Venice
December 1624, 16-31

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

Year published

1912

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513-527

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'Venice: December 1624, 16-31', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 18: 1623-1625 (1912), pp. 513-527. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=88925 Date accessed: 25 July 2014.


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December 1624

Dec. 16.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
703. MARC' ANTONIO MOROSINI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
News arrived here that Mansfelt was at Dover and ready to cross the sea soon. This is not confirmed, but they are assured that the English king wanted the count to give a written promise that he would not attack the dominions of the King of Spain in Flanders on his way through. This is very ill received here and has filled everyone with disgust (stomaccato).
Paris, the 19th (sic) November, 1624.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Dec. 16.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
704. MARC' ANTONIO MOROSINI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
A gentleman of the Marshal Crichi has returned here who was sent to Susa with letters of the English Ambassador Wake for the King of Great Britain. I find that he asked that king for armed ships, and received every satisfaction and ample promises provided they would pay for them.
Paris, the 16th December, 1624.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Dec. 16.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
705. MARC ANTONIO MOROSINI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Earl of Carlisle has just been to see me and tell of his expected journey to England the day after to-morrow. To-day he is expecting a gentleman of his prince's chamber, with a complimentary letter for the king and a love-letter for the bride. He should also bring orders for the ambassador to go to London and make an oral report to the king, telling him what they may really expect from this crown for the common service. He told me that he would speak very plainly to the king, the Queen Mother and all the ministers before he left, to obtain some solid and permanent resolution upon which his master might build his own. He assured me that if they will only do their duty here, the moment will have come to overthrow this Spanish monarchy, which so greatly disturbs the universal quite and liberty.
He further told me that in England Mansfelt had received two months' pay in advance, a gift of 80,000 crowns for his ill fortune and his expenses to the time of embarking, which should take place at the end of the present month, more time having elapsed than they expected, because the king wished the soldiers to be chosen as if for himself.
Paris, the 16th December, 1624.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Dec. 16.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
706. ALVISE CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Duke of Brunswick will leave for England as soon as the wind is favourable, in the hope of obtaining the Order of the Garter and entering France with Mansfelt or independently to command the cavalry levied in that kingdom.
One Ringral arrived yesterday from England, reporting that Mansfelt should now be at Dover. He has obtained a command of horse and has come to levy them.
The Hague, the 16th December, 1624.
[Italian.]
Dec. 18.
Collegio,
Secreta.
Esposizioni
Principi.
Venetian
Archives.
707. Relation of the Secretary Scaramelli of the compliment paid in the public name to the new English ambassador, it being impossible to meet or receive him owing to the vacancy in the dogeship.
I went yesterday morning to visit the English ambassador at his house at San Geremia in Ca Zeno, and told him I had come on behalf of your Excellencies, who had only heard of his arrival late on the preceding evening. (fn. 1) You regretted that owing to his arrival late at night at Chioza and his early departure the Podesta had not the time to show him those marks of esteem and honour which you desired. Owing to the vacancy in the dogeship you could not do what is customary upon such occasions, but you offered your regard and service and your congratulations upon his safe arrival in this city and on his good health.
The ambassador said he thanked your Excellencies for sending me and for the offers made to him. He had arrived late at Chioza on purpose and started very early in order to avoid all impediments which might have hindered his journey. He would await the commands of your Excellencies for his first audience. He added that he had come with a mind intent upon serving the republic in all contingencies in conformity with the wishes of his king and the orders given him by his Majesty.
MODERANTE SCARAMELLI, ducal notary.
[Italian.]
Dec. 20.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
708. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Ambassador Villeocler has arrived in this city and met with a hearty reception, being defrayed and entertained with the king's own guards and officials; but he refused this perhaps in order not to commit France to the same obligation, as they have so far refused to treat the English so, even though asked. The king sent the Secretary Conovel on purpose to visit the ambassador and to open other negotiations, but while acknowledging the favour of the visit he refused to treat about anything except to carry out his commissions about the marriage. The two ambassadors left subsequently to see his Majesty, who proceeded to Cambridge in order to receive them more royally and conveniently. The whole council and many leading noblemen proceeded to the same place to render the Court more magnificent, and the Council to be present at the publication and swearing of the articles, but no one believes that his Majesty will ratify or swear elsewhere than in this city. I think it best to reserve my judgment till after the event. Before leaving the ambassadors visited the chapel set apart for Madame; but the Catholics will not rejoice about any care for religion or for themselves. The ambassadors hope that Madame will reach this city by carnival time, but I fancy that her arrival will happen later, because the necessary matters are not yet ripe. They judge that the dispensation will be arranged by now, although they fear that the pope may add safeguards that it will not be granted unless the two kings take oath and the Catholics are assured of the execution of their advantages.
They speak about the Duke of Buckingham's journey and that he may take part in the betrothal and nuptials in the character of ambassador for the king and proctor for the prince, but the return of the ambassadors and the arrival of the Court will bring certitude upon what has been arranged.
I find, however, that they have agreed to postpone the parliament for four months, namely, till June. This has not yet been announced, but the French, in particular, know about it, and desire the completion of the nuptials beforehand and that Madame shall be first established in this kingdom, as they fear at the beginning the dangerous consequences of the liberty of parliament.
The Count of Mansfeld is pushing on his provision of houses for the soldiers and of bread and beer from those who guarantee him so much from this island, and they have arranged for him to have as many ships as he needs, if one does not suffice for the passage. The soldiers and captains show some discontent at the very outset, owing to their hardships from the weather, but also because they think they have very slender assurance of their pay, as Mansfeld promised the same payment that the English enjoy in the Netherlands, having arranged this with his Majesty, but without the conveniences of the country they are sure that they cannot subsist. Some of the Lords of the Council of War have assured me that Mansfeld's treatment arranged by the king is not for a fixed time, but month by month. This would not correspond with the six months proposed by France, but possibly the Council does not know all, as everything is decided by the trio—the king, the prince and the duke. I am assured on good authority of their intention to prepare a large naval force. Their real objects cannot be certain, but as inducements they have the safety and reputation of these realms, the argument of having done so before and the maintenance of peace and quiet in Ireland, while the English can carry out nothing with vigour except by equipping a fleet.
When Mansfeld is despatched they will make the necessary provision for Ireland to guard against all attempts and repress any internal disturbance. From suspicions started by Mansfeld they state that Bavaria has ordered Tilly to proceed to the Netherlands to oppose him, that Cordova is making forced levies in and about Artois, and that in Flanders they have arranged troops of horse, troops of the quality of the men at arms in Italy. They add that Bavaria has published a relation of events inculpating the Palatine, saying there is no accommodation and denying that he negotiate at this Court through the Capuchin, with other particulars.
Apparently the Palatine is preparing an answer, because his agent has instructions to collect all that passed at this Court with the friar. The same agent laments the carelessness of this Court; that they have not yet communicated officially their resolutions to his master, and have made no reply by letter or messenger to the offices of the princes of Germany. He urges that France and England should send a mission to encourage them at this favourable opportunity, as there are negotiations and some hope of union among the Protestants.
The people of Dunkirk have taken a Dutch ship crossing, full of troops, notably some English officers of the Earl of Oxford. It is said that they will have to pay a heavy ransom. It is announced that Inoiosa has been admitted by his Catholic Majesty. They refer to it contemptuously.
The gentleman of the Marquis of Crichi left for the constable. I have not succeeded in ascertaining his mission, but the Secretary Conovel told me generally that the constable had confided the entire relation of the things, that the most serene republic did not like this undertaking; that your Excellencies should contribute; that in England they are ready to do everything. I would not affirm that the affairs would be referred to another time or to perform with other parties interested in the common cause. I pretended to have no information about the present affair in order to get information and expressed my assurance that your Excellencies would work for the common safety. The French ambassadors have no information on this subject.
London, the 20th December, 1624.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Dec. 20.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
709. To the Ambassador in England.
We think fit to send you word of the progress of the league in the Grisons, to use for the advantage of our service. The allies have taken Sterch and proceeded to Coire, pushing into the Engadine and taking Poschiavo and Platamala. At the news the archducal forces abandoned the fort Valmonestier and Minatolo, and thus Rhetia was delivered from the Austrian yoke amid the blessings and acclamations of the people. The league's army then proceeded to Tirano, where the place surrendered in two days, but the citadel held out and was immediately besieged. Our Proveditore General at once sent six guns with plenty of our infantry and cavalry. At the sight of these the Marquis of Bagni began to parley and surrendered on terms on the 11th inst. Two days before the Duke of Feria sent Cerbelloni into the Valtelline with 2,800 foot and 400 horse, who advanced to Sondrio to help Bagni, but thought it best to withdraw. It is reported that they propose to secure Chiavenna and Riva. The people of Sondrio have already expressed their readiness to accept the same terms granted to Tirano, although the citadel seemed inclined to resist. Such is the good progress of the league. Everything has been done with great moderation.
The like to the Hague, Constantinople, Germany, Spain, Naples, Florence and the General in Dalmatia.
To England add:
Mr Wake, his Majesty's ambassador, arrived here unexpectedly two days ago, (fn. 2) having passed through Chioggia by night. We presented our respects by a member of the chancery and offered our excuses for not having shown him the usual honours because we did not know of his coming. We sent him some refreshments because in the vacancy of the dogeship his public entry must be put off for some days. We shall take every opportunity of showing him honour.
Ayes, 135.Noes, 0.Neutral, 3.
[Italian.]
Dec. 20.
Collegio,
Secreta.
Esposizioni,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
710. The Ambassador of his Most Christian Majesty came into the Collegio, assembled in the Sala ovata, and said: I should not have troubled you with this visit, but I know you will be glad to have this good news of a friendly king. His Majesty commands me to inform you of the arrangement of a marriage between Madame, his sister, and the Prince of Wales, diversities of interests and religion being finally settled. The Most Christian has obtained freedom for the Catholics who attend upon Madame in England and that all Frenchmen shall enjoy the same liberty in passing through England. His Majesty is also on the alert for a diversion in Germany and the Count of Mansfeld, the troops of England and France forming a force of 18,000 foot and 4,000 horse, and his Majesty has contributed the first payments.
Councillor Michiel expressed their great joy at the news of the marriage arranged between Madame and the English prince. They augured the best consequences to those two crowns which the republic esteemed so highly.
[Italian.]
Dec. 21.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
711. That the Ambassador of his Most Christian Majesty be summoned to the Collegio and the following read to him: We thank his Majesty warmly for informing us through your Excellency of the marriage arranged between Madame, his sister, and the Prince of Wales. From an alliance between two such great crowns the most happy results may be anticipated, with advantage to all Christendom, and, it affords us the most complete happiness. We beg you to convey our sentiments to his Majesty in the warmest possible manner, as we have instructed our Ambassador Morosini to do.
Ayes, 132.Noes, 0.Neutral, 3.
[Italian.]
Dec. 21.
Collegio,
Secreta.
Lettere.
Venetian
Archives.
712. To the King of France.
Congratulations upon the marriage arranged between Madame, his sister, and the Prince of Wales, which increases so greatly the general hopes for liberty and the public quiet, with thanks for the communication. The Ambassador Morosini will express their sentiments more fully.
[Italian.]
Dec. 21.
Collegio,
Secreta.
Lettere.
Venetian
Archives.
713. To the Queen Mother and Queen Regnant.
M. d'Allegri, who has come to reside as ambassador, has informed them of the marriage between Madame and the Prince of Wales. This happy event has caused them the utmost content, which they wish to express to their Majesties.
[Italian.]
Dec. 21.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
714. GIERONIMO PRIULI, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Yesterday a report got about that the Marquis of Calus would go as ambassador extraordinary to England to offer congratulations upon the marriage recently arranged for the Prince of Wales; but the duke had a serious interview with his eldest son, lasting an hour, and apparently the appointment will be given to someone else, and the marquis will go to the frontier of Milan to command the troops for the league. The marquis himself told me this.
Turin, the 21st December, 1624.
[Italian.]
Dec. 21.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
715. LUNARDO MORO, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The French ambassador recently received orders from his king to inform their Majesties of the arrangement of a marriage with the Prince of England, to take place immediately. On the following day the whole of the royal house put on gala clothes with every outward sign of rejoicing. Yet they still cherish some hope that Rome will cause difficulties or at least delays over the dispensation, although I hear from another quarter that on the 10th prox. the Most Christian will take his sister to the coast, where the Prince of Wales will go to receive her. In spite of this, Gondomar says he will go there, but he seems to go like a snake to the charm. The day is not yet fixed and he proposes to go by Italy and Germany. He cannot get there very soon and events might easily prevent him going.
Madrid, the 21st December, 1624.
[Italian.]
Dec. 22.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian.
Archives.
716. GIERONIMO PRIULI, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The duke has decided to send the Marquis of Calus with Prince Thomas to Paris for his marriage to Mademoiselle de Soissons. The marquis told me that he will go on to England to offer congratulations in the duke's name to the king and prince upon the marriage arranged with the sister of the Most Christian.
Turin, the 22nd December, 1624.
[Italian.]
Dec. 21.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Firenze.
Venetian
Archives.
717. VALERIO ANTELMI, Venetian Secretary at Florence, to the DOGE and SENATE.
If it is true that they want to collect a fleet at Villafranca to prevent the Spaniards from crossing the sea, they may easily make another at Civitavecchia, not only to prevent but to attack.
Count Sforza has been sent to Bavaria, begging him to send men from his army to Flanders to resist any attempts which the English under Mansfeld may make, for although the King of England says that these troops will respect the Infanta's dominions they do not believe it.
Florence, the 21st December, 1624.
[Italian.]
Dec. 22.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
718. MARC ANTONIO MOROSINI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The bride will leave here for England on the 15th of next month, according to the arrangement made with the gentleman who recently came with letters from the Prince of Wales.
Paris, the 22nd December, 1624.
[Italian.]
Dec. 26.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
719. To the Ambassador in England and the like to the Hague.
The ordinary arrived this week without your letters. As this goes on, we sent for Tassis, master of the posts, to obtain information. Meanwhile you had better send the duplicates through France; they will come safely, if late. As we have nothing to answer, we can only send you the news, which you can use for the common service. The Austrians feared that the Count of Mansfeld might go to relieve Breda. The Infanta sent to Caesar, Baron of Hes, to reinforce the regiment of Spinelli and Collalto in order to reduce Breda before Mansfeld arrived. After the conclusion of the English marriage the Spaniards have heard with dismay of another between the daughter of Saxony and Denmark's eldest son. Rumours of the King of Sweden's arming again and some fear of Gabor cause anxiety in Germany as well as the report of a union among the Protestants arranged by Baden which troubles them greatly. Matters proceed favourably in the Valtelline; on the 19th the forces of the league stormed the citadel of Sondrio, the country having surrendered two days before on the same terms as Tirano. Our artillery proved very useful on this occasion. An inventory has been made of the things found in the citadel. The Spaniards continue to fortify Riva and the neighbourhood of Chiavenna. They are trying to send reinforcements from Trent and to stir up Leopold; that is why we sent our special reinforcements.
To England add:
The French ambassador here has informed us in the name of his king of the conclusion of a marriage between the prince and Madame of France. We made a suitable response, sending letters to the Most Christian and the queen. Our representatives have helped towards this and if confirmation comes from England we will proceed to the offices called for by our esteem for his Majesty and the prince.
The advices to the other courts.
Ayes, 114.Noes, 3.Neutral, 1.
[Italian.]
Dec. 27.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
720. LUNARDO MORO, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Council of State directed the Count of Gondomar to leave for England at the earliest opportunity, but he said he would rather go to prison than on this embassy, matters having come to such a pass that he could do no good. However, he will have to obey his master's will.
The nuncio has heard from Switzerland of the confiscation in the archduke's dominions of goods worth 300 crowns, belonging to the Count of Mansfelt, passing under the name of certain merchants, and among them they found a paper showing the way to capture Alsace. Among the goods were some belonging to an ambassador who came from England. The Ambassador of Germany has the same news, but he says the merchants only want to make people believe that the goods belong to an ambassador.
Madrid, the 27th December, 1624.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Dec. 27.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
721. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The ambassadors of the Most Christian were received at Cambridge with the utmost splendour and on their return to this city they boast of the honours they have received and of having completed the marriage compact. They were first received in public audience and afterwards in constant negotiations. They afterwards obtained the signatures and the requisite oaths at a second audience of a very secret character, his Majesty, the prince, Buckingham and the Secretary Conway being present. All this took place while his Majesty was confined to bed by the gout, which prevented more public demonstrations, to the disgust of the grandees and of those specially deputed for this affair, the deputation having served for show and not for confidential treaty. The ambassadors were entertained at a state banquet, at which his Highness took his father's place; and amid the rejoicings and the music they had dances among themselves, although no ladies were present. At the conclusion of the business Villeocler took leave of his Majesty and received from his own hands a regal present of a diamond worth 20,000 francs. He is awaiting his despatches here and to confer again with Buckingham and the Secretary Conway, so that they may jointly hasten on the preparations and the measures for the Catholics and ecclesiastical affairs before returning straight to France. Some think that there are some difficulties owing to the secret manner of negotiating, but I believe that everything will be carried through promptly unless the dispensation causes delay. I enclose a copy of the articles which I obtained from the French embassy, in case your Excellencies would like to see them, and nothing remains to arrange except the appointments and the numbers of Madame's household.
The ambassadors must have conducted other negotiations for a closer union, and Villeocler did not seem to me so reluctant as heretofore for France to pledge herself in writing. He confirmed the engagement of Mansfeld for six months. The king here also, who was cautious about keeping these troops and the commander month by month has promised verbally to continue for six months, though this does not seem quite certain. I will make further investigations to discover the truth.
Your Excellencies will judge of Mansfelt's affairs by the letters which he writes to me.
The troops are nearly ready to march to their rendezvous at the appointed day. Apparently the reservations made by this king have not pleased France and they have made changes so that the count may pass freely through Flanders, which means touching the dominions of the Catholic king and the Infanta, and the French are devoting their efforts to prevent him from passing through their own country.
They continue their preparations in Flanders; if Spinola has the siege off his hands, whether by success or withdrawal, Mansfelt will meet with strong opposition.
The reports about a naval armament have changed into definite orders to make ready sixty-three vessels, that is thirteen royal, twenty merchantmen and thirty of those which carry coal. The last are vessels of from 200 to 300 tons which sail easily, are ready for the journey, are convenient for carrying munitions, fleet and provided for fighting. The merchantmen will be for from 300 to 400 tons, but well furnished for war. The Chancellor of the Admiralty gives the necessary orders for all the provisions and for paying the hire for six months.
The fact of the Spaniards having a large fleet at sea, although every argument shows that it is destined elsewhere, creates some inducement. There are various opinions about their intentions, either to keep their own realms safe, or to try privateering as on previous occasions, with letters of marque, a resolution eagerly desired by private persons; or else to support some design against Flanders, which would most probably mean not an attack but a threat to obtain some satisfaction.
In all these matters, which may serve to reawaken and encourage them here, I will not fail to express my opinion, and acquire confidence and credit for the good cause.
The rumour of the coming of Gondomar and that he was on the road has died away with the certitude that the cavalcade and litters which passed through France went as a present to the Infanta of Brussels. The Spaniards claim to have pardoned Inoiosa and Colonna because no sign of reciprocity was made from this quarter, as if it had been necessary to do something to the Duke of Buckingham. The office of Lord Treasurer has been given to the Lord Chief Justice, who took the oath at Cambridge and received the staff, according to the usual custom of the officials of this crown. His Majesty has added to the Council of State the Earl of Montgomery, brother of the Chamberlain, both loved and esteemed.
I hope to see his Majesty next week. I have received the ducal missives of the 29th ult.
London, the 27th December, 1624.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Dec. 27.
Enclosed in
the preceding
despatch.
722. LETTER of the COUNT OF MANSFELT to the AMBASSADOR PESARO.
Expects troops from the Netherlands any day, to wit, from Hamburg and Bre. They only require a favourable wind. French forces only waiting for him to cross. They have already received money from what the Most Christian pays the Dutch. Venice expected to make this good. Will always send word of his movements and asks for corresponding confidence.
Dover, the 11/21 December, 1624.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Enclosure.723. LETTER of the AMBASSADOR PESARO to the COUNT OF MANSFELT.
Rejoices that his affairs are prospering so well. The most serene republic will keep all its promises. Hopes the news he will send may prove good.
London, the 14/24 December, 1624.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Enclosure.724. Copy of the marriage articles between France and England, translated from the French into Italian.
(1) The Most Christian undertakes to obtain a dispensation from the pope within three months at latest.
(2) The articles being arranged, the King of Great Britain shall entrust to a person of quality whom he shall select the duty of plighting troth to Madame in the prince's name in the manner customary in the Roman Catholic Church.
(3) The marriage shall be celebrated in France after the manner observed for that of the late king, Queen Margaret and the Duchess of Bar.
(4) Madame shall be brought to England as soon as possible after the celebration of the marriage, at the expense of the Most Christian as far as Calais, where she shall be consigned to the appointed representative of the King of Great Britain, everything being done in a manner befitting the dignity of a princess of the house of France united to the heir of Great Britain.
(5) The marriage being celebrated in France it is agreed that when the lady is arrived in England, a day shall be appointed for the public reading of the marriage contract in a properly appointed room of the royal palace, before the king, the prince and his wife with the powers and proctors whereby it has been concluded, when the contract will again be ratified by the king and prince in the presence of those whom the Most Christian may please to appoint and of the magnates of England, no ecclesiastical ceremony taking place.
(6) The free exercise of the Roman Catholic faith shall be accorded to Madame and all her suite and to the children born to her attendants; for this she shall have a church in the city of London, and a chapel in the royal house in any place of the king's dominions where she may be staying. The church and chapels shall be properly ornamented and their charge committed to whoever the lady appoints. The preaching of the Word of God, the administration of the sacraments, the mass and all divine offices shall be freely performed therein according to the Roman use, and all the indulgences and jubilees that she may obtain from the pope may also be won. A cemetery shall be provided in the city of London for the burial according to the Roman Cacholic rite of any who may die, to be so enclosed that it cannot be profaned. The word chapel to be understood in all cases.
(7) Madame shall have a bishop for her almoner, with the necessary authority in matters of religion and who may proceed against the ecclesiastics under his charge by canon law. If the secular court interferes with any of the ecclesiastics for some wrong, the delinquent shall be handed over to the bishop to deal with by canon law, and in the event of the bishop's absence or illness the one whom he appoints as vicar shall have the same power.
(8) Madame shall have twenty-six priests or ecclesiastics upon the establishment of her household, including her almoners and the chaplains for the said church and chapels, and if any of them is a regular he may keep his habit.
(9) The king and prince shall take oath not to bring any sort of pressure upon Madame to change her religion or bring her to anything contrary thereto.
(10) The household shall be constituted according to the use of England.
(11) All the attendants brought by Madame to England shall be Catholics and French, chosen by the Most Christian, and when they die or are changed she shall take other Catholics and French in their place, or English with the consent of the King of Great Britain.
(12) The attendants shall take oath to the king, prince and Madame.
(13) Madame's dowry shall consist of 800,000 crowns of three pounds each, French money, whereof his Majesty will pay down one half on the eve of the nuptials in the city of London and the other half in two terms, to wit, 200,000 crowns a year after the first payment and the rest six months later.
(14) If the prince die before Madame without issue from the marriage, the money of the dowry shall all be returned, whether she stays in England or returns to France. In the latter case she will bring it with her.
(15) If there are children only two-thirds of the dowry shall be returned, the other third being invested whether she returns to France or remains in England. In the latter case she shall receive income from that third for the children at the twentieth penny.
(16) The children of the marriage shall be brought up by their mother until the age of twelve.
(17) The children after Madame's death shall inherit two-thirds of the dowry, which shall be handed over to them, unless Madame marries a second time and has other children, in which case both families shall share the two-thirds of the dowry.
(18) If Madame die before the prince without children his Majesty agrees that half the dowry only shall be restored; but if there are children all her money shall go to them.
(19) Madame shall have a revenue of 60,000l. of French money well invested.
(20) The King of England will give to Madame in favour of the said marriage jewels to the value of 50,000 crowns, which shall belong to her and hers as her very own.
(21) He will be bound to maintain Madame and her household, and if she becomes a widow she shall enjoy her dowry and the other conditions granted to her.
(22) If the prince dies first, with or without children, Madame shall enjoy her portion in any place that may be assigned to her, with everything becoming a princess of her rank.
(23) Whether she has children or no she shall be free to return to France and take her goods and jewels with her; and in such case the King of Great Britain shall conduct her to Calais in a manner befitting her rank at his own cost.
(24) Madame shall enjoy all inheritances of whatever kind subject to reversion or otherwise.
(25) The aforesaid marriage contract shall be registered at the Court of the Parliament of Paris and ratified in England by the members of Parliament assembled and registered in the usual way, the king and prince promising not to infringe any of the clauses.
(26) Whoever of the two kings fails to fulfil the present marriage shall be bound to pay the sum of 400,000 crowns as the penalty of denial.
Secret article added apart from the Contract.
The King of Great Britain, having regard to Madame's prayers and as a testimony of his affection towards her, grants to his Catholic subjects security of life and property without their being interrogated about the Catholic faith, if they render the obedience which they owe to him; in which it is thought he will not fail, although he does not wish to make any oath or act contrary to his religion.
[Italian.]
Dec. 28.
Misc.
Cod. No. 63.
Venetian
Archives.
725. MARC' ANTONIO PADAVIN, Venetian Secretary in Germany, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Three days ago a courier reached the Spanish ambassador from Brussels stating that the troops amassed in the empire for Mansfelt were making forced marches to meet him, and on the 20th inst. the English army was to land at Calais. Orders were at once sent to Prague to hasten Spinelli. He is still to go to Manstrich, but some say he may afterwards be sent to Burgundy, to enter France in case Milan is invaded. All will depend upon Mansfelt's operations.
Vienna, the 28th December, 1624.
[Italian; copy.]
Dec. 28.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Firenze.
Venetian
Archives.
726. VALERIO ANTELMI, Venetian Secretary at Florence, to the DOGE and SENATE.
From Genoa they send me confirmation of the increase of the fleet at Marseilles by galleons from England, besides their own galleys and ships. The Genoese, in their suspicion, have sent another courier to Rome. They have celebrated festivites for the nuptials between England and France. The moment has proved propitious for the French king, when the English are hot at the offence received from the Spaniards and eager for revenge.
Florence, the 28th December, 1624.
[Italian.]
Dec. 30.
Collegio,
Secreta.
Lettere.
Venetian
Archives.
727. To the Ambassador Priuli at Turin, destined for France.
It having been decided for various reasons to change the cipher. Pietro Dolce, Secretary of the Chancery, will consign to you the key of the new cipher and will afterwards proceed to the ambassadors in France and England and at the Hague for the same purpose. You will use this cipher for the future, giving Dolce a receipt.
The like, mutatis mutandis, to France, England, the Hague and Milan.
That the above charge be conferred upon Pietro Dolce, 200 ducats being given him for the journey and letters of credit on Lyons and elsewhere if necessary for other 300 ducats, making 500 ducats in all.
Ayes, 20.Noes, 0.Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
Dec. 30.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
728. ALVISE CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
They have been discussing here who shall succeed the late Ambassador Caron, and especially that some important papers in his possession may have come to harm as he had no secretary or other person in a public capacity. The Flemish merchants write that they petitioned to have everything sealed, but even this would not remove the doubt that they had been seen and copied.
The Duke of Brunswick has left for England. He expects to receive the Garter and proposes afterwards to join Mansfelt.
Although the Prince of Orange is better, the physicians have advised him not to take part in the christening of the Palatine's son. Accordingly I have sounded the king and queen here and am assured that they would prefer the son of the Landgrave of Hesse and the Earl of Oxford. They have left the choice to me. I have not yet made up my mind.
The Hague, the 30th December, 1624.
[Italian.]
Dec. 31.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
729. MARC' ANTONIO MOROSINI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The French ambassador in Spain has sent a copy of an office passed by the English ambassador with the Catholic, containing a declaration and a protest that Mansfelt's move shall not hurt or touch that king's dominions, with clauses in this office so vile and base as to excite the astonishment of everyone. It has increased the dissatisfaction and disgust of the ministers here, which I reported previously. They do not know what to do or whether they shall allow the count to land, because if he cannot pass through the dominions of the Catholic or attack them, Breda is deprived of succour, the Alsace route becomes impossible and everything exposed to manifest peril. Accordingly they have sent an express to England to learn the final decision of the king and what must be done.
Meanwhile the Spaniards do not remain idle. They have ordered the new levies of Flanders to the confines of Artois, and Count Henry de Bergh is to join them with some veterans to oppose the count the moment he leaves France, and he might even be attacked at landing. The Infanta's ambassador here has argued strongly against granting this passage to the count, trying to help his cause by the feebleness of the English king and his disinclination to help this affair.
Paris, the 31st December, 1624.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]

Footnotes

1 Wake arrived in Venice on Monday, the 16th December. Branthwaite's despatch of the 10/20th December, 1624. State Papers, Foreign, Venice.
2 He arrived on the 16th. See note at page 515 above.