Venice
July 1625, 16-31

Sponsor

Institute of Historical Research

Publication

Author

Allen B. Hinds (editor)

Year published

1913

Pages

111-131

Annotate

Comment on this article
Double click anywhere on the text to add an annotation in-line

Citation Show another format:

'Venice: July 1625, 16-31', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 19: 1625-1626 (1913), pp. 111-131. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=89042 Date accessed: 23 October 2014.


Highlight

(Min 3 characters)

Contents

July 1625

July 16.
Misc.
Cod. No. 64.
Venetian
Archives.
159. MARC' ANTONIO PADAVIN, Venetian Secretary in Germany, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The emperor feels certain that the Palatine will not rise again, owing to the great forces of the House of Austria, the capture of Breda and the peace with the Turk.
They have sent Baron Dohna to the Margrave of Brandenburg to threaten him with the imperial forces if he sides with the Palatine.
Vienna, the 16th July, 1625.
[Italian; copy.]
July 18.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
160. To the Ambassador in England.
The English ambassador has been in the Collegio this morning and made declarations which give us to understand that his king's arms are directed solely towards the recovery of the Palatinate.
Although this point will not serve directly it will nevertheless help the public cause immensely.
You will go to the king and thank him for so openly imparting his intentions, and remark how much it will help the public cause. By this office you will try simultaneously to encourage these movements and find out about them.
You will enlarge to his Majesty upon what the republic is doing for the common service, representing to him the constant levies that we are making, the regiments of MM. de Candales and Moigiron having recently reached us, the reinforcement at sea, the incessant contributions to Coeuvre's force, in provisions, munitions, money and men, both infantry and cavalry, producing the results which we have seen so far, concluding with such words of friendship and esteem as are best calculated to cherish and increase his Majesty's good will towards us and mutual confidence as the growth of circumstances and the march of events may require.
As regards the affair of the Master of the Ceremonies you will see that the ambassadors have spoken very decisively as his king's intentions, and we expect to see corresponding results.
Your letters of this week bring us many advices calling for consideration, more especially the mission of the Secretary Mirton to the Hague upon Buckingham's fruitless negotiations in France, of which we have informed the Ambassador Contarini.
Your extraordinary expenses in your embassy confirm the splendour with which you maintain the credit of the state and greatly increase your desserts.
Ayes, 141.Noes, 0.Neutral, 5.
[Italian]
July 18.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
161. To the Ambassador at the Hague.
We have written repeatedly to the Ambassador Moro in Spain about Pasini, especially as you have gained little advantage from the interposition of the ministers of France and England. The Secretary Murton has again been sent over from England, though the object of his mission is uncertain, everyone being engrossed in the rejoicings about the new queen. However, some think he is to make some arrangement with the Palatine about sending the fleet under his flag and in his service and perhaps tell him the inconclusive reply Buckingham received in France about uniting the movement of the forces of both crowns.
Ayes, 141.Noes, 0.Neutral, 5.
[Italian]
July 18.
Collegio,
Secreta.
Esposizioni,
Principi.
Venetian
Archives.
162. The English ambassador came into the Cabinet and spoke as follows:
I have letters from his Majesty's secretary charging me in his name to set forth certain particulars to your Serenity. I will do this by reading the letters themselves. Accordingly he took them up and read as follows:
The king has been pleased at hearing of your offices with the most serene republic, and he values so highly their excellent good-will to this crown that he charges you to thank his Serenity and assure him of full and complete reciprocity of feeling. Moreover his Majesty considers your journey to the Swiss highly necessary and useful and desires that you shall not delay it any longer. He takes the opportunity of sending you letters of credence for the Duke of Savoy and for the Constable Lesdiguières. The king informs them and all the good friends of this crown that you will bear witness in his name that his resolution in the present movement of his forces is directed chiefly towards the recovery of the hereditary dominions, title and dignity of his kinsman the Palatine and of his sister, and in pursuit of this object he will try to create such a diversion that those who promoted the usurpation of that state will in future behave in a more reasonable manner.
He wishes you to inform his Serenity as a mark of special confidence that fresh supplies of money have been sent to Mansfeld to support and increase his army, and his Majesty has nearly arranged with the Kings of Denmark and Sweden and other princes to set on foot an army of 30,000 foot and horse and his share will be 30,000l. sterling a month, while he has already expended 56,000l. upon the levy and the first month's pay.
The fleet has 10,000 foot ready at the rendezvous, the Duke of Buckingham being proclaimed Admiral General by sea and land and he may take command any day to arrange the subordinate officers. As the king desires qualified and experienced men for this he has sent to Holland to obtain as many as possible, and in short he will try every way to re-establish his kin and to secure the public weal for which he will contribute all his offices, with a special view to the advantage of the most serene republic, to which you will testify that his Majesty is specially bound.
This, said the ambassador, is what I have to state. I will not speak of the dissatisfaction of the ambassador with the Master of the Ceremonies about the funeral obsequies as instructed, and although I have not time to reply to the office read to me by order of the Senate, I have sent the king an exact account which will serve to inform him of the facts and to show that in the interests of the republic and for her service his Majesty does not sleep or wait to be urged, but devotes all his attention. In this case also I will read the letters I have received from the Lord Chamberlain and from the secretary himself which practically agree in stating the facts. He took them up and they run as follows:
Before these reach you we expect that the Ambassador Pesaro will have troubled his Serenity with his complaints about not being present at the late king's funeral. He lays all the blame upon Sir Lewis Lewkenor, Master of the Ceremonies, but we find that this was really a device of the French ambassadors, who being extraordinary claimed that no ordinary representatives could be their equals. This appears because when Lewkenor went to invite them and wait upon them at the obsequies they told him that they would not take part. Accordingly he left them and being attacked by fever he sent his assistant to inform the Venetian ambassador of this, telling him that this left him free if he wished to go. This is the point that Pesaro denies, who says that the assistant told him that he might do less than take part, adding that Lewkenor feigned sickness that day precisely in order to give him this affront. They accordingly thought fit to send the assistant to prison, but the ambassador was not satisfied and insisted upon reparation from Lewkenor. Accordingly his Majesty referred the matter to the President of the Council and to us.
As the ambassador presented a paper narrating the circumstances it was considered that the Master of the Ceremonies should present the enclosed paper, which we sent for information. We would point out that neither this paper nor Pesaro's states what afterwards came clearly to light, namely that the French ambassadors previously told the Master of the Ceremonies that they would not take part in the ceremony and afterwards went unexpectedly; and there is no sign of Lewkenor's complicity in this. He could not see what was in their minds but could only judge by what they said, and they went alone to the ceremony without his attending on them as is customary.
This is a difficult point for Pesaro to get over, and the knight's illness is proved to be genuine. He did not appear on those days, and the interpreter must have heard what the assistant said. However, the king did not wish to declare himself in the matter, and when he does the republic may rest assured that he will pay every possible regard to her honour and reputation, who would rather increase than diminish it in the smallest degree. You will tell his Serenity that when the republic's ambassadors arrive they will be received with the high honours befitting their eminence and as a testimony to his Majesty's gratification at their coming.
Here the ambassador closed the letters and said: Your Serenity sees how the king did not neglect to provide for your satisfaction even before your request, and I am sure that when my representation arrives his Majesty will find a way to arrange matters entirely satisfactory to the republic's dignity, while I feel equally sure that the Most Excellent Pesaro will accept the evidence and the reasonable interpretation of the facts. For the rest, I will try to come once more before leaving to pay my respects to your Serenity and receive your commands. As I have to prolong my journey somewhat more than was prescribed to me so I shall have to delay my return. The greater is my desire, when I reach Turin, to obtain the favour of the release of the Counts Scotti, for which I asked, to take to that Court, wherein chiefly I received the request.
The doge replied, We cannot adequately express our gratification at hearing of his Majesty's constant good-will towards our republic, and although we felt sure of it even before he mounted the throne we rejoice at the present confirmation. It will serve the common interests for this to be known by those who do not like good relations between princes. We thank his Majesty warmly. His steps for the relief of his kinsman are worthy of his greatness.
We thank your Excellency for the information you have given us and we wish you a pleasant journey, feeling sure that your representations everywhere will serve the general interests and those of our republic towards which we know your good-will. Your Excellency has yourself admitted the fault committed by the Master of the Ceremonies and his ill disposition. We especially welcome his Majesty's promise to declare in favour of our dignity, and we expect a fitting satisfaction.
As regards the Counts Scotti, although at your Excellency's first intercession the Council of Ten were disposed to gratify you, the counts have since committed a fresh excess which calls for fresh severe punishment. As the ambassador remained undecided the doge added that he could say no more as the rigour of the voting made the matter difficult to carry, a difficulty this last excess would increase, but they would do what was possible and he could always rest assured of their good will. At this the ambassador took leave and departed.
[Italian]
July 18.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
163. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The plague has penetrated to Whitehall, the king's residence, although among low officials, causing great confusion and peril to the Court and their Majesties, who immediately, contrary to the last decision, betook themselves to Hampton Court. Report says they will make a tour, though nothing certain is known except that they wish to keep as much apart as possible, and a new proclamation has forbidden commerce with the Court upon pain of death. Owing to these unforeseen events all business is hindered, and it is feared that the deliberations for the state will prove ineffective.
With this unexpected move I have managed to see the duke, the Chamberlain and the Secretary Conway. I told them of the feelings your Excellencies had expressed to the Ambassador Wake about the incident of the funeral. The duke told me twice that he would speak to his Majesty, pointing out the importance of the matter, the need for satisfaction and punishing the fault. He spoke of the honour shown to his Majesty's ambassador and of the good relations existing between this crown and the republic; of the need of a good understanding and a united front at the present time; for similar incidents at other Courts the republic had recalled her ambassadors. Despite all this I only learned that Wake has not yet written, though I do not see how this can be true. The Chamberlain told me that the matter must be arranged. But he is very cold and does nothing; indeed he introduced the Master of the Ceremonies to the king to make his excuses. I do not know what the king said. He says the error arose because the French ambassadors deceived him.
The Secretary Conway swore that the ambassador had not written, but they would tell the king when his advices came. He had sent Lewkenor's excuses to Venice. The fault lay with the French ambassadors. Lewkenor was sick. He had gone to the French embassy that day to find me a window from which to see the ceremony.
I did not accept those excuses and enlarged upon the wrong done to the king in attributing the incident to the French, as if his Majesty could not look after his friends. The French ambassadors assured me they had nothing to do with it, and the ambassadors of the Most Christian and the republic had often appeared together in public at this Court, without difficulty.
The French ambassadors support the Master of the Ceremonies or rather the Marquis Fiat does. I will do what I can.
London, the 18th July, 1625.
[Italian]
July 18.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
164. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
My visit to the duke gave me an opportunity to express the satisfaction of your Serenity at his Majesty's esteem for him. I have not done this before because I have not seen him. He thanked me warmly. I went on to speak of public events, urging the advantage of peace in France and the glory the king may acquire in bringing it about, and in the contrary event, the advantage to the Spaniards and the peril to the common cause. He said the king was devoting his full attention to this and matters now look hopeful. They had to persuade the Most Christian to listen to the deputies of La Rochelle; the king is writing on purpose to the Most Christian, begging him to give peace to his realm and his subjects, and urge that even if the Huguenots are at fault, this is not the time to punish. To prevent France from suspecting him he has expressly ordered that the ships appointed for the Most Christian shall serve against all. He begged me to speak to the French ambassadors to the same effect and to write to the Most Christian Court. He went on to speak of the fickleness of the French; they have not helped the Duke of Savoy; with peace and by joining forces they could easily capture Genoa.
I thought it right to justify the French. I said they had divisions and considerations of their own. We ought to take advantage of their nature, and see that the example of the king's movements shall serve to destroy all those in that kingdom who have not good principles. If we cannot bring them to a more open war or a closer league, we must take advantage of the more restricted help and possibly the Spaniards, by some attempt, may force them to a decision. We needed the generous use of the fleet here to secure things, peace in France, war with Spain and the general advantage.
The duke answered me coldly in a manner suggesting that their plans here are changing, namely if the king presses the Spaniards hard it will be the more difficult for them to attack the French and secure matters by bringing about a rupture between France and Spain. I remarked that if the Most Christian was not fomented and seconded by the forces of this crown in their plans for the Palatinate, he might easily weaken and incline to peace, as the Spaniards, if they have peace in Italy pretend not to fear anything else.
If they are left without a league with the French, the negotiations of the legate a latere and the lack of money will make them very feeble here. I do not think the French ambassadors help to remove suspicion or support the advantage of engaging the forces here, as they cry out against the Huguenot rebels. They say the Most Christian requires obedience; only two fortresses resist him; with 10,000 foot he can shut up Montauban and straiten La Rochelle; if the king here wants their support against Spain he must first help them against the Huguenots, but France is strong enough to make war on the Spaniards and at the same time chastise her own rebel subjects. They do not believe this here and certainly if France becomes involved at home she will abandon the affairs of others.
The Secretary Conway remarked to me that the most serene republic did not desire the Genoa enterprise; Savoy is withdrawing from what he has taken; the Most Christian is trying to destroy himself; the legate's negotiations are going forward and everything tends to an accommodation; Gondomar was to have come to this Court with fair proposals, and he stopped in France. This shows the fear of peace and an accommodation of the others, and that with Gondomar's coming they hoped for some negotiations.
He further told me of the king's great expenses, the scanty provision made by parliament and left me with the impression that they have not made up their minds what they shall do. I did not fail to point out all the same that there were other enterprises more useful and more likely to succeed than that of Genoa; Savoy had wisely withdrawn, giving up the worthless in order to strengthen his position; the Prince of Piedmont holds the western Riviera, the forces of Savoy and the governor of Milan are marching against each other; I did not understand that the legate's negotiations were advanced; it would be to the common advantage to employ the fleet here as well as for the service of this crown, and to abandon their original plans would mean loss of money and reputation and would win them no popularity with their own people.
He admitted the force of my arguments, but I do not find that they have made up their minds.
The ambassadors of the States, having got the nomination of commissioners, make no further progress in their affairs. They remain on their guard, and here they would like them to make large offers. I know that they were asked to guarantee Mansfelt's expenses. They replied that they would spend and promise nothing beyond the payment of 50,000 florins recently disbursed at the Palatine's request. I have urged them to draw closer and to hearten the States.
Nothing else is arranged. They say nothing about Mansfelt to the French; both sides stand to the promises and let time slip by. They have selected Anstruther to go to the diet of Ulm. The agent of Bohemia is charged to draw up his instructions, and they have prepared letters of credence for the emperor and the other princes of the empire. God grant that this may tend to prevent harm and that it may not end in embracing negotiations.
The French ambassadors have no object beyond the carrying out of the marriage treaty. In ecclesiastical matters they have obtained that the queen may celebrate the church offices with open doors and Catholics shall not be sent away; but they can be prevented by other means. They strive for other advantages with doubtful success, because the English promise everything and keep nothing. They agreed about the household, but nothing has been done. The ambassadors want to return, especially Villeocler, who strongly objects to the character of these negotiations. He suffered for his importunity, and wished to leave, but the Most Christian and the queen mother have ordered him to stay until the things arranged for the queen are fully established.
They have disputed about the ships, which have recrossed the sea, and exchanged many sharp words. Here they contend that the sailors were obliged to return for lack of victuals; but it was for the reasons reported. However, they are ordered to serve the Most Christian against all and especially against Soubise and the rebel Huguenots. But they have not yet left these shores and I hold to my opinion that the French will be cheated of this assistance by one pretext after another.
The Duke of Chevreuse received the honour of the Garter in the king's chamber. He obtained from the king a garter, a collar with the badge of St. George in diamonds, which the late king used to wear, and very rich. Villeocler received a fine jewel from the king and a diamond ring from the queen, under the impression that he was leaving.
Parliament is raising many questions; it stands firm against the Catholics. They complain that too much has been undertaken without good ground; they say they will supply the expenses in the ordinary way on obtaining satisfaction. They carried the fast, which was celebrated on the 12th with prayers and sermons in the churches, and they have ordained that during the plague and the present disturbances a like fast shall be kept every Wednesday. Parliament proposes to adjourn until October or November; some definite resolution is expected at any moment.
It seems quite clear from what I have written that no alliance has been concluded between France and England, upon which your Excellencies ask for information. I know nothing more of Mansfeld's condition.
To avoid the plague I shall leave this city for some healthier spot. I cannot be sure of the place as the danger is everywhere. I cannot use the place already chosen and paid for, as it would be merely changing boats without escaping the storm. I shall try and keep as near as possible to the Court, but as they do not like ambassadors near, I shall use the utmost discretion.
London, the 18th July, 1625.
Postscript.—I have received your Excellencies' commands of the 21st and 27th ult.
[Italian]
July 18.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
165. MARC' ANTONIO MOROSINI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I told Cardinal Richelieu of the incident at the late king's funeral in England, pointing out the importance of good relations between the ministers of this crown and those of the republic. If the English ambassadors had been here, who left with their queen, I am sure they would have regretted the incident extremely. I have not spoken to any one else as I have heard nothing about the matter here.
Melun, the 18th July, 1625.
[Italian; deciphered.]
July 19.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
166. To the Ambassadors in Spain and the like to the other Courts and the Proveditori General.
Since the capture of Acqui and the recovery of Cairo by Santa Croce the Spaniards have made greater progress, seeing the weakness of their adversaries, and propose to strike a blow towards the Valtelline in conjunction with Leopold. Savoy has collected as large a force as possible near Asti and Prince Thomas seeks every opportunity of engaging the Spanish cavalry, who avoid a contest. Popnain has entered S. Giorgio, but we have stopped his further progress. In Naples they have begun to lay hands on the property of Frenchmen. It is said they will do the like to Savoy. They keep making military and naval preparations, which seem to exceed all possible requirements. This should make others keep on their guard. We send you this for information.
Ayes, 122.Noes, 0.Neutral, 0.
[Italian]
July 19.
Senato,
Mar.
Venetian
Archives.
167. That in gratification of the English ambassador in response to his request in our Collegio, Thomas Transfilt, captain of the ship William Ralph, be allowed to take out of this city, free of duty, the 15 bales of calf skins brought here unwittingly as the Five Sages for Trade advise; and that the ambassador be informed by a notary of chancery who will also tell him that at this request the Council of Ten have remitted the remainder of the sentence of the Counts Scotti for one of imprisonment in the fortress of Palma, as a sign of the esteem in which the public holds him.
Ayes, 129.Noes, 8.Neutral, 11.
[Italian]
July 19.
Senato,
Terra.
Venetian
Archives.
168. To the Ambassador in France and the like to the other Courts and the public representatives by sea and land.
All letters concerning money, expenses incurred or to come must be kept apart and contain no other matter of any kind. The same applies to the question of mercenary troops of every kind. The secretary shall write to the ambassadors and public representatives to this effect. The accounts shall be sent to the Regolatori alla Scrittura who will register them in a book appointed for the purpose.
Ayes, 116.Noes, 0.Neutral, 10.
[Italian]
July 19.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
169. LUNARDO MORO, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE and SENATE.
A strange rumour was circulated in Madrid four hours ago, that the King of England had been assassinated by an arquebus. It is not known whence the rumour came nor who the author may be; but these are strange salutations.
Madrid, the 19th July, 1625.
[Italian]
July 19.
Cons. di X.
Parti Comuni.
Venetian
Archives.
170. In the Council of Ten.
That to gratify the English ambassadors, Counts Antonio and Fortunato Scotti, condemned to three years' imprisonment by sentence of the Podesta of Crema on the 29th November last, be allowed to pass the remainder of their term in the fortress of Palma, with all the obligations and rules applying to persons so relegated.
Ayes, 15.Noes, 0.Neutral, 0.
[Italian]
July 21.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
171. ALVISE CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Mansfelt remains at Amsterdam, determined not to go back to his army without money. His attempts to induce the merchants to advance some upon the credit of England have proved fruitless. The French king seems more zealous to support him. The Palatine would prefer the English to give the contributions for Mansfelt to the King of Denmark, but that monarch is not in favour at the French Court.
The English ambassadors returned from the Camp yesterday evening after two interviews with the prince. Apparently the fleet is to take a position in one of the islands, from which to prevent the passage of gold, at which the English aim above everything else, or else to invade the coast. Some believe in a design upon Cadiz, near their strait formerly captured by the English and Dutch together, and after they had abandoned it they recognised the importance of the position; but as the place is now well defended this does not seem very likely.
Once the place is decided upon the ambassadors will confer with the Dutch commanders, especially now they have appointed as Vice Admiral to M. de Nassau, Real, sometime governor general in the Indies and very highly esteemed in his profession. They have also made satisfactory arrangements about the division of the booty, and I fancy that the conquests will all remain under the name of the English or the Palatine.
The Hague, the 21st July, 1625.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
July 21.
Collegio,
Secreta.
Esposizioni,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
172. The English ambassador came into the Collegio and spoke as follows:
I come to pay my respects to your Serenity and to receive your commands on the eve of my journey to the Swiss. His Majesty has informed you through me of his good-will and intention to support Mansfeld, of his progress with Denmark, and that his fleet is ready to sail and I believe has already started. He feels sure of a response. Although he has no special alliance with the confederate princes he has charged me to rely entirely upon the views of your Serenity and the other allies, and I will always concert matters with your representatives. In order to win the friendship of that nation and counteract the opposition, I think the league should make some levy there, and I think it would be most useful and should encourage hope in the cantons of Zurich and Berne, your allies, that the republic will not fail to use their regiments in case of need. I will await information from your representative.
I am to express to the lords of Berne the devotion of the Baron Spietz, well known, I believe, to your Excellencies, who would not serve others after serving you. It will always be advantageous to this state to keep him well disposed and employ him when necessary. In the affair of the Grisons my king will only aim at the maintenance of the religion he was born to, and that the restoration of the valley to the Grisons shall not occasion any change of religion, as indeed the Treaty of Madrid provides. But he does not intend to raise this except at the proper time. I ask your Serenity for an escort to Coire and recommend my household here.
In the absence of the doge, the senior councillor Foscari replied: We wish your Excellency a pleasant journey and every satisfaction. We rejoice to learn the good resolutions of his Majesty and feel sure of the benefit from his offices with the Swiss. The ministers of the republic will maintain the most confidential relations with your Excellency. With that the ambassador took leave, thanking them for the commutation of the punishment of the Counts Scotti, and adding that before he reached Turin he hoped to hear of their complete release; he departed.
[Italian]
July 23.
Misc.
Cod. No. 64.
Venetian
Archives.
173. MARC' ANTONIO PADAVIN, Venetian Secretary in Germany, to the DOGE and SENATE.
News constantly arrives that Mansfelt's force is wasting. The Count of Anolt has gone against him, Tilly staying behind to stop the King of Denmark from joining Mansfelt. They know that the Most Christian has sent that king encouragement, and they expect him to take up the Palatine's cause, possibly by a declaration and a league with the King of Great Britain, whom the Spaniards are trying to lull by protestations and fair words, without any intention of carrying them into effect. The invitation of the ecclesiastical electors to the King of France to send an ambassador to the Diet of Ulm is considered a Spanish trick to learn his intentions.
Vienna, the 23rd July, 1625.
[Italian; copy.]
July 24.
Consiglio
di X.
Lettere,
Secreta.
Venetian
Archives.
174. To the Proveditore General at Palma.
Order to receive Counts Antonio and Fortunato Scotti, condemned to three years' imprisonment on the 29th November last, whose punishment has been commuted to relegation in that fortress for the rest of their term, to gratify the English ambassador.
Daniel DiedoCouncillors.
Piero Tron
Marco Zustignan
[Italian]
July 24.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
175. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I have betaken myself to this place for my health, the plague not having penetrated hither, thank God, and I hope that his Majesty may arrive here any day. The separation from the Court and from all my friends and correspondents in various places deprives me of the means of finding out things easily. The French ambassadors, with their pretensions to be occupied on their special task, which does not allow them to deal with the business of others, have stayed at Richmond, a house of the king, and they should be despatched about now. The Dutch ambassadors, ashamed of fearing the plague, and expecting orders for their conferences, have remained practically alone in London. The king's commissions for these affairs are signed, but the business has not yet begun. Besides the compliments, the ambassadors ask for the renewal of the alliance with this crown, and if the king wants new conditions, they will hearken. But amid these events the English demand satisfaction for the Amboyna affair, the people crying for justice. The Dutch declare they can do no more than await the arrival of information which may take a year to come.
The Dutch agree to joining fleets, and I find they will agree about their employment, as the other plans falling through with the breakdown of the negotiations in France, they will finally put these ships to the hazard of the sea, and although the decision is not absolutely assured, the fleet can produce no other effect, although according to its commander it will have a different object. The Duke of Buckingham is doubtful about commanding in person, but in any case either the duke or Cecil will be generalissimo. If the former commands, it is thought his inclination will lead him to make some demonstration against Spain; if the latter, it is thought that he will merely cruise about for the purpose of injuring the ships and trade of Spain, prevent help to the Indies, capture the fleet and so forth, as adapted to the Ocean.
The Dutch agree in these plans, considering them advantageous to themselves. I do not think that they incline to favour landing in the countries near them, from fear of rendering the French uneasy, because of the forces of Flanders, the advanced season and the impossibility of collecting sufficient land forces.
But the fleet will sail and even if it does nothing else it will produce good results owing to the consternation that a declaration from this quarter will cause the Spaniards no matter on what grounds, and the encouragement it will afford to the Kings of Denmark and Sweden and the Princes of Germany. It appears that their decisions will include the despatch of the fleet and the support of the forces of the King of Denmark and Mansfelt, the king having promised so much.
It is reckoned that the ships which left for Plymouth will have reached that port. It was arranged that ten of the colonels and a hundred of the captains should leave to-day for that place. It is rumoured that the fleet will start on the 20th prox., but I do not believe that matters are so definitely arranged.
The commissions for Anstruther are not yet signed. He will have letters of credence for the emperor, the electors and the deputies at the diet. His instructions are pregnant with useful ideas, to persuade Caesar that the peace of the empire consists in the restitution of the Palatine, in preventing the princes from agreeing to the diet, and thereby to stop it meeting, to advise them to excuse themselves upon the reasonable pretext of the forces of Denmark, to point out the prejudice of that diet and the harm that others have done; the danger of overthrowing the liberty and subverting the fundamental laws of the empire, and they should seize the opportunity of the arms of the King of Great Britain and make sure of his assistance, protesting and promising that they will uphold the restoration of the Palatine by force.
I am assured that this is how they run, but their expeditions and decisions move so slowly that everything appears cold and late.
It is announced that at the news of the certainty of Anstruther's mission the King of Denmark has taken the field and is near Bremen; he has sent on his guns and ordered fresh levies for 12,000 foot; he has 30 guns; at this move Tilly is retiring; Brandenburg is hastening to join and promises a good disposition in the princes. The Palatine stands firm to this plan. The King of Sweden constantly offers to do as much as the King of Denmark and pay a certain sum. Gabor asks rather for large forces of his friends than a large sum of money; but these negotiations are not ripe; I shall find out more.
Parliament through a deputation is to make a remonstrance to the king upon the state of religion, the consequent peril to the state, and the abuses which they declare exist therein, and to point out how contradictory it is to grant ships against those of the Religion in France and to make war on the Spaniards. It is thought that the parliament will be adjourned to Oxford for the first days of August, old style.
I have obtained no satisfaction upon the slight offered at the funeral and nothing has been decided, although the public remonstrance and my offices should have sufficed.
Windsor, the 24th July, 1625.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
July 25.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
176. To the Ambassador at the Hague and the like to the other Courts.
On the 23rd at the second hour of the night the French ambassador with his wife and other ladies of his household went to take the air in canals outside the city, when a boat of officials came up, and attacked his gondola. Stones were thrown and the ambassadress and her sister were struck. On the following day the ambassador informed us. The Council of Ten at once set to work to find the culprits, and we do not think they will escape the toils, when we shall make an example of them, as the crime amounts to high treason. We also sent a Savio of Terra Ferma to the ambassador on the same day to express our regret and tell him that severe punishment will be inflicted, and offering everything that our city can provide for the ambassadress's injury. We also sent a member of our chancery to call.
We send you this so that if the matter is raised you may relate the exact facts.
Ayes, 125.Noes, 0.Neutral, 3.
[Italian]
July 25.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
177. That the English ambassador be summoned to the Collegio and the following be read to him:
We know your prudence and zeal and therefore rejoice to see you employed by his Majesty in the present most serious affairs. Your efforts will prove most opportune for the Marquis of Coure to make good the losses of his force, with reinforcements from the Swiss and Grisons, and enabling him to secure what he has won, thus thwarting Feria and Leopold. The behaviour of the Swiss Catholic Cantons to the prejudice of the Grisons and Switzerland itself should assist your offices with the others, when supported by a king with such good intentions for the general welfare. Our representatives will always help you. As regards levies, the two towns know us well and should be perfectly assured about our intentions. The decision of his Majesty for the re-establishment of his kin will redound to his eternal glory, and his desire to see the status quo ante in the Grisons and the valley coincides with what we have always felt and advocated. We have given the necessary orders to our Rectors for the safety of your journey, and we will provide every convenience for your wife and household during your absence. We are anxiously awaiting satisfaction about the incident of the funeral.
That letters be sent to the Rectors of Padua, Vicenza, Verona, Bressa, Bergamo.
That copies of this office and the ambassador's exposition be sent to the ambassador in England for his information and so that he may speak in conformity.
Ayes, 110.Noes, 0.Neutral, 4.
[Italian]
July 25.
Collegio,
Lettere.
Venetian
Archives.
178. To the Rectors of Padua.
Order to supply a cavalry escort to the English Ambassador Wake, such as he may require for safety on his journey, when he passes through that city, as he is going to the Swiss.
The like to Valcamonica, Vicenza, Verona, Bressa, Bergamo.
[Italian]
July 25.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
179. LUNARDO MORO, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the DOGE and SENATE.
They keep receiving favourable news here. They hear that the provisions prepared in England for the fleet are spoiled, that Mansfelt's troops keep deserting and someone brought word that he had escaped with only four; and the Duke of Feria has taken Acqui.
Madrid, the 25th July, 1625.
[Italian]
July 26.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
180. To the Ambassador in France and the like to the other Courts and to the Proveditori General.
The Governor of Milan has gone towards Casale, Gavi being about to capitulate. Other Spanish troops have been sent to Pontestura and so they are lodged in the heart of Montferrat, not far from Asti and Vercelli. Feria will not be deterred from his purpose by serious sickness in his army. Savoy has his army near Asti and has sent his eldest son to relieve Albenga; he expects reinforcements from France and his own dominions.
We send this for information.
Ayes, 143.Noes, 0.Neutral, 1.
[Italian]
July 26.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
181. ZORZI GIUSTINIAN, Venetian Ambassador at Constantinople, to the DOGE and SENATE.
On Wednesday in last week the gentleman of the Viceroy of Naples arrived here incognito, named Giovanni Battista Montealbano. He at once told the imperial resident of his arrival, who informed the Caimecan, asking that he might be admitted to negotiate for a truce. The Caimecan has so far replied that such negotiations are suspect and contrary to the Sultan's interests. So the gentleman has not yet been able to obtain audience. The manner of his arrival has greatly damaged the credit of his ambassadors. All we ambassadors are closely watching his proceedings to thwart them, but if he can offer large bribes to the ministers we fear he may succeed.
The truce arranged between the Imperial and Ottoman commissioners remains in suspense. The Caimecan declares that the Sultan will not ratify it, and the order to the Pasha of Bosnia to go thither bears this out.
Achindi, the 26th July, 1625.
[Italian; deciphered.]
July 26.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
182. PIERO CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador at Rome, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The day before yesterday the Count of Bethune, son of the French ambassador, arrived to thank the pope for the dispensation for the English marriage and for sending the legate to that Court. He saw his Holiness yesterday.
Rome, the 26th July, 1625.
[Italian]
July 28.
Collegio,
Secreta.
Lettere.
Venetian
Archives.
183. To the Rectors of Padua.
The English ambassador has informed us of an attack made last Thursday night upon his house at Padua by armed men, who broke some windows, but hearing a noise within withdrew without doing any further harm, and shortly afterwards they came back with the same purpose. We direct you to make diligent enquiry to discover the culprits, appointing guards to patrol at night and keep a special watch upon that house, which should be especially respected as the dwelling of the representative of a great prince so friendly to us, particularly as the ambassadress will stay there while her husband is away with the Swiss. You will inform her of the measures you take, expressing our desire to afford her every possible satisfaction. We expect to hear from you on the subject.
Ayes, 20.Noes, 0.Neutral, 0.
[Italian]
July 28.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
184. ALVISE CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Mansfelt has returned empty to the Hague after wasting a fortnight at Amsterdam. The French and English ambassadors seem anxious to keep together a small force. They jointly obtained 50,000 florins from the States, but the force keeps diminishing. The count came to see me yesterday and complained of the Palatine's ill-will and his ill offices in England. He suspects that the English mean to let his force break up in order to divert their contributions to Denmark. He is sending to France and England to remonstrate about the delay of the money. He refuses to return to the army without money despite the efforts of the ambassadors, who say that his presence might prevent desertion.
The Hague, the 28th July, 1625.
[Italian]
July 28.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
185. ALVISE CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
To prosecute the negotiations for an alliance the Ambassador Morton is waiting for the prince, who is very partial to the English. I fancy they will first confirm the old alliance and enlarge it, perhaps for a long time, to which the States would readily agree. They also contemplate a union with other princes, especially Denmark, to whom they would leave the absolute direction of the war on land. It is said they expect an ambassador soon from those parts to share in these negotiations, while the English ambassadors promise the most excellent disposition on the part of that king.
Gondomar is reported to have gone from France to Brussels, whence he can easily proceed at will to France, England or Germany.
The Hague, the 28th July, 1625.
[Italian]
July 30.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Padova.
Venetian
Archives.
186. The RECTORS of PADUA to the DOGE and SENATE.
Shortly after the receipt of your Serenity's letters of the 28th about the attempt made upon the English ambassador's house, the ambassadress sent the same information to me, the podesta. We sent one of the curiali to the house to take information and try and discover the delinquents, although this may prove difficult as it happened at night. We have ordered the officials who patrol the town at night to watch that part more than others. We informed the ambassadress of these measures and she expressed her satisfaction.
Padua, the 30th July, 1625.
[Italian]
July 31.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
187. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The king and queen came to the castle here, but as they brought the plague with the Court, they have left. The king went to Ocching, a small place, not large enough to accommodate his suite, and the queen betook herself to Nonsuch, a royal abode.
I have seized the opportunity to speak to the ministers, as one gets nothing in this country except by importunity. I saw Conway first; he said Wake had written nothing about the matter; he repeated the usual excuses and said he had not spoken to the king. I said he should have done so. As regards Wake, I said ambassadors did not usually show so much negligence, and pointed out how much harm he was doing to Wake by injuring his credit with your Excellencies. I told him plainly that they ought to make up their minds and let the blame and shame fall on those who deserved it. He promised to speak to the king.
The Chamberlain promised co-operation, but I find he is connected with Lewkenor, and he keeps making excuses. Accordingly I addressed myself to the duke. Seeing me so resolute he promised to speak to the king at once, but said that the one who had done the wrong had been punished. I remonstrated against this. He promised a further remedy and asked what they could do. I claimed the punishment of the Master of the Ceremonies. He asked what sort of punishment, and I replied that that rested with his Majesty. The duke admitted it was ill done; he blamed Tremes more than Fiat, and promised that I should rest content.
Windsor, the 31st July, 1625.
[Italian]
July 31.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
188. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
When I saw the ministers we discussed various matters. The duke asked me about Italy. I said I only knew that the Spaniards are making great efforts and the forces of the others are sufficient, but without help from this crown the danger became common to the advantage of the Spaniards. The Most Christian was sending troops to the Constable and money to the duke. I spoke of Germany, of Tilly advancing into Cleves and Mansfelt having to retire, or else the Prince of Orange must advance to oppose Tilly. The duke said they were spending a great deal of money uselessly, and instead of secretly helping others the king would ultimately have to make war for himself. I remarked that the king would acquire great gain and glory; such a declaration would hearten everyone. The Chamberlain also told me that the king contemplated acting for himself; they want open war rather than to spend through others and squander their money uselessly. Last year and the present the Dutch had consumed as many armies and done nothing. Apparently they have decided on greater declarations. I encourage this, but not knowing the reason for these changes I must caution you, lest they merely serve as a pretext to avoid expense or to strengthen certain negotiations in Germany. The Chamberlain also told me that the king will do everything for the union of France against the common foe and for peace with the Huguenots. I am not sure if they are continuing negotiations for some sort of union with France. They say that Fiat, who left with the other ambassadors, will return if the negotiations for an offensive and defensive league continue. This is their greatest desire here, but the correspondence in other matters is very perverse.
The sailors for the ships destined for France have orders to serve the Most Christian against all. But I am assured that they excuse themselves saying that they cannot obey without injuring their own faith and that the king cannot command them against their consciences.
The French ambassadors have gone, with the confidence of obtaining what they wanted, thus they did not avail themselves of their king's orders to return thanks owing to the promises given here. Before leaving they made strong remonstrances. As regards the interests of the Catholics in general they had to take things on trust, but they left matters settled as regards the queen's household, and referred to what the Most Christian will direct.
The Duke of Buckingham wished to introduce his wife, sister, and niece into the queen's chamber, as ladies of the bedchamber, an honour highly esteemed at this Court. This was refused because they were not Catholics, but they granted access and the appointment to his mother, as a Catholic, because that is not contrary to the treaty, to still any disturbances among the household and to impose silence on the duke. But he took offence and spoke bitterly to the queen. He sent to protest to the ambassadors that he desired this eagerly. His messenger went so far that the ambassadors threatened to throw him out of the window. They did not meet for three days, and Buckingham avoided seeing them subsequently while the question remained in dispute. The ladies enter the queen's apartment, as they say, by permission, but not with any charge, because they have not taken the oath and also have not her Majesty's consent.
They have deprived the first lady of honour (fn. 1) of the entry to the royal coach, and they do not desire familiarity between the queen and her bishop and confessor. They are doing everything to tire out the French and induce them to go. They expect orders from France, but it is wonderful to see the revival of the hostility between the two nations at the time of this alliance. However, the ambassadors have received rich presents; Chevreuse has received jewels to the value of 50,000 crowns; Fiat, who has rendered greater services, but who has more openly resented the treatment of the queen, received a smaller gift, with expressions which he did not appreciate and took badly, but the king remedied this by giving him a rich diamond. Public consequences arise from such domestic incidents and it is not superfluous to record them for your Serenity.
The Dutch ambassadors could not hold out against the dangers of the plague and will lodge at Stens.
They have done nothing more than confer with the commissioners over their respective instructions. As Morton has begun his negotiations at the Hague, the States have ordered these ambassadors to return, but his Majesty prefers the negotiations to proceed at this Court and has ordered Morton to return and treat here. The ambassadors have written for instructions and their negotiations remain suspended for the moment.
The fleet is hastened on; the duke says he wishes to command it in person, contrary to the general belief. They have ordered a press for 3,000 foot to fill up the old levies and have full numbers.
Parliament proposed or petitioned that the king shall take the oath as Queen Elizabeth and King James did; that the laws against the Catholics shall be executed; that an almoner of the king shall be prosecuted for writing a book advocating the union of the Protestant and Catholic religions, charging him with being an Arminian. (fn. 2) The king did not answer categorically, but expressed his displeasure at their going so far about a member of his household and under his protection. Parliament has been adjourned until the 1/11 August, at Oxford.
Anstruther's instructions were despatched with letters of credence as reported. The agent of Spain has treated for the release of the Dunkirkers, but has only obtained words of little consequence.
The Duchess of Chevreuse and the Countess of Tillieres have given birth at Richmond to a daughter and a son respectively.
The plague in London is becoming most severe and people are dying by thousands. The air seems infected and many succumb suddenly when walking in the streets. The scourge has spread everywhere. I should have left here if I could have found quarters, but I will try for lodgings at Oxford if the Court moves there. I shall not mind the danger if I please your Serenity. I have very heavy expenses to bear. I keep a moveable household.
The king has ordered mourning again, which only increases my difficulties.
Windsor, the 31st July, 1625.
[Italian]
July 31.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
189. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I have reserved the negotiations in Germany for the last. I have already reported the interposition of the Dukes of Lorraine and Wirtemberg. The matter has now gone further and I can report the contents of various letters. The emperor writes to the two dukes to the same effect. He points out that they first asked him for peace in the empire and the restoration of the Palatine; he asserts his good intentions for peace, and although the Palatine had always opposed him, he had made representations to the Catholic for the restoration of the Lower Palatinate. He declares his constant desire for peace, though he must not compromise his greatness and authority, and he asks them to discover the intentions of the Palatine and the King of Great Britain.
Wirtemberg sent this letter to the Palatine to hear what he thought. He received a general reply about a desire for peace which will not prejudice his honour or the fundamental laws of the empire. Dissatisfied with this, Wirtemberg urged the Palatine to declare himself more fully, exhorted him to peace, showing the doubtfulness and danger of recovering the lost by war, and asking him to discover the intentions of the King of Great Britain.
The agent of the Palatine has discussed this matter with the King of Great Britain, thanking his Majesty for the proposal made by him in parliament for the restitution of the Palatinate. He urged the despatch of Anstruther to the diet of deputies, which has already been done, and left it to his Majesty's judgment whether he should get the Most Christian and Denmark to do the like and to point out the advantage of France in supporting his interests. He requested that a passport should be asked from Caesar for two of his councillors to attend the diet. He also asked advice as to what reply to give to Wirtemberg, while urging the continuation of force and the support of the arms of Denmark, pointing out with what reserve the emperor proposes an adjustment, but having always desired peace and not wishing to involve other princes in war, it would be well to obtain some sort of adjustment.
There are other matters, but I cannot remember more from a mere glance at the papers.
One may say that the king answered the last part. He declared he would not enter into negotiations if the Palatine did not wish it, as his father had been so frequently deceived in this way; if the agent received an assurance from his master that he would only stand by the advice and decisions of his Majesty, they would go forward sword in hand. The negotiations were only to avoid making himself hateful in Germany and to show Caesar that his master is not averse to an accommodation upon reasonable conditions. The king would listen to negotiations but he would not lay down his arms.
I know that the ministers think it something new for the Palatine to seek negotiation, when with the late king he did nothing but complain of his negotiations. Apparently his minister here inclines to treat either because the Palatine cherishes some secret hope or illusion, or he thinks to assure himself by the fear of arms. Perhaps also he knows that war on land cannot be waged so easily and at sea it may only serve him nominally and as a pretext for the English to win honour and advantage.
As regards the league of the princes, matters proceed coldly owing to the jealousy between the Kings of Sweden and Denmark, and a thousand other difficulties. However, they are expecting ambassadors from the King of Sweden and Brandenburg to offer congratulations. We shall hear if they have anything to say about negotiations.
Windsor, the 31st July, 1625.
Postscript.—I enclose a letter from the Count of Mansfelt with my reply.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
190. Letter of the Count of Mansfelt to the Ambassador Pesaro.
Asks for his patents from the republic. Has never claimed anything not calculated to advance the general welfare. Sig. Bernardino Rota is writing more fully.
Gorcom, the 4th July, 1625.
[Italian]
191. Letter of the Ambassador Pesaro to the Count of Mansfelt.
The republic sent the patents, and they have not been received through the fault of the person charged to deliver them. Promises to do his utmost. Assurances of the esteem of the republic.
Windsor, the 17/27 July, 1625.
[Italian]

Footnotes

1 Jeanne de Harlay, Marquise de St. George. See Morosini's despatch of the 22nd August, at page 144 below, and note.
2 Richard Montagu, rector of Stanford Rivers in Essex, the book in question being Appello Caesarem. Montagu was made a king's chaplain while his case was under consideration by parliament. See Forster: Sir John Eliot, i, pages 252–8.