Venice
April 1625, 7-15

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1913

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1-8

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'Venice: April 1625, 7-15', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 19: 1625-1626 (1913), pp. 1-8. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=89034 Date accessed: 02 August 2014.


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April 1625

April 7.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
1. ALVISE CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Mansfelt has distributed some money to his troops, which has rather increased the discontent than otherwise. The English infantry number some 7,000, but it seems that fresh orders have come from England that they must not meddle with Breda. St. Leger, I understand, was sent by the prince and Buckingham in particular. Besides the matters I mentioned, I hear that he asked for twelve ships to reinforce the fleet his king is preparing. The treaty with the States makes the grant of this request certain, but everything depends upon the money to arm them.
The Hague, the 7th April, 1625.
[Italian.]
April 7.
Show case,
Venetian
Archives.
2. CAROLUS, Dei gratia magne Britanniae, Franciae et Hiberniae Rex etc. serenissimo principi ac DOMINO JOHANNI CORNELIO, Venetiarum Duci, amico nostro charissimo, salutem:
Serenissime princeps ac domine amice noster charissime:
Cum Deo opt. max. visum sit serenissimum potentissimumque Principem Jacobum beatissimae memoriae patrem nostrum omnibus nominibus honorandum, ex hac vita ad coelestes Beatorum sedes evocare Voluimus pro eo necessitudinis et amoris vinculo quod subditis Regnisque nostris cum Serma Republica jam olim intercedit de predicti Sermi Regis patris nostri observandissimi obitu Sertem vestram certiorem non facere simulque rogare ut antiquus iste amicitiae nodus arctius indies firmius que inter nos constringatur. De quibus Serenitas Vestra fusius ex nobili viro Isaaco Wake, Equite aurato prefati Serni Regis patris nostri, nostroque jam apud Sermam Rempublicam Legato intelliget, cui in omnibus quae nostro nomine protulerit fidem adhibeat Serenitas Vestra obnixe ab eadem contendimus, quam diu valere et prospere agere ex animo vovemus.
Data e Regia nostra Albaula die Martii 28° Anno Domini, 1625.
Stis Vrae Amicus charissimus
[Signed]: CAROLUS R.
April 8.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna
Venetian
Archives.
3. LUNARDO MOEO, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I find that they consider the, marriage between France and England very complicated by the conditions imposed by the pope in the dispensation, which doubtless were suggested from here at least to delay if they could not prevent this event. In the hope of upsetting it even now Gondomar proposes to skirt some day soon and if he arrives in time and it is not an accomplished fact, he will beyond a doubt once more make a strong impression upon the mind of the king there.
Madrid, the 8th April, 1625.
[Italian: deciphered.]
April 9.
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
4. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Upon the death of King James they proclaimed without delay the Prince of Wales as King Charles the First, at the age of twenty-four, amid universal applause and rejoicing. Upon the sovereign's death every appointment in the government ceased and there only remained in office the Mayor of London, the constables, who are minor officials of justice, some officials of the crown appointed for life, but who have no more authority than the other titled persons who all, in the brief interregnum, constitute the council of the crown for laws, and order the proclamation of the new king, with an appearance of election and like a parliament ex officio, as they assemble from every quarter and are most anxious not to lose the exercise of this privilege of theirs.
The king was first proclaimed and acknowledged at Theobalds where the council asked his leave, as next heir, to make the necessary deliberation, all the lords present assembled and decided to proclaim him there and afterwards in the city of London with the ordinary ceremonies, and that the king should proceed to that city. All these things happened on the day of the king's death, and after the first proclamation all the lords of the council kissed hands and acknowledged the king as their lord.
On the following day they held a council, the king being present, at which all the staffs of office were distributed. His Majesty confirmed all the ministers, partly in order not to upset the order of things, partly in order to arrange matters according to his good pleasure, because some were confirmed for ever, others, judging by his Majesty's words, until further commission, so that with the confirmation of the first council, the authority of the titled nobility ceases and the whole form of government remains vested in the royal authority as before. At the same time they sent the proclamation to all the towns and places of this kingdom, Scotland and Ireland.
They first discussed, as of necessity and propriety, the funeral of the late king, the confirmation of all the ambassadors abroad, and informing friendly princes of the death and accession.
Recognising the necessity of despatch in the public interests, they have arranged for the funeral ceremonies with all speed, though they cannot take place in less than forty days. They will afterwards attend to the nuptials and the coronation, with the idea of arranging for the king and queen to be crowned on the same day, to ease the expense, which must be very great, amounting to half a million.
With the lapse of all commissions is included that for a parliament; they will arrange for one soon, after the marriage, although some would like it before, in order to hasten the provision of money and break off the marriage. But in this they will pursue their old plans, having already confirmed their goodwill to France and their desire for prompt action on his Majesty's part.
The duke, besides withdrawing his departure, has recalled his servants and horses; nevertheless matters are considered as completed and established and they will only have to change the name in the marriage contract.
Those who look for delays already whisper that in the interests of the Catholics it will be necessary to renew all the acts solemnized by the late king, and the oaths, but this seems to me superfluous, as the present king subscribed to everything as prince.
Every one was watching to see what would happen to the Duke of Buckingham, to observe whether the new king's affection for him was sincere or if it was policy and to note if things change or go on as before. But in his grief and the tears which the duke shed for the loss of his master, his Majesty comforted him, promising that though he had lost one master he had gained another, who would be even more gracious, and that to grieve more would show a want of confidence in him. The king began with demonstrations of esteem at his coming to this city by keeping him with him in the coach as an equal. Afterwards they say that in addition to his other charges he will have the post of first gentleman of his Majesty's chamber. The king has taken his quarters at St. James's, avoiding Whitehall until after the funeral. He ordered that apartments should be provided for the duke over against his own; so this gentleman retains his former influence and estimation, which he deserves for his most courteous manners and his leaning towards the right side. It is thought that his fortunes are better assured by this new prop than by his former credit with the late king, when he might any day experience some rebuff in the uncertainty about the steps to be taken. The enmity of the Spaniards will hurt him less because this king is considered most hostile to that nation, and already we hear of his intention to speak to them by the proper vehicles.
Yet the dead king, to the very last, omitted no signs of his extraordinary affection for his favourite. He also spoke to the prince, ordering all to leave the room shortly before his death. People surmise, since they cannot know, that the king gave his son a paper to read after his death. Some say that he recommended the favourite to him; others that he recommended the custody and preservation of the faith, to which the Archbishop of Canterbury urged him by every possible effort and admonition. Others again say that the king recommended the carrying forward of the plans of the fleet, and his Majesty has already attended to this, because he has ordered despatch. In this most serious event one may say that the general rejoicing prevails over the sorrow of individuals. The uncertainties of the late rule had wearied all men. The assured hope of a proper course and generous resolutions in the new king consoles all right minded men. (In questo accidente gravissimo si puo dire che maggiore sia l'allegrezza universale che il dolore de' particolari. Le incertezze del governo passato havevano stancato tutti gl'animi. Le certe speranze di buona condotta et di generose resolutions del nuovo Be consolano tutti li buoni.)
The familiars and the Scots have lost hope of profiting by the prodigality of this prince and above all the Catholics lament, fearing that the king will not be so indulgent, indeed that it will be most difficult to prevail against his religion, as amid these changes, and the necessities of the crown, his Majesty will be compelled to humour his subjects and unite with them in order not to offend the people at the very beginning and to establish his supreme authority more securely. The Catholics felt so strongly that in their private houses they offered prayers for the life of the deceased, and the Spaniards are equally sorrow-stricken because they will not enjoy such facilities of approach or such influence and the power to destroy wise decisions. These cannot be delayed owing to the pressure of actual events and the scarcity of money, which increases with the increase of expenditure, for the funeral, in preparations for sending and receiving ambassadors, in preparations for the wedding and the coronation, upon Mansfelt's force, and upon the fleet which they may hurry on, but cannot send.
London, the 9th April, 1625.
[Italian.]
Enclosure.5. Proclamation of the death of King James and of the accession of King Charles, issued by the authority of the Privy Council.
God save King Charles.
John Gore, Mayor of the city.William, Salisbury.
George, Canterbury.Montgomery.
John, Lincoln, the Lord Keeper.Warwicke.
James Ley, the Treasurer.William, Denbigh.
Henry Mandeville.Charles, Anglesey.
Edward, Worcester.Clare.
George, Buckingham.Kellie.
Arundel and Surrey.Clanricard.
Pembroke.Andover.
Henry, Kent.Henry, Rochford.
Francis, Rutland.Oliver, Grandison.
Thomas, Lincoln.George, London.
Dorset.Richard, Dunelm.
Theophilus Howard.George Baltimore.
Edward Conway.Thomas Edmonds.
Delaware.John Suckling.
Scroope.Robert Naunton.
Charles Stanhope.Albert Morton.
George Carew.Richard Weston.
Francis Broke.Julius Cæsar.
[Italian.]
April 9.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
6. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
As I have not been able to see the king or the duke for many days, I thought I ought not to lose time without proper offices upon current events. I said what was necessary to the Secretary Conway about the late king's death, and it was well received. I also sent a message to the duke, who expressed his thanks and his devotion to the republic.
The Secretary Conway spoke to me of many matters. First, he thanked me in the name of the late and present kings for the confidence you use towards their ambassador, who reports that he could not be more highly favoured. The king has ordered his ambassador and asked me to express his gratification at these favours, that he will be his father's heir in affection for the republic, but will display it more effectively, and they will maintain confidential relations with me upon all the interests of this crown.
I returned thanks, saying it would console your Excellencies for the loss of so great a friend, and we should always show our esteem and affection for a prince, with whose interests our own coincided and whose friendship we valued so much. We were glad to deal with so worthy and experienced a minister as the ambassador, and I enlarged the more in his praises because he is a close relation of Conway.
We went on to discuss the ambassador's journey to the Swiss, about which he said they had not yet decided anything, as the king's illness and death prevented. He suggested that they ought to decide soon and rather favoured the journey, but he gave me no sort of certainty. I encouraged him, saying that to enhearten the Swiss by his Majesty's authority could not fail to prove useful, the more so because the Catholics constantly go farther and help the Spaniards against the public cause; to provide a distraction for the enemy's forces in several directions will help the other side and benefit the common interests, making victory certain. I made him appreciate in particular that success in Italy meant success in the other designs and especially in those of this crown.
We went on to the affairs of Constantinople, which led him to speak of the. matters of which your Serenity advised me. He told me that the negotiations for a truce and an understanding between the Turks and the Spaniards was not absolutely confirmed, but seemed likely, and the king's ambassador had instructions to treat about it with the Venetian bailo. He said fresh advices had arrived and he would take an opportunity of showing me the very letters written to the king. I told him that the bailo had orders to maintain confidential relations with the ambassador in all this business, and said we should try to upset these plans. He said he would tell his Majesty every particular; the ambassador was a very able man of the finest erudition; to upset these plans will be useful, but your Serenity must send instructions to encourage Gabor, uphold his interests at the Porte and see that he does not make or maintain peace.
From this we proceeded to general remarks about the king's prudence and generosity. He said he would undoubtedly take good decisions; it was unfortunate that so many things crowded together and the season was advanced. He was not ashamed to condemn the liberality of the late king, who had left no money. The funeral must take place first, which needs time, and then the marriage, parliament meeting afterwards, upon which supplies depend, but the king is determined upon some firmer resolution.
I said that amid the court celebrations they could arrange the preparations which would enhance the glory and reputation of the new king, so much depending on the promptness and power of his decisions. France was committed to arms and must be encouraged not by offices but by preparations in this quarter. Such an opportunity should not be lost, and those interested will work the harder when they see them engaged here in a matter which concerns them most. Germany can only breathe through a declaration from this crown and much depends upon the impression created by his Majesty at the outset. No prince ever had a better opportunity of surpassing his predecessors.
Conway agreed. He told me they would support Mansfelt and hurry on the fleet. They have confirmed the ambassadors to Denmark and Sweden and their commissions. I clearly perceive that they will continue what has teen begun and that little new has been arranged.
The secretary spoke to me of the prisoner Philips, saying the laws did not allow of his close confinement any longer. Without instructions I could only say I thought they should wait till the answer came; but I fear I cannot prevent his release, though it matters little seeing that the cipher is changed; but he expects some recognition.
The Lord High Admiral learns that the Dunkerkers have taken four English ships in the Downs, laden with merchandise. If this prove true it will rouse his Majesty's wrath.
The French ambassador has received money to pay the ships granted, with instructions to serve against anyone soever, except this crown, but the masters and owners declare that if they thought they would be employed against the Huguenots, they would not undertake to serve.
The Archbishop of Canterbury, during the late king's life, wished to take proceedings against those concerned in the conversion of the Marquis of Hamilton, but the French ambassador prevented this by powerful influence on the pretext that they must not cast a slur on the memory of the deceased. Accordingly the archbishop has decided to publish a book praising the marquis as a Protestant, so far does religious passion go.
At the moment of the king's agonies or shortly before, Aston arrived, who was ambassador at the Catholic court. What he brings has not transpired, but they do not think he knows all the plans about Gondomar's coming or what the Spaniards intend.
This despatch will reach your Serenity through the Ambassador Wake, to whom they have sent a courier with news and a letter for you. I remain indisposed and without letters from Italy, but I am already preparing very costly mourning for myself and all my household.
London, the 9th April, 1625.
Postscript.—Your Excellencies will vote me a provision for extraordinary expenses, and for forwarding the enclosed letters recommended to me by the Palatine's agent, to whom I could not refuse this small favour.
[Italian: the part in italics deciphered.]
April 9.
Collegio,
Ceremoniale.
Venetian Archives.
7. The English ambassador came to the doors of the Collegio and intimated his desire to introduce an agent of the Prince Palatine. (fn. 1) The latter entered the Collegio and stopped at the foot of the steps of the tribunal; they made him cover, as arranged, treating him like other agents of princes. On the prince's letter being read, in which he is called his chamberlain, the doge with the consent of the Collegio, sent him to sit among the Savii of Terra Ferma, and after he had left they decided to present him with refreshments to the value of fifty ducats, in equal halves on separate days.
[Italian.]
April 11.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
8. MAKC ANTONIO MOROSINI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The English knight, Gorino, left the day before yesterday to go and fetch Buckingham, but the reports about the serious illness of the English king change everything and they say already that Buckingham will not come now, if this is true, but that they will send a proxy to the Duke of Chevreuse, as a kinsman of the King of England, to espouse Madame and take her to England. This would please them greatly here in their shortness of money, as they perceive quite well that the coming of the prince must occasion this crown great expense. His Majesty has already arranged for the purchase of jewels as presents to the value of 150,000 crowns, including a circlet (cintiglio di capello) worth 80,000.
The favourite Barrada (fn. 2) enjoys more and more of his Majesty's esteem and affection, who has given him the post of first esquire, bought for 140,000 crowns from M. de Lioncourt, Schomberg's son-in-law, who gave it up because the king, of his absolute power, desired it, to Schomberg's mortification. Everyone predicts for Barrada the fortune of the late Constable Luynes, as he seems to be following the same course and the king favours him in the same way.
Paris, the 11th April, 1625.
[Italian.]
April 12.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
9. PIERO CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador at Rome, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Since the arrival of the courier from France about the dispensation for the English marriage, Bethune has frequently met with Magalotti and the other cardinals deputed for the same affair and finally they removed the last difficulties which apparently the English had raised about some conditions of the dispensation, which was taken to France by Father Verul, and yesterday Bethune sent an express to inform his Majesty about it.
Rome, the 12th April, 1625.
[Italian.]
April 14.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
10. ALVISE CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
We have an English ambassador named Spens on his way to Sweden. He has not come here but remained at Delft. He has treated with the Ambassador Carleton, some of the States, the Palatine and his ministers about the league I have described. They continue in their good intentions, although there are many difficulties and they move slowly.
Possibly the death of the King of England, reported generally here, though the queen and the ambassador have not heard officially, may give vigour to these affairs, and the good opinion of the new king augurs well for greater resolution. The States, meanwhile, have granted guns and munitions to Denmark, but will not send them before they hear that he has taken the field.
The Hague, the 14th April, 1625.
[Italian: the part in italics deciphered.]
April 15.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Cost antinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
11. To the Ambassador and Bailo at Constantinople.
Your letters inform us of the efforts of the ambassadors of England, France and the States to persuade Prince Gabor to annul the peace with the emperor and to convince the Caimecam that this would benefit the Porte, and their requests to you to help. If the Turks and the prince are convinced by their arguments our republic will profit, especially as it will relieve us from anxiety in Friuli. You will therefore assist these transactions with due caution and circumspection.
Ayes, 119.Noes, 2.Neutral, 5.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 Heinrich von Teoknau.
2 Francois de Baradas.


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