Venice
February 1625, 1-15

Sponsor

Institute of Historical Research

Publication

Author

Allen B. Hinds (editor)

Year published

1912

Pages

571-580

Annotate

Comment on this article
Double click anywhere on the text to add an annotation in-line

Citation Show another format:

'Venice: February 1625, 1-15', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 18: 1623-1625 (1912), pp. 571-580. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=88929 Date accessed: 29 July 2014.


Highlight

(Min 3 characters)

February 1625

Feb. 1.
Misc.
Cod. No. 63.
Venetian
Archives.
789. MARC ANTONIO PADAVIN, Venetian Secretary in Germany, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I have tried to discover what they mean by prejudicial negotiations carried on by your Serenity, and I find they feel certain that besides the league for the Valtelline your Serenity is trying to bring about another with England, Sweden, Denmark and the Protestant Princes for the Palatine, including France and Savoy also.
Vienna, the 1st February, 1624. [M.V.]
[Italian; copy.]
Feb. 3.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
790. ZORZI GIUSTINIAN, Venetian Ambassador at Constantinople, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I have tried to gather something from the Caimecam about the negotiations for a truce with Spain; in conjunction with the English ambassador I have found a way whereby we should very soon know the truth.
The Vigne of Pera, the 3rd February, 1624. [M.V.]
[Italian; deciphered.]
Feb. 3.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
791. ZORZI GIUSTINIAN, Venetian Ambassador at Constantinople, to the DOGE and SENATE.
With the sending of Jusuf Chiaus to Gabor by the Caimecam to persuade him against the Austrian marriage, the English ambassador has reopened negotiations with that prince, (fn. 1) urging him to destroy the peace, especially with the great opportunity provided by the league of the greatest princes in Christendom against the Spaniards and the House of Austria for the recovery of Rhetia and the Palatinate, freeing himself from the hard conditions he had been obliged to accept, and continuing his alliance with the Palatine and his other allies with the hope of marrying a daughter of the Margrave of Brandenburg. Gabor lent an ear to the ambassador's persuasions, and being dissatisfied with the peace he told the Caimecam that he was ready not only to throw over the Austrian marriage, but also the peace with the emperor, adducing the argument advanced by the English ambassador, and he was ready to obey what the Sultan should command. He wrote to the same effect to his intimate Diacmemet and directed his agent here to inform the ambassadors of England, France, Venice and the States. Upon this the English ambassador went with Diacmemet to the Caimecam, while the ambassador of the States also went, finding him favourable to Gabor breaking his peace with the emperor and for suspending the negotiations at Buda between his Majesty and the Sultan, as the Pasha wrote that the Imperialists demanded very high terms.
The English ambassador's object in this affair, as instructed by his king, is not to rouse the Turkish forces against the emperor, as the Caimecam is not inclined to this either, but by quashing the peace with Gabor and suspending the negotiations with the Sultan, to keep the emperor on tenter hooks and compel him to remain armed in those parts, thereby providing a diversion for the Palatinate, which his king proposes to recover.
The ambassador told me all this, and spoke of the advantage the league would derive from such a diversion. He showed me the paper he had given to the Caimecam, which runs much as follows: His king has decided with the help of his friends to recover the Palatinate from the Spaniards and Bavaria, while a league has been formed by France, Venice and Savoy for the recovery of the Valtelline. This provides a favourable opportunity for Gabor to renounce his recent peace with the emperor, which is highly prejudicial to the Sultan's interests, and his Majesty should promise to defend him. Gabor should have a force of 25,000 men on the River Tissa, but without invading the emperor's dominions; and the Sultan should direct his Beglierbei and Sanzachi in Hotia to be prepared to defend him if necessary. Meanwhile Gabor can send his envoys to England, France and the other allied princes as may be required. Simultaneously the Sultan should order the Pasha of Buda to suspend the negotiations for peace with the emperor, saying they must abide by the last made at Situan, which the amdassador contends will be much more advantageous for the Sultan. His Majesty must send to Poland telling them that on no account must they invade Gabor's dominions, to which the emperor may incite them. Lastly he speaks of the rumour of the negotiations for a truce with Naples, through the Jew, because the mere suspicion of such a thing might produce evil consequences.
When the ambassador asked my opinion upon these points, I said that as I had no instructions from your Serenity I could only speak for myself, and I thought it would be an advantage if the Imperial forces could be diverted from the Palatinate and Rhetia in this way if it did not involve harm to Christendom from the Turks. He told me that the French ambassador had said the same thing.
The Vigne of Pera, the 3rd February, 1624. [M.V.]
[Italian; deciphered.]
Feb. 3.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
792. LUNARDO MORO, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE and SENATE.
In addition to the demolition of the forts of the Valtelline, they are anxious here lest the Duke of Savoy may attack the Genoese, upon whose defence they express themselves as most determined, and lest the King of England, impelled by Buckingham and the prince, whose hatred against this crown will become implacable with the accomplishment of the French match, may break openly upon the pretext of the Palatinate. They say that France will commit unfriendly acts, but not go further than they think Spain will tolerate, while England will not behave insultingly but will eventually decide upon open war. Such is the opinion of some who have great experience and who know motives thoroughly. Accordingly Gondomar cannot make up his mind to go on this embassy and the Council here will not constrain him.
Madrid, the 3rd February, 1624. [M.V.]
[Italian; deciphered.]
Feb. 7.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
793. ANDREA ROSSO, Venetian Secretary in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
While I was hoping that his Excellency's indisposition would soon terminate, it grew so much worse that the physicians fear it may last a long while. His Excellency is naturally abstemious, but this damp climate is the exact opposite of what is needed for the recovery of his health. He has a slow fever and a severe catarrh which allows him but little repose. He grew worse for fifteen days, but kept on working although the physicians forbad it. But finally reduced to impotence and forbidden by the physicians to work, his Excellency has bidden me to impart to your Serenity the following events of this Court, as I will now do.
The dispute continues between France and England about Mansfeld's passage. The English fear that France will refuse to do what has already been agreed and evade her obligations, leaving this king alone. Accordingly in order to see whether the hindrances of France are real and legitimate they have sent an individual to that kingdom to spy out the state of affairs and see if the forces destined or promised to Mansfeld are ready. Notwithstanding the negotiations of France the English wish the count to pass to that kingdom; but a decision is suspended, although Mansfeld has been advised to proceed to Holland and excuse himself afterwards, since it is clearly recognised that he cannot take another route without obvious danger of ruin.
The French, in the hope of this king's consent to Mansfeld going to the Netherlands, have caused the arrest of all ships in the neighbourhood of Calais and Boulogne, to use for embarking those troops, and have also requested the States for other ships for the same purpose. The ships of Hamburg could also serve for the same, which to the number of some forty were arrested in the Downs, where they had come to re-victual and await an opportunity of proceeding to Spain. It is esteemed the boldest act that this king has ever committed. They carried a cargo of various apparatus and munitions, all destined for the Spanish Brazil fleet, which will be greatly incommoded for lack of them. They have ordered the unlading of a part of the goods of these ships and a part will serve for Mansfeld's use, though all will be paid for, and the vessels will be stopped to be used.
During the contest for Mansfeld's services he has offered to reduce the revolted Huguenots to obedience. The Cardinal of Richelieu answered that the king appreciates his good-will and his Majesty will always continue to help him and will increase the provisions for employment upon affairs abroad. His Majesty also wrote to the count that he has arranged with the States and the Prince of Orange for his passage, to have everything ready that he needs; but his Majesty desires him to render some good service to those provinces in passing.
They have decided to put off the parliament, which is postponed until the 15th March, old style. This is considered a sign that the marriage will take place soon, although the dispensation is not yet fully decided, or else that they wish to deceive the people by prorogations from month to month. The parliamentarians are asking to meet, with the object of creating the impression that they wish to ratify the marriage, as a beginning necessary for further measures; but their artifice is recognised, which was to break the marriage, in the general opinion, and so they adopted the first plan of postponment. The people do not like this delay at all, thinking that the other good resolutions are deferred, and it is recognised as harmful for the credit of affairs abroad.
The Council has announced the granting of letters of marque to all subjects of his Majesty who show they have suffered loss from the subjects of the Infanta and have not been able to obtain redress; but to cover the design they have announced the same against the Dutch, it being this king's practice to mitigate decisions.
They are providing munitions and food for the naval force, but the soldiers and sailors are not yet found; however, both will probably be pressed as they do with the troops. Owing to these necessities and the shortness of money, they have sent an order to the Treasurer to find 50,000l. sterling, under the king's petty seal, which means that he must find it immediately at all costs, and therefore must avail themselves of every sort of money and income.
The gentleman from Denmark was sent by the English ambassador there with two proposals from that king. One, that having declared that he will act in concert with this king he wants to be sure of action in this quarter, saying that what is done through Mansfeld is not enough. This looks more like fear than a constant resolution. The other asks about the true state of the marriage negotiations with France, and if there are difficulties which may lead to a rupture. The object of the first proposal is to excuse himself from acting on account of the difficulties; the other is to regulate his private interests with the King of Spain, as his merchandise of wood and other things must pass through these waters, and the arrest of the Hamburg ships will serve as an example to him, to regulate their passage about this island, which will always be with trouble and hindrance.
The gentleman of the Count della Torre has left with letters from the prince to his master. He wanted a letter from Mansfelt for Gabor, but the count would not give it, expressing dissatisfaction with his master, and saying that he ought to send to Gabor himself by other means.
As regards the league of Germany, the Protestant princes waver between inclination and fear; the towns will not move and desire the Circle of Lower Saxony to take action, and they would like Mansfeld to have a certain treatment and no longer be guided by chance or caprice. Accordingly they urge France and the king to help their liberties for the equilibrium of Germany; they will do one part themselves, this king should do a second, and the Most Christian the third with Denmark and Sweden; they will be satisfied to unite among themselves and for the crowns merely to help them. Those who manage this affair imagine that France will not oppose these propositions, owing to the previous efforts of Marescot.
The gentleman of Brandenburg (fn. 2) has passed on to the Most Christian. He was at this Court, and considered that England had shown sufficient good intention, although it seemed dependent upon the decisions embraced by France. He decided to write to the Swiss and Grisons, urging them to seize the opportunity, and not suffer these interests to succumb for their own sakes, and also to the States of the Margrave of Baden, all this being conducted by the Palatine's agent.
News comes from Flanders that they are making great provision owing to Mansfeld's preparations. Both sides affect unconcern and say that Tilly will have to turn his forces where the count goes.
The English ambassador resident in Spain advises that when Olivares urged Gondomar to leave for these parts, he refused to move, though making a show of doing so, with a certainty of trickery.
The report of something fresh against Bristol has died away. It was based upon an official going to his country house to order him to render an account of all the jewels taken to Spain; upon which it got about that he was ordered to the Tower.
After I had written thus far the Duke of Buckingham has visited his Excellency and communicated the following particulars: That matters are in such a state that in two months they hope to have a hundred armed ships ready, 10,000 foot and every thing necessary. He is most disgusted with the French, saying they have deceived him by their double dealing about Mansfeld and by their equivocations over their promises, so that through them he risked losing what the Spaniards had never attempted. It was clear that they never meant to carry out this business, as they had sent orders to the coast not to allow the troops to embark. If the king continued in his opinion they would be transported to that kingdom. This affair had endangered the marriage and all the general welfare. He beat about the bush and would not assert that Mansfeld would go to Holland, though with the obligation not to stop on the way, and that otherwise the king's troops would not have to obey him, and this journey is only understood on the assurance that the French will join that force, especially the horse to the English foot; that the Princes of Germany are very well disposed and are labouring with good hope for the union of Sweden and Denmark in the common service. Before informing his Majesty of the decisions about the expenses upon the fleet, he wished to inform his Excellency, with the usual confidence, begging him for secrecy, and saying that, please God, it will be ready to serve the king and the public, and to show these subjects that with or without them his Majesty is in a condition to perform execution; and he hoped he might say that at this moment his king will engage in everything.
His Excellency thanked him, praised his prudence and soothed his bitterness against the French, as the hope of all good is based upon the preservation of the duke and of his right ideas.
His Excellency has received the two ducal missives of the 10th ult. with the copy of the exposition of the English ambassador, but without the copies of the letters of credence advised. The letters came separately, the Master of the Posts at Antwerp reporting that the courier had been robbed in the State of the most serene republic.
London, the 7th February, 1625.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
794. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Congratulations to the new Doge on his election.
London, the 7th February, 1624. [M.V.]
[Italian.]
Feb. 7.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
795. MARC' ANTONIO MOROSINI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The English ambassadors have heard from Mansfelt. He was very perplexed because he had orders from the King of Great Britain to land his force in France, and another from the King of France to take it to Holland; ultimately he proposed to obey the second as being more resolute and because the English king was not constant in abiding by what had been arranged for his passage. Here they consider the matter settled.
The day before yesterday a gentleman arrived from the English prince with jewels of very great price and remarkable beauty for the bride. They are said to be worth 200,000 crowns. Father Berulle is expected in a few days with the dispensation, and then they think the Duke of Buckingham will come over forthwith to celebrate the nuptials for his master. Villocler told me this.
A gentleman has arrived from the Palatine to inform his Majesty of the death of a son of that prince whom his ambassador held at the font.
Paris, the 7th February, 1624. [M.V.]
[Italian.]
Feb. 10.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
796. ALVISE CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Secretary of the late Ambassador Caron has arrived from England bringing word of the arrest of that minister's papers and the action of his relations, to the public prejudice, in trying to prevent their being taken by declaring they were mixed with papers of their own house. He made a statement in the Assembly and perhaps they will not take any steps before M. Joachim has started. They also learning, on the same occasion, of the arrest of some Hamburg ships, going to Spain with munitions for the fleet. The king had the ships unloaded and promised every assistance to the English merchants trading with the Hanse Towns if they were molested on this account, it being clear that the whole cargo was contraband. The Prince of Orange showed me the letters with this news while expressing his wonder as to what could be the object of this great fleet which they are preparing in England.
The English colonels who came here to protest against the decree about the payment of their troops, declare that the money belongs to them, comes from their country and the States have no right to touch it. They won their point and the last payment was made complete. It does not seem quite right, however, and irregularities exist everywhere. This much is certain, the captains and those interested will realise a substantial sum in a few months.
The Hague, the 10th February, 1625.
[Italian.]
Feb. 10.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
797. ALVISE CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
By his last letters from England his Majesty's ambassador has orders to inform the Assembly of the fleet which his king is preparing and ask them to add some ships of their own to strengthen it. The affair is not ripe yet. Perhaps the ambassador will first try to gather the opinion of their High Mightinesses on the subject, and they may want to know its object, upon which there is no little uneasiness and curiosity. If any request is made I shall know of it.
The Hague, the 10th February, 1625.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Feb. 12.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
798. To the Ambassador in England.
We have heard of the visit of the Duke of Brunswick, and direct you to express our esteem to him and enlarge upon our friendship, though you must not commit us. You made a prudent reply to the confidential office of Buckingham, commending his plans for the true benefit of those realms and insisting on the importance of their immediate employment of Mansfeld, at the joint expense of themselves and France. You must insist upon the point of the expense being borne by these two sovereigns to prevent them from making any approach to us for contributions, for which the French ministers have already proposed to ask and for which we would never declare unless the diversion is made in pre-arranged places, as we stated recently.
Ayes, 157.Noes, 2.Neutral, 10.
[Italian.]
Feb. 12.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
799. To the Ambassador at the Hague.
We hear of the claims of their High Mightinesses upon the crowns of France and England. In the present state of affairs we think that tactful negotiation and attempts to gain one's point by suave offices are better adapted than a hard and fast insistence upon obligations to foster cordial relations. You will express this opinion as from yourself, but without bringing in the republic.
Ayes, 157.Noes, 2.Neutral, 10.
[Italian.]
Feb. 13.
Senato,
Mar.
Venetian
Archives.
800. Whereas Giovanni Pesaro has served in many important embassies, and the loss of his brother calls him to return and see to the affairs of his house, for his relief and for the preservation of posterity: that on the first day this Council meets an ordinary ambassador be chosen for the King of Great Britain, under the penalties provided against a refusal to serve.
Ayes, 132.Noes, 32.Neutral, 9.
On the 10th February, in the Collegio.
Ayes, 17.Noes, 3.Neutral, 1.
[Italian.]
Feb. 14.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
801. ANDREA ROSSO, Venetian Secretary in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The ambassador's condition becomes ever worse. I can add nothing to what I have reported or to what the doctors say, but it makes me very sad. I have the following events to report:
The ill feeling and differences about the affair of the Count of Mansfeld of the Duke of Buckingham have been acccomodated, thanks largely to the wise words of his Excellency at the duke's visit, which calmed the threatening storm. After this accomodation the count finally left with a following of 160 ships. His first plan was to go straight to the Netherlands himself with the troops, sending the Duke of Brunswick to France to levy the cavalry; but apparently this was changed to Brunswick having charge of the men while Mansfeld went to Calais to arrange for embarking the French troops, having sufficient ships with those which followed from this kingdom and the ones remaining on the coast of France. If the troops had passed before, even by main force, it would not have suited Mansfeld to yield before he saw the cavalry embarked, as the king here ordered his colonels not to serve and not to obey otherwise. His Majesty continues suspicious, and besides sending the gentleman to see the state of affairs, who returned with a good account, he had to observe the appearance of the fleet on the coasts to report that they were going towards Calais.
These affairs of Mansfeld leave little material at this Court, but your Excellencies will get the news from the proper places. One can, however, add two things. One is a request for more money, which is premature in any case and impossible without holding a parliament. The other that the king complains about the troops, pressed on his account, which they talk of embarking to follow the General as soon as possible, about whose embarcation and progress they talk a great deal and make various forecasts. But the Agent of Bohemia says he is unlikely to make progress, but will establish himself in a friendly country to the detriment and discomfort of all those interested, and failing sufficient money to pay them means making the best of things involving lax discipline, with the certainty of little good.
These Germans differ in their plans and their confidences. They need everything and confide in nothing. The French ambassador, who has very confidential relations with his Excellency, informed him that he had been told from this quarter of the proposals of Germany, apparently attaching no importance to it, because the princes are moving so covertly that one cannot see how to begin. This king wishes to act as the master. He did not deny the favourable disposition of France, but he mingled the notion that a better union with this crown and a closer understanding in Germany should go together, that internal commotions may give good and evil appearances, and his Excellency gathered this set idea that nothing will be done that does not please Rome, as both have talked here of making capital of the pope, more than appearances warrant. In this connection the same ambassador added that Father Verul would have left Rome with the dispensation, but here they do not rely upon the words of France alone, and to settle matters and the duke's journey they are awaiting the return of the Cavalier Guri.
The French have obtained the six ships they asked the king for, and were told they might have any number. Fully provided with apparatus and men it is found that they will cost about 2,000 crowns a month each. On every account they are making preparations for ten of them. Orders have also followed for the naval force, which can hardly be fully supplied without parliament and its subsidies. For this preparation they add that an understanding exists with the Dutch to join thirty ships thereto. If this junction is affected one may hope for the best, but the report that the matter of the Hamburg ships already reported does not please his Majesty, and that they are withdrawn, makes one hesitate to hope. This revelation needs confirmation, as the ships and their cargo were destined for Mansfeld, and the rest to be sold by auction, in order to do no harm and not to commit an act of hostility.
The agreement between the English and the pirates arranged at Constantinople provides for a mutual understanding and not to harm each other. Previously and last year also they made the same arrangement, but the pirates did not observe it and the king did not approve. Apparently his Majesty now consents, and the pirates, threatened by fleets, will be compelled to keep up a good understanding.
A gentleman has come from the Count of Soissons to obtain dogs and horses. The Secretary Baroccio of the Savoyard ambassador in France, met the Count of Mansfeld at Dover upon business of his Highness which has not been discovered.
After a long interval they have buried Caron, late Ambassador of the States, giving him a magnificent funeral. He was buried at private expense in his own parish, according to the will, and the Archbishop of Canterbury said the prayers and funeral oration.
Your Serenity's missives of the 17th ult. have arrived with the duplicates of the 10th. As his Excellency cannot move, he has directed me to go to the Court.
London, the 14th February, 1625.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Feb. 14.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
802. MARC ANTONIO MOROSINI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Father Berulle arrived yesterday evening with a copy of the dispensation. He saw the king to-day and had a long conversation with him, mostly about the pope's complaints over the Valtelline, I am told.
Baroccio has returned from Calais. He saw Mansfelt and his force divided among 120 ships two leagues out. He left on Monday for Flushing, where he proposes to land. There are only 12,000 foot, although they declared there were 16,000, in very bad condition and suffering greatly from seven weeks' idleness; the count proposes to rest at least twenty days after landing. The Ambassadors of Holland and England are always pressing me for money to pay him.
Paris, the 14th February, 1624. [M.V.]
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Feb. 14.
Collegio,
Lettere.
Venetian
Archives.
803. To the Lieutenant of Udine.
One hundred muskets and 60 pikes have been supplied to Captain John Thomas, a Scot, at a cost of 383 ducats 3 lire 8 grossi, under the guarantee of Daniel Nis. You will debit this sum to the Captain.
The like to the Proveditore General on Terra Firma.
[Italian.]
Feb. 15.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Firenze.
Venetian
Archives.
804. VALERIO ANTELMI, Venetian Secretary at Florence, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The newly levied troops have orders to assemble at Namur on the 4th under the command of Don Carlo Colunna to await news of Mansfeld and the English, who had begun to embark on the last days of last month. The Infanta and her ministers in Flanders are very anxious about the passage of these troops and the great gathering of ships at Dover, forming a powerful fleet, the destination whereof they do not know. The mission by the King of England of John Acre (fn. 3) to Gabor, to urge him to take up arms against the emperor once more, causes them no less anxiety.
Florence, the 15th February, 1624. [M.V.]
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 See Negotiations of Sir Thomas Roe, pages 336–43, 350–3.
2 M. Bellin.
3 Sir John Eyre, who had been ambassador at Constantinople. James promised that he should go two months before this date. Rusdorf; Memories, vol. i, page 399.