Venice
May 1625, 23 - 31

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1913

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48-66

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'Venice: May 1625, 23 - 31', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 19: 1625-1626 (1913), pp. 48-66. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=89038 Date accessed: 02 September 2014.


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May 1625

May 23.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
69. MARC' ANTONIO MOROSINI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The king still remains in bed. The day before yesterday they let blood and to-day he has taken medicine. The swelling in his throat, which is a kind of quinsy, diminishes very slowly, and every other day it causes a slight quickening of the pulse and fever. The Queen of England has delayed her departure for this cause, and although everything is ready she will not move before the king is quite well again, as it is not reasonable that all the queens should go away leaving him ill in bed. It is said that this accident may prevent his journey, but everything remains uncertain as yet.
The constant rain and the melting of the snow on the mountains has swollen the river to such an extent that it has flooded the roads and some parts of the city in the quarters of St. Victor and St. Marcel, a small deluge causing some mortality and a great loss of goods and property.
Paris, the 23rd May, 1625.
[Italian]
May 24.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
70. To the Ambassador in France, and the like, mutatis mutandis, to the other Courts and the Proveditori General.
The Duke of Feria has a large force and the Catholic and the Genoese have supplied him with large sums of money. Nevertheless the successes of the Duke of Savoy and the constable must make him very anxious, and he moves very slowly and deliberately, despite the pressure of the Genoese, although he has finally started for Alessandria. The Duke of Guise's fleet has arrived at Villefranche to the encouragement of the whole army of Savoy and the constable. On the other side we hear that Captain Riviera, captain of the galleons to guard Vizcaya, has orders to send more of them through the Strait to join the Spanish fleet in these seas, according to some to attack us in the Gulf, to others to guard Genoa, but actually to go where they may need him most. In these circumstances the French reinforcements expected by the constable will arrive most opportunely. The news of the Duke of Savoy's successes at Savignon and the capture of General Doria will have already got abroad. We hear that Feria proposes to go to le Cassine, in Monferrat, on the way to Nizza della Paglia. In Germany the news of the decisions and negotiations between France and England and other princes has caused the Austrians much uneasiness, especially with the present change of government in England and the preparations of Denmark, providing an indication of what results to expect.
We send this to use for the advantage of our service as your prudence may suggest.
Ayes, 151.Noes, 0.Neutral, 3.
[Italian]
May 24.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
71. MARC' ANTONIO MOROSINI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
To-day his Majesty is to see the cardinal legate privately, the audience being appointed for three o'clock in the afternoon. The king will receive him in bed, where he still remains, although free from fever or other ill.
When least expected, the news suddenly spread in the Louvre this morning that the Duke of Buckingham is coming and will reach Paris this evening. The Duke of Chevreuse went immediately to take leave of the king and go and meet him, and the English ambassadors started at once for the same purpose. The master of the ceremonies is to go to St. Denis after dinner to receive him. I shall follow the example of the other ambassadors, rather exceeding than otherwise in showing honour and courtesy to such a powerful minister, as it may serve the common cause best at this time to do so, though I shall not forget the dignity of the republic.
Paris, the 24th May, 1625.
[Italian]
May 24.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
72. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I had a special audience of his Majesty about the free unloading of wheat in the Levant. The king heard me graciously and said it did not seem reasonable to prohibit this convenience; he had never heard a word on the subject, as trade was free they ought not to change it.
I said it was not a question of trade but of not changing things; your Serenity acted out of respect for his Majesty and to prevent evil consequences. The wheat was the usual food of the people and I did not believe that his Majesty would take away our food. Your Serenity felt certain of this favour and I need not perform a lengthy office.
The king replied that he would take information and try to satisfy the republic, assuring me of his affection. We went on to news from Italy, which he is always glad to hear. He told me he was sorry to learn that difficulties had arisen between the Duke of Savoy and the constable about the garrisons of the fortresses. I did not know what to say but remarked that everyone should do his duty. The king showed me almost openly that he did not want the French to make gains but would rather see the aggrandisement of Savoy.
The duke and the Secretary Conouel spoke to me to the same effect. They gave me courteous replies about the Levant troubles with promises to satisfy your Excellencies and dispose the king to grant my requests. Conouel, being caught in a good humour, said it was due to me that your Serenity should deal graciously with the Ambassador Wake.
He told me that the king is sending to Denmark 46,000l. sterling, namely, 16,000l. for the levies and 30,000l. for pay; that 120 ships will be ready and can soon effect something useful, suggesting the west, and under the Palatine's name. He spoke of the king's generosity and the heavy burden he is preparing to bear, giving details of the expenditure upon Mansfelt, Denmark and the fleet, which he declared would exceed 300,000l., and that the monthly payments would amount to 80,000l. sterling for each month. I lauded his Majesty's generous actions and commended the secretary himself for his prudent advice. The king's expenses would bring him glory abroad and the affection of his subjects, who will supply with more alacrity the greater his Majesty's demands.
I induced him to speak of other particulars. They have promised they will continue to support Mansfelt; the French give a similar promise but the king has ordered his ambassadors to obtain full confirmation from the Most Christian. He told me that Mansfelt has orders to obey the Palatine but to serve the common cause, and they offered him troops, paid at his own rates. He told me further that the States may join twenty ships to the king's fleet, but the arrangement is not yet definite. The king will want 2,000 veteran soldiers in exchange for new levies. Other slight difficulties are now being removed. I led him on further to say that they are making sea fortifications at Dunkirk. All the provinces of Flanders are contributing to a fleet to secure traffic between Spain and Flanders by sea. He added: If France will follow us, we shall do well. He said it would be better to attack Flanders than to capture the Palatinate, but the two crowns might agree to confine themselves, France to land operations and England to naval action. Such are their plans, although no arrangements have yet been made.
He told me that the number of men who perished of those who crossed to Ireland was smaller. The Spaniards cannot make conquests there, but can stir up trouble. They had found letters from Jesuits inciting some of the malcontents in the name of their Catholic king, as if the king here were not their sovereign. He confirmed a rumour that Inoiosa had written some sort of challenge to the Duke of Buckingham, saying that if he would come to Biscay with the fleet they would receive him gladly. Buckingham replied that if they would only come out a couple of yards to sea he would answer them as they desired.
Such is the substance of the confidences of the minister, who is most intimate with Wake.
London, the 24th May, 1625.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
May 24.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
73. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The funeral took place on the 17th having been postponed for the sake of the preparations and because the royal bride delayed her departure from France, though she should now be on the road. The king and court are ready to travel to meet her, though people speak diversely and perhaps they have not made up their minds, there being some talk of a conference between the Queen Mother of France and his Majesty. News has come by express couriers first of the betrothal and then of the nuptials, with an account of all the ceremonies and a letter from the bride, as the king's wife and Queen of Great Britain. On that day they lighted bonfires throughout the city.
The duke has left for the coast to receive her Majesty at Boulogne with the ships, and proceed to Amiens to pay his respects and learn the wishes of the queen mother. Everything is prepared for the entry into this city, although they will delay the time in order to perfect the apparatus they are making, which will be very costly, both publicly and privately. An additional delay is the postponement of parliament for seven days, so that the bride may reach these islands first and such a pledge may secure the decision about the rest. The coronation has apparently been deferred to September for various reasons, such as the plague and the expense, but perhaps even more the claim of Scotland to come first in order and not agreeing to the union of the two kingdoms.
Men talk of the possibility of his Majesty not being crowned, so as to remain more absolute, avoiding the obligation to swear to the laws and without the discontent of his subjects. The parliament men would wish for this observance, as without it they would consider their laws at the discretion of the king and not dependent on the general public authority; we shall know for certain with the issue (Si discorre che Sua Maestà potrebbe non coronarsi per restar più assoluto, senz'obligo di juramento verso le Leggi, e senza discontento delli sudditi. Li Parlamentarii desiderano questo adempimento, perche altrimente gli pareriano le loro Leggi alla discrettione del Re, e non dipendenti dalla publica generale auttorità; si stara ricevendo sicurtà dall' essito).
The Ambassador di Tremis (fn. 1) has made his complimentary offices. He was welcomed and received a double present of jewels from his Majesty with many honours, as the French enjoy special intimacy with this crown.
The Marquis Fiat remonstrates about the delay of the ships for the Most Christian so strongly that he has taken his passport to leave. They have promised that they shall not make war on the Huguenots but will use them to reduce Soubise to submission and secure peace. The ships have been detained many days and have not yet left the Thames, under two pretexts, one of the sailors, who are waiting for a full tide or the new moon, the other of the owners who want security from the French for the value of the ships in case of loss, as well as the hire.
They have sent the same orders for the Catholics as before with more favourable clauses, specifying some general conditions. But the treasurer, whose duty it is to indemnify the Catholics, raises some scruples and difficulties owing to past expenses.
A good number of artisans are working at the chapel, but it will not be completed unless the queen tarries.
Anstruther has not left for Denmark. They are waiting for the money, saying that they claim security from the king here that it will be devoted to the Palatine, as Denmark desires assurance of continued assistance from this quarter.
The gentleman who went to Holland as reported returned several days ago. They have sent replies to complete the agreement about the ships to join the royal fleet, with exchanges of men, ordnance and other mutual satisfaction.
Quarrels have broken out between Mansfelt and the Ambassador Carleton, and they have sent to his Majesty. The English will support their countryman, and Mansfelt is bound to be at a disadvantage.
The Duke of Neuburg has sent a gentleman with letters of the Most Christian to the French ambassadors for presentation to his Majesty under their protection. The office will be performed with the duke only. He wishes to show that the Catholic king approves the treaty of his duke with Brandenburg and has a promise that the Spaniards will remove their garrisons from the fortresses and the States must do the same. He wants the Most Christian and the king here to approve this, and that all three sovereigns shall see that this treaty is observed. The object of this office is not known. The Agent of the Palatine warns them to be in no hurry as Brandenburg by the advice of the two kings might do much and abandon his good ideas; and there might be some duplicity, to get the States out of the fortresses and then Neuburg would yield his own to the Spaniards and try to impose upon Mansfelt and Denmark not to seize upon any advantage against those states.
Smith, Bishop of Calcedon, an Englishman, has arrived in this city, having been newly consecrated in Paris, to superintend the secular priests. It seems that the Archbishop of Canterbury strongly incited his Majesty against the Catholics, but was told that he had received no harm from them and therefore could not punish, but he would neither favour nor persecute them.
The Dunkirkers made themselves more and more felt at sea. They recently captured a Dutch man or war. They have decided here to send out ten armed ships to secure navigation and prevent mischief. The letters of marque granted by the king against the subjects of the infanta are without reserve. Owing to this and the replies received by the agents we hear nothing of ambassadors from the infanta, to which she was apparently much disposed before.
They keep hastening on the fleet and have brought up the number of sailors to 5,000. They have issued letters for the presses for the 25th inst. in the names of his Majesty's brother and sister, so that the troops, to the number of 10,000, may be at Plymouth, where they will embark, that being the best port for Spain and the Indies.
The Netherlands have sent for Colonel Cecil to command the troops. But it is doubtful who will command all the forces, as the duke has not made up his mind, and will not, so I hear, until Parliament has decided. The duke seems confirmed in the king's favour with his former authority and even greater. His Majesty has given him the noble palace at Chelsea of the deposed treasurer (fn. 2) , who has paid his fine with this and money. Last week I sent no news owing to the state of my health which will never be perfect here.
London, the 24th May, 1625.
Postscript.—The king's agent at Brussels has sent me a copy of the charges laid against Pasini, which I enclose. He is kept strictly confined, the agent not having spoken in his favour as yet.
[Italian]
May 25.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
74. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I have reserved myself to give your Serenity an account of the late king's funeral in a special letter, because a most serious event occurred, contrary to the interests of the most serene republic, which I must describe exactly, while I have not neglected to express resentment befitting the public dignity.
At the risk of my health I remained in this city to please the king and serve your Serenity.
The king having sent me a certain quantity of cloth for the mourning usual at such ceremonies, I took this as an expression of his desire for my presence on that occasion, but as it was doubtful whether his Majesty would take part personally, it was equally doubtful whether the ambassadors would attend. Difficulties arose, but finally the king decided to pay this last tribute of respect to his father's memory in person, and positions were assigned for the ambassadors. However, there were some difficulties with the French ambassadors, not with me, because they feared they might not receive a position worthy of them. But everything happened without letting me know, as with all my efforts I could learn nothing to show that wrong had not been done to me, as your Excellencies shall hear.
The Master of the Ceremonies, a Hispanophile, always opposed to honours for the most serene republic, distasteful to my predecessors for many respects, of dubious faith and father of a Jesuit girl, did not pay his respects to me in the proper manner, but sent to say it was decided that the ambassadors should not take part, and as this command came officially I accepted it without asking any more questions. But matters happened differently, as the French ambassadors were present in a noble position, dressed in cloaks equal to the king's, as I should have been. This most prejudicial sight appearing before the world caused much murmuring in the city, as all have a great affection for the republic, but as the reason was not known some attributed it to my indisposition, others that I would not come owing to religious scruples. Foolish people said it was because I claimed the right hand from the French ambassadors, the malignant that these ambassadors would not have me as an equal.
Immediately I became aware of this, while the king and ambassadors were still on the route, I sent a protest to the chamberlain, asking an audience of his Majesty at once to learn his intentions and demand reparation for the affront. I made my complaint that same night as vehemently as possible. Every one admitted I was in the right and blamed the negligence of Lewkenor, the Master of the Ceremonies. On the following day I saw his Majesty and expressed my feelings with the necessary warmth representing the action of the Master of the Ceremonies as inexcusable. The king heard me graciously, uncovered all the time, expressing his regret at the event and his great esteem for the republic. It was not his fault, he wished me there and thought I had been, but by false information, saying that Lewkenor was sick at the time. This made me press my point, and I told him he had been ill served and an injury done to his most sincere friends. I detailed my reasons for complaint. He promised to have justice done.
The Duke of Buckingham arrived as I was taking leave; and it sufficed for me that the king should recognise the nature of the wrong and promise me a remedy.
He repeated the excuses for Lewkenor, which I refuted. He said the French ambassadors were at fault. I said I had nothing to do with this, not being Master of the Ceremonies, and so took leave. I also spoke strongly to the ministers. They offered no excuse save Lewkenor's pretended sickness and all promised that the king would give satisfaction.
On the following day Lord Brooke, one of the most privileged of the councillors, came to see me in his Majesty's name. He expressed regret and said that Lewkenor's servant was the culprit and had been imprisoned.
I did not complain of a single lapse but of countless ill turns. I proved Lewkenor's malice and pointed out how the king's service suffered. He agreed and promised to tell the king I was still dissatisfied, and thought the satisfaction worse than the offence itself. This led them to refer the matter to the Secretary Conway and the President of the Council, and they asked me to send some one. I refused, saying that my representations to his Majesty sufficed, but 1 put the matter in writing, the better to state my case.
Lewkenor says he was sick at the time, which is false; that the French ambassadors decided not to go the day before and asked him to tell me, but he never did. He declares his servant told me all, which is utterly false.
The desire to save Lewkenor only increases the affront to your Serenity, as they say the servant did other than I have asserted. Yet they have punished him, though I complain not of him but of his master. They have asked me if 1 meant to blame the king. I said I would rather blame myself, but his Majesty's minister had undoubtedly erred. They suggested that the ambassadors had changed their minds suddenly and this caused the difficulty. I said it did not concern them, as we had no difficulties among ourselves. Nevertheless they have shown a lack of friendliness and confidence, as they promised to tell me all that happened; they say they entrusted this to Lewkenor. They were doubtful about going, and on the morning the king sent to ask them to attend the ceremony, shortly after I was advised to the contrary. They have professed an interest in my complaint and promised support, but they have almost done the contrary, though I have asked them for no special offices because they are served by the Master of the Ceremonies and have advantageous treatment.
Some promise me every satisfaction; others say the king's ambassador will give your Serenity the facts. I cannot say what will happen because the protection of the French operates against me.
I remarked that the punishment became the master rather than the valet. I must not forget to say that the agents of Spain, Bohemia and Flanders were invited, but owing to their places and their differences with Bohemia they sought excuses to avoid going, without fuss. This also makes some rejoice that I was left out, Lewkenor may have worked this as he is an utter Spaniard, and a pensioner; that is why I complain so strongly.
I may add that the funeral was stately, attended by quite 5,000 persons, dressed in mourning in various ranks and under various banners with the mottoes and devices of the realms. The bishops were there in their rochets, and a number of choristers in surplices (pivali) after the ancient Roman fashion. In the church they had prepared a great bed of mourning, much esteemed for its architecture and decoration, where they performed many ceremonies, presenting the banners. The Lord Keeper in his episcopal capacity, recited the prayers, but the French ambassadors did not stop to these functions and withdrew. The king followed in his place and it was especially remarked that since William the Conqueror the king had only thrice been present at the funeral celebrations.
I enclose a letter from the Secretary Conway with my reply. He told my secretary that they would not have it said that the King of Great Britain affronted the republic. The facts were well established.
London, the 24th May, 1625.
[Italian]
Enclosed in
the preceding
despatch.
75. Letter of the Secretary Conway to the Venetian Ambassador.
To-day, immediately after dining I met the President of the Council in the Council Chamber. Lewkenor presented himself, obviously still unwell. He presented a medical certificate. We heard what he had to say. We shall complete our enquiry to-morrow and after making our report to the king we will let your Excellency know.
Whitehall, the 13/23 May, 1625.
[Italian]
Enclosed in
the preceding
despatch.
76. Letter from the Ambassador Pesaro to the Secretary Conway.
The public affront to the republic is unbearable. It concerns the king's honour to give satisfaction to the republic. Hopes his Majesty will show his esteem for a prince esteemed great and powerful and will honour the republic as it is honoured elsewhere.
The 14/24 May, 1624.
[Italian]
Enclosed in
the preceding
despatch.
77. Statement of the Incident.
His Majesty sent the Venetian ambassador cloth for mourning. Lewkenor told the interpreter that the king wished the ambassador to attend the funeral. The ambassador asked what he should do; Lewkenor promised to come and tell him, but never did. He afterwards met the ambassador at the French embassy and told him he should attend the funeral, and on Saturday he said the same there, without telling him the time, place, dress or anything, to the astonishment of the French ambassadors. The Venetian ambassador sent to inform the Lord Chamberlain, asking for information. The Lord Chamberlain promised to send Lewkenor to tell him everything necessary, but Lewkenor never appeared. On Friday Lewkenor was at the French embassy to tell them what to do, as he should have done with the Venetian. His Majesty said he gave orders that the ambassador should be informed of the difficulties and give him liberty to attend or not. On Saturday, only an hour before the ceremony began, Lewkenor sent to tell the Venetian that the French ambassadors were not going, and the Council had decided that no ambassadors should go, but if he wished to see the ceremony he could go to the French embassy. When asked if his Majesty had ordered thus he said there was no special order for the Venetian ambassador. Lewkenor says he was very ill, but that is quite false, as at the very time when he sent his servant to the Venetian he was at the French embassy with his wife. His Majesty wished all the ambassadors to have equal treatment, but the nature of the treatment of the Venetians is clear from this narrative. Lewkenor disobeyed the orders of the Lord Chamberlain and of his Majesty. The matter is public and concerns the honour of his Majesty and the interests of the most sincere friends of this crown.
[Italian]
May 25.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
78. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I have learned on good authority about the negotiations for the league in Germany and with Denmark. Anstruther did not leave for lack of money; the provision is delayed with the hope of the payment of the French dowry. This is announced but not remitted and the merchants will advance nothing on such credit. I have reported France's declarations in favour of this league, but they will not take part for very important reasons, so they say. When the league is concluded the Most Christian offers to pay 1,000,000l. in two years. The arbitrament of these affairs is to rest with the Most Christian and the King of Great Britain, and together or severally they can embrace an accommodation, if the French desire the honour of arbitrating and the advantage of arranging with Rome to let be or maintain the peace of Germany, which means the advantage or disadvantage of the Catholics.
Anstruther's commissions are drawn up, but as the project upon which they are based has reached me from a very secret place, I enclose a copy. The chief points are to get Denmark to support the Palatine and to take the field when that king begins to receive money from the King of Great Britain; that he shall enter Upper Germany in the general interest until the league is completed; that he shall send some one to the conference at the Hague or any other place considered better; that he shall make his conquests in the Palatine's name for his restitution, that he shall not give up any conquest before the restitution of the Palatinate, but he shall keep garrisons in the conquered fortresses and not negotiate or lay down his arms except with the assent of the King of Great Britain. The king here is very anxious to please his uncle, but the fear that the latter contemplates selfish advantages induces these safeguards. If the business is delayed it will do little good.
Mansfeld asks to be removed from Carleton's supervision; that his Majesty will let him arrange the English troops in three regiments only, and to grant him a levy of Scots perhaps to balance the two nations. He may easily get these two points.
His Majesty has instructed the Commissioners of the Household or Cabinet Councillors to report if they shall continue their relations with Spain, and what instructions they shall give to the agent destined for that court. By these means they should bring France to a defensive and offensive alliance. By what means they can keep their promises and those of the late king to the parliament for the recovery of the Palatinate. What commissions to give to the Hague upon current affairs, and the special interests and requirements of the Palatine and his wife. Their action will show their decision.
London, the 30th May, 1625.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Enclosed in
the preceding
despatch.
79. Project of Articles of Alliance between the Princes of Germany.
This is not a project to be discussed with the materials to be debated at the approaching assembly to conclude the alliance.
1. The alliance is for the honour of God, the advancement of His Gospel and the restoration of the liberty of Germany.
2. It shall last three years to the 1st May, 1628; six months before expiry an assembly shall be held to decide by majority about its renewal; the places of deceased members to be taken by their heirs.
3. The alliance is not against the emperor, his dominions or legitimate authority.
4. Similarly it is not against any elector or other prince unless they oppose its objects.
5. Its sole object is to restore the Elector Palatine, his mother, la Boriera, and his brother in their hereditary dominions, and the Elector of Brandenburg in possession of Juliers, Cleves and other lordships by virtue of the treaty of Dortmund and Xanten and the Landgrave Maurice and the Margrave of Baden in their states, and generally bring peace in Germany, expelling the foreigner and arranging a reasonable settlement between Protestant and Catholic.
6. For this object to raise a force of 24,000 foot and 6,000 horse with the necessary guns and munitions.
7. The allies shall contribute definite sums monthly to support this force.
8. The allies may levy this contribution from their subjects and the director of the allies shall see that each is obeyed.
9. The Protestants of Germany shall be invited to enter the alliance and contribute pro rata to this Romeszug, if any one refuses he shall be constrained by reasonable means.
10. If one of the allies suffers so much from the enemy that he cannot contribute his portion, the others shall make it good pro rata and he shall repay five years after the peace.
11. If the Elector of Brandenburg is attacked as being furthest from help, he may keep back his levies and money, and the other allies shall pay a force for his defence.
12. The command of the allied force shall be committed to N. by a capitulation.
13. His lands shall be liable for levies and money like that of the other allies.
14. Each ally shall furnish his money at certain cities, so that it may be paid readily.
15. Allies near where the force is shall supply provisions and allow food to be brought without demanding any duties.
16. No ally shall make any treaty without the consent of the others or before the Palatine and Brandenburg are restored.
17. If the Kings of France and Great Britain secure good terms, they shall be accepted but only by consent of the allies.
18. If all the other difficulties cannot be settled at once they shall be submitted to the two kings, provided all the parties have laid down their arms.
19. The emperor shall be asked to that arbitration.
20. The emperor shall be requested to pardon the Bohemians, Moravians, Austrians and Silesians, and to restore their possessions.
21. If through the alliance any party is banned and expelled from his dominions such unjust prescription shall not be recognised, and the allies shall not lay down their arms until he is absolved and reinstated. As embassies and negotiations have never helped the Palatine, the allies will not attempt this way of reconciliation.
22. The allies bind themselves personally by oath.
23. Each ally shall set up a council to settle all difficulties.
24. The allies shall maintain good relations with Bethlen Gabor, who shall be asked to enter the alliance.
25. The allies will approach England and France that Mansfelt's force be maintained and that the count follow the wishes of the allies.
26. That the Venetians, Savoy and others be asked to favour the alliance, or at least remain neutral.
27. That the King of Poland be urged to introduce no troubles in Pomerania or similar matters.
28. Many copies of this league shall be made in French and German, and one given to each ally.
[Italian; deciphered.]
May 25.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
80. MARC ANTONIO MOROSINI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Buckingham arrived privately in Paris yesterday evening. He is lodging at the house of the Duke of Chevreuse, where I visited him to-day. Yesterday I went out to meet him at St. Denis, following the example of the Ambassador of Savoy, but we both returned without seeing him because night was approaching.
I paid my respects to this most gentle cavalier in the name of your Serenity, expressing your affection and esteem for his king and your admiration of himself. He replied in few words but with great respect. He spoke in English and the Earl of Carlisle acted as interpreter. He said he had merely come to hasten the bride, as the king was dying with impatience and love and he did not think he could live long if he did not see her in his dominions and in his palaces as his wife, and within two days he will return, either with or without her, as the affairs of his master and his commands call him back.
I said something about current affairs, the requests of the cardinal legate and the necessity of opposing his offices and his dependants; I added that his coming to this court at the present time was most opportune and I was most sorry to learn that he thought of leaving so soon. He replied that God and the world knew the extent of his good will to France and his interest in the common welfare. He had frequently proposed a right and generous line of action to the French ambassadors and here, but they would never consent. He did not know what more he could do, except leave it in God's hands, and apparently it was not His will that such a union should be made to abate the Spanish monarchy. The reputations of a great king like his master would not allow him to make any more suggestions after so many refusals, but if they say anything he will show them that he always remains the same, with every possible desire for the welfare of Christendom in general and the satisfaction of the most serene republic in particular.
The Earl of Carlisle remarked that it was my business to draw profit from this visit of the duke, owing to the interests of the republic and the general welfare, for which he had always known me so zealous, and by my influence and confidential relations with the ministers here, I could originate proposals and arrange some- thing good, better than anyone else. I told him that the interests of your Serenity were not greater than theirs, and my influence was far less than his, but for the public weal I would not only throw aside punctilio, but would willingly sacrifice myself and employ all my skill and eloquence. I meant to add some particulars, but the Duke of Chevreuse, the Master of the Ceremonies and a captain of the Guards, arrived to say that the king was expecting him, so he took leave and I postponed what I had to say for another opportunity.
I really think that this cavalier has the best intentions, and that he comes for something besides hastening the queen's departure. But the English are excessively punctilious, and stand upon their king's honour more perhaps than any other nation in the world, and sometimes through this, without reason, they spoil very important affairs, beneficial to themselves. He wants them to speak here, and the Earl of Carlisle, who bears a grudge against the ministers and the cardinal in particular for the recent secret offences, will certainly encourage the idea. I fear that he may also sow ill opinions and nourish mistrust in the duke's breast. I will not fail to make representations and will work ceaselessly to quiet such rancours and to introduce some good proposal helpful for the common service, in order to deprive the legate of all hope of settling the affair of the Huguenots, and invigorate that party, or anything that may serve the plans and interests of your Serenity.
Paris, the 25th May, 1625.
[Italian]
May 26.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Padova.
Venetian
Archives.
81. The RECTORS of PADUA to the DOGE and SENATE.
Four days ago the English ambassador sent his steward to pay his respects, informing us that he had come to this city to enjoy the air. We sent one of the leading gentlemen of the place in response to this office, who had to go a second time because the ambassador had gone back to Venice. He expressed our thanks and offered our services. His excellency apparently intends to call upon us, and in that case we shall honour him as instructed by your Serenity's letter of the 22nd which we received yesterday morning.
Padua, the 26th May, 1625.
[Italian]
May 26.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
82. MARC' ANTONIO MOROSINI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and SENATE.
The Earl of Carlisle has just let me know that he wishes me to be at the Louvre this evening upon most important business. I fancy they wish to begin to act. I touched in passing upon some particulars with the cardinal this morning. God grant that something good may be arranged in this affair. I shall only serve as an instrument; your Serenity shall not be involved in any case and you can but profit; so I shall act with a good heart.
I have not seen the king for several days owing to his indisposition.
Paris, the 26th May, 1625.
[Italian]
May 26.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
83. ALVISE CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Mansfelt keeps asking for leave to go. He says his men keep deserting, but really he does not want to share the blame for the loss of Breda. He wants men and the English ambassador gives him hope of some from the new levies. The States have frequent debates on the subject.
The Dunkirkers are equipping thirty ships. This arouses apprehension as they may interrupt communication with France and England.
To avoid expense they recently decided that Joachim, the ordinary ambassador designate to England, should start and also serve to offer congratulations on the king's accession. They have not stopped him, as they propose to send others as ambassadors extraordinary, if they can find a way to reconcile the ambitions of all the provinces for this honourable service.
The Hague, the 26th May, 1625.
[Italian]
May 27.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
84. To the Rectors of Padua.
We have heard of your offices with the English ambassador on his arrival. You must go first to visit him and pay your respects with expressions of esteem not only for the king he represents, but for himself and his sincere friendship which renders him especially acceptable.
Ayes, 110.Noes, 2.Neutral, 1.
[Italian]
May 28.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Padova.
Venetian
Archives.
85. The RECTORS of PADUA to the DOGE and SENATE.
This morning a gentleman came from the English ambassador to ask me, the podesta, for the use of my coach. This was immediately placed at his disposition. The coachman came back and reported that he had driven the ambassador to the postern, where he took a gondola for Venice. We shall await his return to do what is proper.
Padua, the 28th March (sic), 1625.
[Italian]
May 30.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
86. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I have reported that the Duke of Buckingham's departure was for reasons which arose unexpectedly. I now add the circumstances which are of no small consequence. He left with the idea of meeting the queen at Amiens and he expected the journey so little that they say he left in disgust and so suddenly that his commissions were sent after him. On the way he decided to go on to Paris owing to the delay of her Majesty's departure, although it is secretly believed that he knew this was necessary, and it may have been arranged. Besides the compliments he was to offer the queen mother a visit to the king here, upon promises by which she would express her willingness to hand her daughter over to her son-in-law, to come to an understanding with the Most Christian about this, to avoid misunderstandings, and arrange for the two kings to meet at some time. All these things will end in demonstrations of affection as there are too many difficulties in the way of carrying them out.
If the queen mother keeps in the same frame of mind they say that the king might go with the fleet as far as Boulogne. But this also presents numerous difficulties and is impossible to effect. But the duke's principal charge is to inform the Most Christian about the fleet and invite him to enter a defensive and offensive alliance. For this purpose the Secretary of State, Murton, has proceeded to that court, to corroborate the treaty if made and then go on to Holland to settle with the Dutch in consequence. The negotiations of the French so far clearly show that this business will not be arranged, and the Ambassador Fiat practically said as much openly. The English ambassadors in France have written that Buckingham enjoys such credit and esteem with their Majesties that he will obtain every satisfaction, but persons of experience do not hope so much. Thus they argue that when the duke asked Fiat to go to that court he did not do so, although he had leave, as there would be little satisfaction from the business, although great honour.
The delay in the queen's departure places the general in much shadow, although they offer the excuse of her sickness and that of the Most Christian; yet they constantly write that the bride will start even if the Most Christian cannot accompany her. They declare that further guarantees or more complete fulfilment are demanded for the Catholics, but the French ambassador asserts that they want nothing more, though he complains of the slight securities on this point, since many have suffered persecution of late. These delays occasion the most pernicious results, because mistrust increases among the people, making them protect themselves against the king's proceedings, and the expenses are great and cannot be borne without the help of parliament (ma queste dilationi partoriscono malissimi effetti, perche la diffidenza ne 'popoli cresce di guardarasi dagli andamenti del Re, e le spese sono grandi, le quali senza l'aiuto del Parlamento non si possono sostenere).
The levies for the fleet continue, at the expense of the people, and to delay despatching the ships when they are ready means a wasteful loss of credit both at home and abroad.
Parliament opened on the 27th and they delayed beginning for a fortnight. If the queen tarries there will be further prorogations. Already the members complain of being here in danger of the plague, and of the expense. In their fear of prejudicing themselves in the laws affecting the Catholics, they go as far in their expressions of mistrust as they did with the late king, but if his Majesty does what they desire, by connivance, on the plea that other princes shall treat those of the Religion equally well in other countries, it is thought that his Majesty will obtain every satisfaction. The people were so fearful of suffering a disadvantage that in the elections they rejected all those who served efficiently in previous parliaments but with the title of royalists, wishing to maintain the parliament as moderator between the king and the public (li popoli hanno tanto sospetto del loro disavantaggio che nelle elettioni fatte, hanno escluso tutti quelli che nelli Parlamenti hanno servito con sufficienza, ma con titolo di Realisti, volendosi mantener il Parlamento moderatore tra il Re el il Generale). Tricks have happened in these elections, and now they are expecting the opening of the Estates the Lower House will arrange its own house and deal with irregularities.
As the king evidently wishes to maintain his passionate love for the Duke of Buckingham, this arouses great jealousy in all who wish to share, not the favour, but the employments and the good graces of his Majesty, who has suspended the ordering of his own household owing to the duke's absence.
The king has created three knights of the Garter, the Earl of Dorset, the Earl of Holland and Viscount Andover, appointments considered beneath the dignity of the order, as they are young cadets, and because they talked of sending the Garter to reigning princes in Germany. They lay the blame for this on the favourite, saying a great deal to his discredit.
Sailors of long experience who have served as captains of ships are placed under inexperienced courtiers; so the complaints in this matter are of no little moment.
At the Slinghe Islands, between the Scilly Islands and Cornwall, a strait of 30 miles, they say a large fleet of sixty sail has been sighted. Some say they are Turks, pirates or Spaniards, but others that they are French Huguenots expecting to find the Most Christian's fleet divided. But they say Soubise has come to terms and it may be a false alarm. However the king has sent to ascertain.
Neuburg's gentleman is not despatched. The French have favoured him to induce his Majesty to grant him the same as the Most Christian, letters for Brandenburg and the States. It is a subtle business requiring circumspection, as the French are going to Germany by two routes.
News has come of Buckingham's arrival in Paris, where he received every possible honour and entertainment. We hear nothing of any day being fixed for the queen's departure; they hope, however, that she will leave between to-day and Monday, wavering between that and the fear of some obstacle.
The plague increases; there were seventy-five deaths this week.
London, the 30th May, 1625.
[Italian]
May 30.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
87. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The rumour persists that the French ambassadors were the reason why I was not present at the funeral, and when I saw their attitude and how the Ambassador Fiat favours the Master of the Ceremonies, who only helps the French in order to spy more for the Spaniards, I recognised that I must simply trust to the truth. I find the Master of the Ceremonies guilty of every thing charged against him; the French ambassadors act with duplicity, to my face they pretend to help, but elsewhere they oppose, pointing out the inferior position of the Venetian ambassadors in Spain. They must be acting in concert with the Duke of Buckingham, as they were summoned by Montagu, his favourite. They say he spoke in his own name and not the king's, but they understood it as the king's, otherwise de Tremes did not mean to go. I understand the Ambassador Fiat feared that his colleague might get some advantage over him, and the trouble is all due to his vanity, though that does not make things any better.
I have seen Fiat and said it seemed remarkable that while every one laid the blame on their ambassadors, I alone refused to allow it. He swore they were not to blame, but admitted that things would have gone better without de Tremes. He said de Tremes' secretary had adduced the Spanish example. I argued the rights of the republic. He said it was an unlucky accident, but I maintained it was due to the malice or ignorance of the minister. I quoted him various precedents of our standing. He said he did not wish to quarrel with me; they might pass a decree in the Council; Lewkenor was sick. I insisted on the importance of the matter.
They are very upset here, as they do not wish to offend the French ambassadors and yet recognise the need for repairing the wrong done to the republic. I have heard nothing from his Majesty. I hear that Wake will be informed; they will offer excuses and urge Lewkenor's sickness. Every one tells me I shall receive satisfaction; some that they think of putting Lewkenor in the Tower, at the mercy of your Serenity, appointing another Master of the Ceremonies for the Venetian ambassadors.
The Duchess of Richmond sent me word that she met the king in the park and asked why I was not at the funeral. His Majesty said I had been there in spirit, and he cherished me in his. I insist upon proper reparation.
London, the 30th May, 1625.
Postscript.—The French ambassador has just been here, professing great friendship and swearing that he never said I was not asked to the funeral. I spoke of your Serenity's esteem for the Most Christian, which was fully reciprocated, as I had frequently experienced his Majesty's kindness. The imprisoned servant has sent his wife to beg me for his release. I said he was not imprisoned for me and I could not meddle. He is released, I fancy through the French ambassador, but Conway says his Majesty let him go as there was no accusation. It was all done without consulting me. The satisfaction was derisory and all expect some further demonstration, but they await the desires of the republic.
[Italian]
May 30.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
88. To the Proveditore General Molin.
Owing to the fear of attack from the Barbary corsairs, and the removal of danger from foreign fleets, the Spaniards being engaged off Genoa and the Turks in the Black Sea, the orders of 12 July, 1623, are revoked about merely guarding the mouth of the Gulf, and his commissions are enlarged, to cruise for pirates towards Sapientia and Cerigo, escorting Venetian ships between Zante and Candia and also to safeguard the English ship Pietro Andrea which carries property of Venetian subjects of great value and is going to Syria. He must also keep a watch on the Spanish and Turkish fleets.
Ayes, 59.Noes, 4.Neutral, 12.
[Italian]
May 31.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
89. MARC' ANTONIO MOROSINI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I saw the Earl of Carlisle, according to my instructions and as I reported on the 26th. He wished me to speak to the cardinal and get him to propose an offensive and defensive league. I readily gave my services for the cause, but did not conceal my opinion, which I have tactfully tried to impress upon them, that those who expect advantages should speak, and they have manifest interests. I reminded him of the opposition which the same proposals have encountered previously, and with the same confidence with which he spoke to me I told him that they would overcome difficulties more easily and secure some good resolution by way of a treaty (trattato), without using the word league, which is not essential, but which offends many here for reasons he knows quite well, over which they have disputed before. He seemed convinced, but repeated his request that I would speak of this to the ministers and especially the cardinal.
For the sake of the public service and to satisfy these gentlemen I said something to the cardinal and the queen mother on the subject. They both replied to the same effect and almost in the same words, namely, that we could see clearly what France was doing for the common service and for the particular gratification of the English king, by supporting Mansfeld's force, by their dealings with Germany, and by their negotiations with Denmark and Sweden. No one therefore had cause to complain of them or demand more. Instead of speaking of a league and opening other negotiations let them say what more they wanted France to do, and they would see by results her sincerity and goodwill in the matter.
On Wednesday night when they lighted bonfires and celebrated the festivities and banquets in the palace of the queen mother by the cardinal in honour of Madame's marriage, to which all the ambassadors were invited, I met Buckingham and told him of these answers, but I had no time for further conversation. The Earl of Carlisle, discontented and dissatisfied as usual, did not fail to make comments and glosses to the prejudice of such contentions, and even spoke ill of the government and the nation. Accordingly, although Buckingham seemed very well disposed, he either could not or would not contradict Carlisle, and I saw neither of them afterwards, as I was fully occupied in fulfilling the Senate's commands and my duties, and in observing the manœuvres of the dependants of the cardinal legate here. I know, however, that yesterday Buckingham spent more than two hours with Cardinal Richelieu, and the ambassador of Savoy who has seen both Buckingham and the cardinal to-day reports that both were quite satisfied.
The secretary of the Queen of Bohemia has come to this court with Buckingham. He immediately called upon me and told me of his affairs. He returned thanks for the Signory's good offices on behalf of his princes, whose hopes he said rose on the succession of the present king. He said he found the young king resolved not to spend any money on Mansfelt before he crossed the Rhine and entered Germany.
The departure of the queen and Monsieur is arranged for Monday. That of the king, the ministers and court will be one or two days later, and I shall make the journey with the others.
Paris, the 31st May, 1625.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]

Footnotes

1 Réné Potier, Count of Tresmes, who arrived on Tuesday, the 14th May, or according to Salvietti, on the 16th May. Brit. Mus. Add. MSS. 27962D. His instructions are dated 27th April. Pub. Record Office. Paris Transcripts.
2 Not the manor house, but the former residence of Sir Thomas More. It was called the greatest, house in Chelsea. Cranfield bought it in 1619 from Sir Arthur Gorges, for 4,300l. Faulkner: Chelsea, vol. i, page 125.