuchin Rota who was previously in England and who also crossed over here to reconcile the interests of the Palatine and the Duke of Bavaria. These were directed to the nuncio at Brussels, and although they are mostly in cipher they have succeeded in making out most evil intentions on the part of that friar, as well as a resolve to write against the King of England. One of these letters is written to a certain Valsen in London and the ambassador will, therefore, send it to his king, and through knowing the person to whom it is sent they can obtain the key of the cipher and thereby discover its contents.
The same letters have assured the States that the news of the arrival of the fleet has no foundation, as nothing is said about it in any one of these numerous letters, although they frequently mention the loss of the three galleys that came with the fleet.
There are also letters from the Count of Oñate from Vienna to the Infanta, telling her of his orders from the Catholic to remain in Germany, although he has completed his embassy, to attend a diet if one takes place. He asks her for money.
Letters from a Capuchin from Vienna mention a large gift from the Genoese to all Caesar's ministers to obtain the investiture of Zuccarello, but they have obtained nothing so far and there is little hope for the future. There are many other letters with news of slight importance. I have reported everything of consequence. If the decipherers find more, I will duly send word. I ask for instructions in case other letters are intercepted in the future.
The Hague, the 22nd July, 1624.
[Italian.]
Aug. 22.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
546. MARC' ANTONIO MORESINI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Lord Rich has not found the same warmth about the marriage on his return as when he departed. The ministers here have repudiated the articles about religion granted by Vieville. They declare that he promised for himself without consulting them or his Majesty. The ambassadors retort that this is no concern of theirs as his Majesty told them to treat with Vieville. An attempt will be made to accomodate matters, but really there is some coldness on this side. They say though very secretly that the queen-mother causes this, but the apparent pretext is the gratification of the house of Soissons and to keep the old promises. But some stronger reason seems more likely and the Spaniards may have got some hold upon her. I hope to learn more in a few days. Father Berule, who left for Rome for the dispensation, has not yet reached Turin.
Poissy, the 22nd August, 1624.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Aug. 22.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
547. MARC ANTONIO MORESINI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Count of Sciomberg has gone to Paris this morning by the king's orders to see Mansfelt, who has made several proposals to the king. He has also received letters from the Duke of Savoy and Wake the English ambassador; a great friend of his, full of offers. He wrote recently asking the duke to allow him to establish his camp in Savoy. The English ambassadors are now trying to obtain their king's promise from him, as they see that nothing more is said about it here, but Mansfelt does his best to avoid giving it up.
Poissy, the 22nd August, 1624.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Aug. 23.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
548. ALVISE VALARESSO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The gentleman of the Palatine has returned from the Court. He represented the evil consequences of the assent of Saxony to Bavaria having the electoral vote, and pointed out that they could adopt three remedies: to declare once for all open war for the recovery of the Palatinate; to urge Mansfeld to tempt fortune by the assignment of the 20,000l. already remitted from here to France, and they can easily take advantage of the troops now maintained by the Kings of Denmark and Sweden, who would willingly let them go owing to the peace arranged between them or which will follow shortly. The third is to send ambassadors who will take part in the diet and prevent the Palatine suffering graver prejudice.
They did not allow the agent to speak to the king himself on the plea that it was improper during holiday time to trouble him with thorny business. But the Secretary Conovel heard him and answered in the king's name that his Majesty had in hand negotiations for a marriage with France; they had arranged the articles and he expected the conclusion in a few days, after which an alliance would be arranged for the common interests, and especially those of the Palatinate. As regards sending an embassy to Germany they could not decide until news came from the Ambassador Anstruther, which must arrive soon. In short, whilst promising the necessary assistance, he minimised the evil consequences of Saxony's consent owing to the conditions imposed that the foreign troops must leave the empire; that the Palatine's brother should be restored to his rights and that Bavaria should be elector for life only, although it is not known whether these conditions are all true or whether they will all be carried out, or what good they can do the Palatine. But in reality these replies are their usual language and actually mean that the king will never do anything. Reason suggests the same, because if he really intended to give his support he would not allow matters to proceed to the lowest depth, from which it will be no easy business to recover them, if not impossible. Moreover he has it stated that after the marriage is settled they will arrange an alliance with France, although he knows the order in which they propose to proceed; it is usual among princes always to precede marriage alliances by the settlement of other interests, using these to better establish the other; otherwise if the alliance is negotiated subsequently there is a risk that difficulties arising over them may lead to discord among these already united in the bonds of relationship. (fn. 3)
The same gentleman has received from his master three commissions in fresh letters, one to urge some decision either for an embassy or for war in this new case about Saxony; the second to ask his Majesty what he proposes to do about the deposit of Franchendal, which expires this October; and the third to write to the Count of Tillieres at the French Court, encouraging him to persevere in his efforts for a composition between the houses of Bavaria and the Palatine. Accordingly he has written a letter to the count of which I enclose a copy.
The Ambassador Fiat has left the king, but has not yet arrived here. He has the Earl of Warwick always with him. Buckingham gave him a state banquet; he ate with the king and prince on the anniversary of the conspiracy, when they also performed a sylvan masque. (fn. 4) I can report nothing certain about his negotiations. The absence of the king and prince obscures my intelligence of things. At the Court they only think of hunting and travelling. My informant there writes that they say nothing about the marriage. Couriers are flocking hither from France, we notice: five coming in one week. One of them brought letters which took back the ambassador to the king, from whom he had taken leave. Some one tells me that the subject of these despatches is complaint about some action taken here against the Catholics. This action is confined to the imprisonment of another priest, and the information they are pursuing against the Catholics. This information merely consists in preparing things for the execution of the laws against them, and is like the raising of the arm before the blow. The return of the Count of Tillierès is increasingly hoped for by his own people and expected by others.
The Dutch ambassador has sent his Majesty letters from the States about the late occurrences at Amboyna in the East Indies. He includes the original letters relating the facts, but very different from the English account. The crime of rebellion is undoubted: exceptional torture is denied. The four ringleaders are preserved alive and they ask the king to send a commissioner to take information about the facts. For the rest they express all reverence and esteem for his Majesty. They have made good arrangements for the Dutch ships in these waters, which abused their commissions without distinguishing between friend and foe and gave many occasions for offence to his Majesty, so that they promise there shall be no more such ill behaviour in the future. They have renewed their commissions to the ambassador about the Greenland difficulties with power to end them.
All the colonels and the English commissioner, Heydem, (fn. 5) with the under commissioner, Calandrini, have left for Holland. It is reckoned that a large number have crossed over and above the 6,000, with not a few gentlemen and cavaliers among them. Even so, I am assured that if they wanted 10,000 more they could have them quite easily. All go very readily, especially the colonels and officers, to do something useful, not only to act on the defensive, but to venture on offence also. The States certainly ought not to leave their goodwill idle now they have more men than ever in the past, or than they are likely to have in the future.
They are sending a royal ship (fn. 6) to Spain to bring back the jewels restored by the Infanta. The prince is hurrying on its departure greatly. It will take a secret course and put in at an unknown place. The Ambassador Aston is to take the jewels to the ship in person. The rumour about his recall has died away, because the king does not agree. From the letters of the Most Excellent Pesaro, I may hope that by now he is not far from the coast. I certainly await him most eagerly from my desire to throw down this heavy burden.
London, the 23rd August, 1624.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Enclosed in
the preceding
despatch.
549. Letter of Rusdorf, Agent of the Palatine, to the Count of Tillières.
Having informed the king, my master, with what integrity and zeal you seek to advance the welfare of public affairs and especially the peace in Germany and the restitution of the Palatinate and with what solid arguments you contend that the reconciliation of the Palatine and Bavarian houses is the best expedient for the restoration of public tranquillity and put a term to the ambitions of the oppressors, my king has commanded me to thank you and by you to persevere in your laudable aims, and in particular to assure you that if the Duke of Bavaria really entertains the idea of such a reconciliation and in consequence of the restitution of the Palatinate, my king desires nothing better than a reasonable settlement for the sake of peace and to oppose jointly the designs of those who aim at universal monarchy. My master would always consent readily to the mediation of any other prince, well-affected to Christendom and interested in the preservation of German liberty, and also to the interposition of France which has always provided support for oppressed princes in Germany and the Palatine house in particular. I can assure you that my master has always been most anxious for a reconciliation with the Duke of Bavaria, as he showed by his letter to the Duke of Wirtemberg some months ago. For my own part, I hope for the continuance of your favour and assure you of my devotion.
The 19th August, 1624.
[Italian; translated from the French.]
Aug. 24.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
550. To the Ambassador Moresini in France.
Since the delays occasioned by the fault of others in carrying out the original objects of the alliance, although both France and Savoy have constantly aimed at involving them with the affairs of the Palatinate, the movements of England and other matters, they have now come to recognise that we were in the right.
Wake the English ambassador has had some negotiations with the Duke of Savoy about the Count of Mansfeld, for him to go to Berne or Basel. We desire you to ascertain quietly the facts to advise us.
Ayes, 129.Noes, 3.Neutral, 29.
[Italian.]
Aug. 24.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
551. To the Ambassador Moresini in France.
The discourse of Father Hyacinth about the Palatinate originates from his old ideas about an accomodation, which he set forth previously in England to our ambassador, in his zeal to move every stone. The policy of the republic has always been to keep at a distance, and the more so in this case, because France has interposed and the English are engaged. We therefore direct you to abstain from all negotiations on the subject.
Ayes, 129.Noes, 3.Neutral, 29.
[Italian.]
Aug. 24.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
552. PIERO CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador at Rome, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Negotiations continue here about the English marriage, and the French ambassador told the pope that they only approached him out of respect. The king wants the dispensation, but not because he considers it necessary, as he knows the contrary, and as soon as the conditions are arranged with England it is not thought that they will raise any obstacles here about the dispensation, though they will try to procure every advantage for the Catholics in that kingdom.
Rome, the 24th August, 1624.
[Italian.]
Aug. 24.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
553. LUNARDO MORO, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE and SENATE.
They are somewhat anxious here about the possibility of an alliance between the Most Christian, your Serenity, the Duke of Savoy, the King of England and some of the princes of Germany. The matter has been discussed in the Council.
I understand that the difficulties of the Ambassador of Denmark are increasing, and he demands advantages in trade which they consider prejudicial. He has not yet said a word about the Palatinate or a truce with the Dutch, or a marriage between the king's son and the Infanta here, though they would not listen to the proposal here.
Madrid, the 24th August, 1624.
[Italian.]
Aug. 26.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
554. ALVISE CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
All the 6,000 English of the new levies have arrived and are divided among the garrisons. The four colonels are here at the Hague. The troops are in good order and very fine. Expectation is on tip toe. The treasurer (fn. 7) and one of the Calandrini came over with them. Parliament ordered the payment of 100,000 florins for the 1st ult., 80,000 being a full payment for the men, but the States claim a sum of 80,000 florins paid by them to the troops from time to time. The matter will probably admit of easy adjustment.
The Hague, the 26th August, 1624.
[Italian.]
Aug. 26.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
555. ALVISE CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The English ambassador complains more and more about the book on the Amboyna affair, printed by the East India Company. (fn. 8) He spoke me strongly about it the other day and said he hoped to obtain an order against it from the States, or a statement of the public displeasure, which they call a Placart here. Meanwhile the English have printed a very sharp answer.
M. de Petz, (fn. 9) the new French ambassador, made his entry yesterday. The English ambassador and I sent our coaches to meet him.
The replies of the two Colonels Tinen and Vere reached me this week. They say they are facing the enemy in defence of their country, which has claims upon them above all others.
Encloses copy of the treaty between their High Mightinesses and the King of Great Britain, which corresponds exactly to the one with France.
The Hague, the 26th August, 1624.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Enclosure.556. Terms of the league between the KING of GREAT BRITAIN and the DUTCH. (fn. 10)
[Italian; deciphered; 8 pages.]
Aug. 30.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
557. ALVISE VALARESSO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Ambassador Fiat has never returned here because after taking leave a second time he was fetched back to Court by fresh letters from France, which he had to hand personally to the king and prince. As the ambassador went to find Buckingham, who had separated from his Majesty and had gone to take some waters to establish his health better, the gentleman who brought the letter had to wait some days to rejoin him. This gentleman told my informant that the marriage negotiations were progressing steadily and already nearing completion. At all events, they all maintain silence on this side and many are losing hope.
The Capuchin, the ambassador's chaplain, has been recalled by Cardinal Richelieu. This might possibly have been done in order to receive some information from him about the religion, were I not assured that it is because of some error committed by him in certain letters, through excess of zeal or lack of judgment. The secretary and all the rest of Tillières's household have orders to return home to France. They will leave next week, and some say that the count will come with Madame in the capacity of her first gentleman, and the countess as her first gentlewoman. Those who know the count well cannot help fearing that if he has the power, he will do little good for the conclusion of the marriage.
Owing to the instances of the Palatine's gentleman about the deposit of Franchendal which is about to expire, the Lords of the Council have received orders from the king to meet and discuss what is to be done. They will debate whether it is any advantage to have it and how it may be possible to hold it. Four courses remain open, for which I may refer to the enclosed paper. The question is certainly a very difficult one and their decision doubtful, but necessity compels them to decide something, and possibly the nature of the business, the instances of the Palatine and the opportunity of the English troops who have crossed to Holland may lead the king in a direction he does not want.
There remains very little doubt that parliament will reassemble towards Christmas. Many are already preparing to demonstrate to his Majesty that these succours to the Dutch and other middle courses without making open war on Spain, are productive of little good and much harm to the realm. The Ambassador Caron also has orders from the States to press the king as urgently as possible to such a declaration.
Some English ships taking the soldiers to Holland encountered the ships of Dunkirk, which plundered them, taking the very clothing of the sailors. They have gone to make complaint to the king, and draw attention to the hostile act; so much wood ought to suffice to kindle the fire.
The English merchants have removed, although with some difficuty, the wine to their credit in the Canaries. Fourteen of the ships here, which carry on the usual trade with Spain, are leaving under a convoy. They do not propose to enter the ports but to trade in the open, as they do not want to give up the trade while at the same time they wish to avoid the danger. Nevertheless, from what a leading merchant told me, more than 400,000l. sterling remain in the hands of the Spaniards to the account of the English, a considerable sum and a strong restraint against a breach.
The merchant, Ricaut, has been before the Council, accused of having sold a ship of his to the Spaniards, although with an appearance of collusion it was sequestrated by the Viceroy of Naples, under pretext of a debt of 20,000 crowns claimed by the Marquis Inoiosa. But the merchant defended himself so well that he escaped and the Council will be engaged in protecting his interests from the Spaniards (fn. 11) . The Dunkirk ships are reduced to a desperate plight. The Infanta of Brussels has written to this king in their favour, but without any effect. About forty deserters from Spinola have passed this way, dismissed by the Dutch.
Four pirate ships have appeared in these seas; it is not known whether they have done any harm; but I took occasion to remark that it was necessary to unite for their destruction, and it was blameworthy and mischievous for any one to keep the peace with those who are the common enemies and who keep faith with no one.
The ambassador of the Persian is negotiating with commissioners of the Council to get all the silk of that kingdom into the hands of the merchants here, an extremely difficult thing to compass in the opinion of those who know most about it. He spoke to me about it himself as I wrote at the time.
Sir [Albert] Murton is only awaiting his orders to leave for the ordinary embassy of France. Clarc is also expecting the like to go and reside at Turin. Sir [Henry] Wotton, late ambassador at Venice, has been rewarded by his Majesty with a post worth some 5,000 crowns a year for life. (fn. 12) He is highly satisfied, and so his services, both long and fruitful, have been duly recognised.
In one of the public mercenary theatres here they have recently given several representations under different names of many of the circumstances about the marriage with the Infanta. The work is of no great merit from what they say, but it drew great crowds from curiosity at the subject. The Spaniards are touched from their tricks being discovered, but the king's reputation is affected much more deeply by representing the case with which he was deceived. The Spanish ambassador has made a remonstrance, and it is thought that they will at least punish the author. (fn. 13) The same ambassador has sent a gentleman, a mutual friend to offer congratulations upon the news he has received from the Viceroy of Naples of the capture of seven Barbary foists at Little Cephalonia by the galleys of your Serenity, news which he had also previously communicated to others. I made a proper response without committing myself to deny or confirm the event since I am without any news from Venice, and it would be difficult for such a minister to be at fault in such a matter. God grant that even if his rejoicing be not sincere, the occasion for it may not be false. In the matter of the raisins, my whole dependence is upon the royal promise; difficulties are not wanting, and the Court being a long way off, not only costs me a great deal, but makes me very uneasy.
I hear no certain news of Sig. Pesaro, but must hear soon, as a month has passed since Morosini reached that Court. In returning, I shall travel through France again to avoid the perils of Germany.
London, the 30th August, 1624.
[Italian.]
Enclosed in
the preceding
despatch.
558. Considerations upon the means whereby the town of Franchendal may be secured and defended.
Firstly, the king may receive it into his protection and put in a garrison. In this case the troops must be allowed to pass; then the treaty only mentions the countries under the King of Spain, and the archduke might raise difficulties as commissioner in the Palatinate in the emperor's name. But supposing the garrison reaches the town without difficulty, as provided by the treaty, the town will undoubtedly be attacked and lost, as there is no force to relieve it and no sign of one being prepared; moreover the emperor could give the Infanta or the Duke of Bavaria any instructions he liked for taking the place, and they could always find a pretext to justify their action. If the town fell, it would belong absolutely to the enemy, as it would be too late to make conditions. Further, the king and the English would be exposed to insult and become a laughing stock, as it would be sending men to the slaughter, without any hope of holding the place.
The second means is to prolong the sequestration, to which the Infanta will not consent before learning the emperor's wishes, and it cannot be arranged without raising the whole question of the Palatinate, and that involves laying down arms again and the recall of the troops sent to the States.
The third course is to make the town neutral. This could only be obtained by negotiation with the emperor, through the Infanta, or some other prince, or direct. To use the Infanta, means putting one's hand into the wolf's mouth, and in any other case she would certainly raise obstacles.
Fourthly, the town can treat for itself. This would injure the king's honour, his protection, and the claims of his children, and the deposit in such case would mean simply handing the town over to others.
[Italian.]
Aug. 31.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
559. ZORZI GIUSTINIAN, Venetian Ambassador at Constantinople, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Ambassador of France has said nothing to me about the orders he expected about some compromise with England, about their quarrel over precedence, which would allow all four of us to present jointly to the Sultan the arz which has now been prepared for some time.
The Vigne of Pera, the 31st August, 1624.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Aug. 31.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
560. ZORZI GIUSTINIAN, Venetian Ambassador at Constantinople, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Imperial resident has been negotiating with the Caimecam for a peace. Although the Caimecam has always been ill affected towards the Imperial side and a supporter of Gabor, yet at the present moment they are most anxious to maintain peace with the emperor, and not to endanger it for Gabor's sake. The ambassador of the States, by orders from home, has made every effort to induce them to help Gabor to continue the war. The English ambassador, who is very devoted to the Palatine and knows how much the continuation of the war would serve his interests, has frequently written to his king for orders to the same effect, but as his Majesty was at that time engrossed in his hopes for a match with Spain, he did not listen to him. Now the match is broken off and they have decided in England to help the Palatine, that king would like the continuation of the war. That cannot be, unless the Turks help Gabor, and the ambassador does not find them so inclined for this as he would have found them before.
The Vigne of Pera, the 31st August, 1624.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Aug. 31.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
561. PIERO CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador at Rome, to the DOGE and SENATE.
They are expecting a priest from France, sent by the king for the dispensation of the English match. His Holiness told me that he desired this marriage if it would tend to the service of the Catholic faith, and if they have arrived at the point where nothing more than his intervention as pope was required, they had only to accomplish it.
Rome, the 31st August, 1624.
[Italian.]
Aug. 31.
Misc.
Cod. No. 63.
Venetian
Archives.
562. GIOVANNI ANTONIO PADAVIN, Venetian Secretary in Germany, to the DOGE and SENATE. (fn. 14)
I spoke to the Chancellor Verda about the pretensions of Spain. He could not refrain from condemning Ognate, but excused themselves on the ground of Caesar's dependence upon the Catholic. He said he was only sorry that the most serene republic claimed equality with the emperor. I replied that your Excellencies did not think this, but only claimed that his Majesty's ministers should not treat your ambassadors differently from the other ambassadors of crowned heads. He went on to say how proper and beneficial would be a league between the emperor and the republic, as thereby the republic would be rendered safe from every one, including the Spaniards, and there would be no further need for any understanding with heretics, and it would put an end to the murmurs one constantly hears against her on that account. The pope would be greatly pleased, and if I gave him leave, he would negotiate with the Prince of Ecchemburg on his return to Court. He could assure me that the emperor was excellently disposed to peace and quiet. I assured him that the republic would make a sincere response, and he might do what he pleased about speaking to Eggenberg, though I could do nothing, He went on to speak of the advantages of such a league, adding that he spoke for himself.
A letter from the Count della Torre to Gabor has been intercepted, the contents of which are attributed to the republic. He laughed over this, and for the rest spoke in the most favourable manner of the republic.
Vienna, the 31st August, 1624.
[Italian; copy.]
Aug. 31.
Misc.
Cod. No. 63.
Venetian
Archives.
563. MARC ANTONIO PADAVIN, Venetian Secretary in Germany, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The intercepted letter of the Count della Torre to Gabor, by what Verda told me, urges him not to make peace with Caesar, refusing to believe that he has arranged one, as announced, as he assures him that a league undoubtedly exists between France, England, Venice, Savoy, the Dutch, the Turks and other powers against the house of Austria, into which he can enter when he likes, and exhorting him not to throw away such a fine opportunity, so advantageous to himself, and that he must on no account accept a peace, as your Serenity in particular will supply him with help, a thing that convinces them that the republic is at the bottom of the whole business.
Vienna, the 31st August, 1624.
[Italian; copy.]

Footnotes

1 On August 5th, old style, the anniversary of the Gowrie conspiracy, James was at Burley on the Hill, co. Rutland, the seat of Buckingham. Nichols: Progresses of James I, iv, page 985.
2 He died on the 30th July, old style, of spotted ague at Kirby in Corby Hundred, co. Northampton, G.E.C. Complete Peerage,
3 Rusdorf's interview with Conway took place at Althorp on the 10th and 11th August, new style. Rusdorf: Memoires, i, pages 333–340.
4 It seems clear from this that the "sylvan masque" was Ben Jonson's "Pan's Anniversary," and that it was performed at Buckingham's residence of Burley on the Hill in Rutland, on the 5th August, old style, the anniversary of the Gowrie conspiracy. Nichols: Progresses of James I, vol. iv, pages 985–7.
5 Sir William Heydon, treasurer of the troops for the Netherlands.
6 The Mary Rose. Birch: Court and Times of James I, vol. ii, page 465.
7 Sir William Heydon, treasurer of the troops for the Netherlands.
8 Preserved among the State Papers, Holland, for August, 1624. It is a pamphlet of fifteen pages, entitled "Waerachtig Verhael vande Tijdinghen gecomen wt de Oost Indien, met het Jacht ghenaemt de Haze, in Junio, 1624, in Texel aenghelandt."
9 Charles d'Espesses.
10 The terms of the treaty are printed by Aitzema. It was signed on the 5th of June, old style, at London, the treaty with France was signed at Compiègne on the 10th June. Aitzema: Saken van Staet en Oorlogh, vol. i, pages 278–290.
11 The ship was the St. George, of 500 tons. See Cal. S.P. Dom., 1623–5, pages 313, 318, 324.
12 Wotton was elected Provost of Eton on the 24th July, old style. Mr. Pearsall Smith states that the stipend and allowances of the provost came to about 140l. a year (Life and Letters of Sir Henry Wotton, vol. i, page 204), but there were various perquisites to add to this value.
13 A Game at Chess, by Thomas Middleton. It is printed in Mr. Bullen's edition of Middleton's works, vol. vii, pages 1–135. The leading characters are thus identified: the White King, James; the White Knight, Charles; the White Duke, Buckingham; the Fat Bishop, Dominis; the Black Knight, Gondomar. Salvietti, writing on the 23rd August, says that the players gained 300 gold crowns at each performance. Brit. Mus. Add. MSS. 27962c. M. Jusserand says that it was Gondomar who complained and had the representations stopped (Literary History of the English People, vol. iii, page 442), but Gondomar had left England in June, 1622, and the complaint was made by his successor, Coloma.
14 This and the following entry are printed in Zwiedineck—Südenhorst: Die Politik der Republik Venedig während des Dreissig zährigen Krieges, vol. ii; Beilage, iv, page 220.