Venice
October 1625, 1-15

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1913

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172-186

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'Venice: October 1625, 1-15', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 19: 1625-1626 (1913), pp. 172-186. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=89046 Date accessed: 21 October 2014.


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October 1625

Oct. 1.
Senato,
Terra.
Venetian
Archives.
254. Whereas Marc' Antonio Correr and Anzolo Contarini have been chosen ambassadors to the King of Great Britain and it concerns the public service that they should be informed of passing events, that they may come to this Council, but not ballot, until their departure upon the said embassy.
Ayes, 113.Noes, 1.Neutral, 1.
[Italian.]
Oct. 4.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
255. To the Ambassador at Rome and the like to the other Courts and to the Proveditori General.
The troops of the league in the Valtelline retired in good order from the trenches of Dosso to the Ponte di Ganda which they fortified. Papenein says he will do great things with the troops of Urbino which he expects. Our reinforcements are on the road and the Duke of Candales is expected. He shows great resolution. The Marquis of Coure is pleased at these reinforcements. Certainly we cannot do more. The enemy mean to make sure of the fort of S. Pietro, as securing the whole valley.
The Spaniards find it more and more difficult to take Verua, owing to the activity of the Duke of Savoy. The French attacked four ships bringing munitions by the Po to the Spanish camp, and captured one. Some French cavalry captured other provisions. Damage done by Savoy's artillery to the Spanish camp. Leopold is urging the emperor to hostilities against our republic, though Leopold has spoken to our resident at the Imperial Court in quite a different way.
Ayes, 114.Noes, 0.Neutral, 1.
[Italian.]
Oct. 6.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
256. ZORZI GIUSTINIAN, Venetian Ambassador at Constantinople, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I hear on good authority that the man sent here by the Viceroy of Naples about a truce with Spain will leave for Vienna next week, without having obtained audience of the Caimecan or of any other minister. The Caimecan especially refused to see him particularly when he found that though he brought copious promises his hands were empty.
The peace concluded in Hungary between the Imperial and Ottoman commissioners has not been confirmed yet. Neither I nor the other ambassadors have succeeded in seeing the letters they say they have written to the Pasha of Buda. Certainly the Caimecan has not yet informed any of the ambassadors in the Divan of the conclusion of peace, as they always used to do in such cases. I and the other ambassadors shall try to prevent the confirmation, or else I shall try and get the republic included.
Achindi, the 6th October, 1625.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Oct. 6.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
257. ZORZI GIUSTINIAN, Venetian Ambassador at Constantinople, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I have the affairs of our merchants at Aleppo very much at heart. I succeeded in getting the pasha there removed for an outrage on our consul, but I understand that the confiscated goods have not been restored. I have finally obtained a full decision in our favour. I had scarcely settled this very difficult affair when letters reached me from the consul of the 5th and 9th ult. informing me of all that had taken place between him and the English consul and asking for my help and for orders from the Porte in his favour, to forestall the English ambassador, to whom their consul has sent with equal haste for the same purpose, that ambassador being deeply interested owing to the rights which he derives from that consulship. Without losing a moment I obtained from the Caimecan all that our consul desired and more, without any outlay, as I obtained an order from the Sultan and letters from the Caimecan to the Pasha and Cadi of Aleppo completely demolishing the claims of the English consul, based upon their capitulations, and confirming ours, ordering the Cadi to listen to no one who tried to raise this question again. It was well I was prompt, for hardly had I obtained this from the Caimecan than I received the enclosed letter from the English ambassador, who is at the Islands. You will see what he demands; I tactfully excused myself. I told him that not our consul but his prosecuted the other in the Turkish Courts. As the matter is very important to the ambassador and all his countrymen I fear they will make every effort to win over the Caimecan. However, I have the advantage of being first, and I have sent to the consul to stand firm and I will use all my influence with the ambassador to prevent him from moving, as it can only involve us in disputes and expense before the Turks, which we ought to avoid.
Achindi, the 6th October, 1625.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Enclosed
in the
preceding
despatch.
258. Letter of the English Ambassador to the Venetian Bailo. (fn. 1)
I will not follow the example of your consul and appeal to corrupt Turkish justice, as we have sworn on the Gospels to have no litigation before the infidels; no doubt we can arrange this matter. I will not insist upon the affront to the royal prerogative, but will simply relate the facts. A Venetian merchant living at Venice hired an English ship for the ports of Cyprus and Schienderona, binding the master to hoist St. Mark's flag on the high seas and in those ports, unless he fell in with armed ships, when he should shelter under the flag of St. George. On arriving at Cyprus and finding pirates in the port, he entered and did his business under the English flag. At Schenderona later on he flew the Venetian. Meanwhile for 24 hours, seeing another ship sailing towards the port and being doubtful about it, he again hoisted the English flag, but finding the ship to be Venetian and being admonished by our consul to fly the English flag only, he excused himself and remained without any. I report this to point out the fault committed by the British subject, which will cost him dear, but your consul by taking him under his protection has carried the matter further, in refusing to pay our consulage, by which alone I and all our expenses in the Levant are supported. Our consul asked that the consulage might be deposited and the dispute decided here between us, but this was absolutely refused. Before the Cadi he produced our capitulations stating that all foreigners who go and come in our ships must pay the consul's due; your consul and the master admitted that the ship was English and all the sailors subjects of my sovereign. Your consul produced a command seven years old, releasing Venetians from consulage on our ships, a thing done privately and contrary to the capitulations. With this and a bribe of 1,400 thalers, considerably more than the consulage, he obtained sentence against us.
Your Excellency knows how greatly private commands prejudice the relations between princes, especially with the ease that such things are obtained at this Porte. I therefore hope you will look into the matter and by that you will order your consul to desist from his violence and thus we can settle everything in a friendly way between us. If the master bound himself to deliver his goods from our duty, his rebel acts cannot prejudice his Majesty's prerogative. I expect to be back in my house on Saturday or Monday next and shall then be able to confer with your Excellency.
Halchi, the 20/30 September, 1625.
[Italian.]
Enclosed
in the
preceding
despatch.
259. Statement of Christoforo Bruti, dragoman.
Went to the English ambassador about the matter of the consulage. He said the letter of our Consul da Pesaro was full of lies. He did not believe that the English ambassador at Venice would consent to the ship carrying the Venetian flag, as it was an act of rebellion on the part of the master. It was one of five ships which his Majesty meant to confiscate, for taking wheat to Genoa, and hiring out at Venice on conditions prejudicial to the king, for which the master deserved death. The consulage absolutely belonged to the King of England and was paid by all nations. He himself had obtained the consulage from Frenchmen and Flemings who brought goods on English ships. If there was any difficulty about paying, the captain had orders not to unlade the goods. His consul had done wrong to take the matter into the Turkish courts, and he was sorry for it; but the consul had previously asked that the consulage might be deposited and the matter referred to the two ambassadors here. The French consul is the cause of all the trouble, as the French at present wish to hire English ships and then would like to profit by the consulage which the English get. He asked that the matter might be settled without scandal or recourse to the Turks. He wished to avoid this at all costs, though he could easily secure the execution of the capitulations. He asked for a public act declaring void the sentence of the Cadi against them, and that the matter might be settled here between himself and the Bailo.
Bruti replied that the master had undertaken to sail his ship as Venetian, and his act ought not to prejudice these merchants. The consul had offered to let the king arbitrate, but this was refused. The ambassador said that was quite right; his king had given his ambassador here ample authority to act as supreme judge in the Levant. Bruti objected that the English capitulations had no right to lay any charge upon Venetian subjects. The Venetian Bailo moreover had no authority over the consul at Aleppo. The ambassador urged the dragoman to induce the Bailo to give satisfaction to his merchants, who are all in arms over the matter. After this the dragoman took leave.
[Italian.]
Oct. 7.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
260. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The king delays his return from Plymouth longer than he intended because he did not find the fleet quite ready to sail.
However, he issued orders for the immediate pressing of 3,000 foot and 2,000 sailors whom they required. The first muster of the troops was held on the 1st of this month. The sailing of the fleet will be delayed a little longer, arousing misgivings that it will be late, as the time for bad weather is approaching and the fleet from the Indies may get into safety; but they know what is required and show corresponding solicitude.
They declare that the king will not take cover under the name of others, but will give the orders himself. The Dutch ambassadors said they had a promise of this. The royal ships are already beginning to gather fruit, as prizes reach Plymouth every day. At this moment they have taken eleven ships, nine from Spain, thought to be for Dunkirk, laden with divers merchandise and some chests of ryals, and two pirates; these have not yet been declared lawful booty, but the people here rejoice in the hope of private gain, and many come forward and receive letters of marque freely.
Owing to suspicions of Spinola they have sent orders to Ireland to be on their guard. The Earl of Warwick goes on with his provisions and fortifications and has disarmed the Catholics of Essex. They have decided to send the Duke of Buckingham to the United Provinces, and he has already taken leave of his Majesty and gone to see his wife before starting for the Hague. This mission is considered important owing to the duke's position, but I can only learn what they say, namely that he wishes to induce the States to make greater declarations for Mansfelt and Denmark, though this seems unlikely. Others say they intend thereby to cloak the shame of giving up the fleet and that they wish to show their respect for the Queen of Bohemia. As she is always more and more beloved by the people here, he wishes to obtain testimony of her satisfaction for the parliament, in order to win them over to make contributions, and so that the duke may receive this basis of security, because in the past the queen's own dependants have crossed him. But the chief reasons for this journey will appear with their negotiations at the Hague, whence they expect news about the alliance.
Upon this I may give some important details. The conditions about attacking the King of Spain by sea and land are only specified by sea; by land there are only generalities about operating equally, as the States must not employ greater forces than they use for their own interests, and this king is not bound to any special enterprise on land.
Here they would like the States to induce France to come in and the Dutch ambassadors have promised to do their best. The Dutch declared that they could not establish the treaty without informing the Most Christian, and they apparently do not wish to ratify the treaty before they have assurance of help from France. The French gentlemen here in attendance on the queen show that there may be interests to favour this union, but they do not altogether betray jealousy (mostrano che siano interesse di favorire quest' unione, ma non scuoprino intieramente gelosia).
They have promised to send the treaty to the ambassadors of Sweden and Brandenburg, and may already have done so, as a sign of confidence and a fillip for their masters. I find that the Swedish ambassador has spoken strongly to the king about the designs of the House of Austria and the best way to thwart them, and he remonstrated bitterly with the king and the duke, on learning that the fleet was to go against Spain. The king declared they desired this war because the late king had decided on it when alive, and he was bound to it by obedience to his father, by conscience and honour. The ambassador has not instituted any negotiations for a closer union, but is merely listening (il Re affermando di voler la guerra perche il fu Re l'havea deliberata, vivendo, e di esser caricato per obedienza verso il padre per conscienza et per honore. Non ha l'Ambr. attaccato pratiche per stringere ma per ascoltare).
I am assured that the King [of Sweden] by the present missions wishes first to sound the feelings of others and then take his measures, which are to obtain payment for 8,000 foot and 2,000 horse, to maintain 14,000 foot and 4,000 horse of his own besides 60 pieces of ordnance. The agent of the Palatine has asked the king here to contribute. He excused himself on the ground of the heavy expenses he bears and the contributions he owes to Mansfelt and Denmark. So these designs must be combined with a more general union by the negotiations at the Hague. The Palatine has pointed out the danger that the coast towns of Germany, out of fear for Tilly, may rush into the emperor's arms and thereby perhaps render the House of Austria invincible by sea and land, and they must encourage and help Denmark, for if he came to terms or suffered defeat all Germany would suffer and the Palatine lose all hope of restoration. The King of Denmark presses for a diversion through Mansfelt. They listen to this and prepare to send, but with harmful delays.
The ambassador of Brandenburg has performed special offices, the elector presenting a long paper against Neuburg's treaty as fraudulent and prejudicial to him and his posterity, pointing out the artifices of that prince and the advantages of the Spaniards. He asks the king not to approve it and expresses his desire for an accommodation if they negotiate sincerely, and with the interposition of this crown and the Most Christian. (fn. 2) They gave him abundant promises.
All the ambassadors received liberal presents; the four ambassadors of Sweden, Brandenburg and Holland sailed together to the Netherlands in Swedish ships.
The ambassador extraordinary of the Most Christian (fn. 3) is at Boulogne ready to cross the sea. He was delayed by the alteration of his instructions in conformity with the news about the changes and the steps taken against the Catholics. They say he comes to increase the friendly intercourse between the two crowns; to obtain connivance for the Catholics; to settle the household and invest the queen's dowry, the embassy depending upon his pleasure. The accidents between the king and queen and between the two nations induce constantly less confidence and greater suspicion, owing to the disputes of the household and because a gun was fired, without hitting, at a minister who preached in the queen's house to her displeasure. They want to punish the culprit and excuse the act as the folly of a lacquey, but such acts here amount to sacrilege and may give rise to worse consequences. (fn. 4)
Twenty-five persons, of low condition, of the queen's household have left voluntarily with a reward in money, and others envy their departure and recognition, as all are dissatisfied.
The news of Soubise's defeat, secured by the ships of this crown, has already arrived, an event which occasions much free speech against the Duke of Buckingham, as being contrary to the promises made to parliament that the ships should not be used against their own faith; in former days it was high treason to supply a model, much more to alienate a royal ship, and they declare that apart from the ship called Prince the French have the best in their own power.
Soubise reached Plymouth with a few ships to ask for a haven. The king would not see him, for the honour of France, but secretly he comforted him and sent to the Most Christian to ask his pardon, excusing this protection because Soubise is a kinsman and because he held his Majesty at the font.
The plague in London, thank God, has diminished by two-thirds, but the mischief is spreading in the country. The Court is ordered to move to Salisbury, whither I shall go to serve your Serenity and to consult the physicians about the fresh outbreak of my old catarrh, which affects my back and right arm, causing pain and rendering movement difficult. The physicians of this place advise me to leave this air and keep to one room, or else I shall risk my life. I fear that the winter and the damp will disable me.
I beg your Excellencies to vote me some money for extraordinary expenses.
Southampton, the 7th October, 1625.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Oct. 9.
Collegio.
Secreta.
Esposizioni,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
261. The secretary of the English ambassador came into the Collegio and spoke as follows:
I have received letters from the ambassador of the 24th ult. from Berne in reply to mine of the 15th, begging him to tell me something about English affairs, as your Serenity commanded. He assures me that in four months he has only received one letter from Lord Conovel, secretary of state, unfinished, undated and unsigned, because he was flying from London from the plague. He tells me he has written again and begs your Serenity to have patience as you will certainly receive satisfaction.
The doge said, We thank you for the news, and we shall expect to receive from his Majesty that satisfaction which we always promise ourselves. The secretary afterwards said that as the ambassador has the reply to the Grisons recently given to him, so he has directed me to communicate the proposal made to the lords of Zurich, which is similar to that from Berne. He read all these, leaving copies.
When he had finished reading, the doge said: We rejoiced to hear the prudent representations made by the ambassador to the Swiss, especially as we perceive more and more his good disposition towards the republic; we therefore thank him. The secretary continued, The ambassador found at Berne that Dogliani, the Spanish ambassador and the ambassador of the Archduke Leopold, in the name of the Canton of Lucerne, were urging the restitution of the arms of the Count of Solms, arrested by their order, and apparently they had almost promised, but the ambassador arrived in time. He added that he was certain he could do well, but everything depended upon making a good harvest.
The doge commended the ambassador's prudence and his good offices for the common cause, and the secretary renewed his application for the release of the Scotti with much energy. The doge replied that the Council of Ten would attend to it. The secretary then introduced the merchant Ralph Symes, presenting a memorial about a heavy customs charge made upon him and for the Cottimo, and begging for relief and despatch, and so took leave and departed.
[Italian.]
Collegio,
Secreta,
Esposizioni,
Roma,
filza.
Venetian
Archives.
262. The present disturbed state of Christendom, due to the ambition of those who are not content with what God has given them, requires a good understanding among all the powers who merely aim at the preservation of the common liberty. Wherefore the late King James, after great efforts at a friendly settlement, finally perceived his intentions were frustrated by the malice of some and the tricks of others, and was forced to change his style and have recourse to the means with which God and nature have provided men to defend themselves and bring the obstinate to reason. He thought fit to impart his plans to all the free powers. He therefore ordered me to come to you as to very dear friends, to tell you what he desired to do and give his reasons for such action.
It was not possible for me to fulfil this commission when I received it, owing to the very important affairs which detained me elsewhere, until God summoned that king to himself, and so I had to await my present commissions from his present Majesty. I need not dwell upon this subject, but will merely remark, Sol occubuit nox nulla secuta est, just as the historians say that in summer there is little or no night in Great Britain. All the world now turns its eyes to his present Majesty, knowing that he can revivify liberty though half dead, the ardour of his rays burning up the superfluous branches of the great trees which will not allow any plant of liberty to live under the leaves of their ambition. He has inherited his father's affection for you, ordering me to salute you all in his name, assuring you of his goodwill and esteem, and his desire to benefit you and your friends.
His Majesty has learned with the utmost satisfaction of the recovery of the states of your confederates of the three leagues and the restoration of their liberty, and has directed me to congratulate you and your friends upon this, as being paries proximus. The physicians say morbi longi et itinera longa valde debilitant corpora. It is to be feared that these good friends, who have suffered so much from rebels within and enemies without, must be so enfeebled that without cordial and constant assistance they may relapse Non minor est virtus quam quaerere parta tueri. Wherefor you should keep awake for their preservation in their present state and the establishment of their political and religious liberty so that you may be safer through their stability. Parum distat ab aegroto qui tantum sanus est, and this is their present case; they are no longer sick, thank God, but this is little and they must recover their pristine vigour, so that their relapse may not harm you worse than it has done.
God has raised them great and powerful friends. The Most Christian, head of this great confederation, has healed all the scrofula that infested the Valtelline, only one little sore remaining at Riva which will soon be healed at his Majesty's touch.
You have also contributed to the cost, and I feel sure that you will continue to protect your friends and allies of the three leagues and favour the confederate princes with all your power. They have expended blood and treasure to secure the liberty of your neighbours, qui cadere sine vobis non possunt vobiscum possunt, and their only object is to restore your confederates to their pristine condition, and there is no fear of the Grisons merely changing their master. The characters of the Most Christian, the republic of Venice and the Duke of Savoy are too well known for such an opinion to obtain except among the enemies of the common welfare. They beg you to contribute all you can to help their plans, by promptly granting the levies they ask, accommodating their soldiers when they pass, and refusing a passage to their enemies or anything which might prejudice your friends and consequently yourselves.
I do not want to advise the slightest innovation. I would not question the wisdom under which you have so long prospered. My master is averse from innovation and the confederate princes only desire that each one shall keep his own. They hope that you will co-operate in this, maintaining your reputation as faithful allies, while those who listen too much to Jesuits and ministers of foreign princes do not meet you with the good, faith your sincerity deserves.
You have heard of my king's marriage alliance with France, how he has roused Germany, his preparations at sea to do what he owes to God, his conscience, his honour and his blood. The moment is propitious; let every one do his part. If you wish to co-operate with his Majesty and his friends for the preservation of the public liberty, now is the time, and you will see that there is no danger of embarking with those who have such good biscuit, because vitae est avidus quisquis non vult mundo secum pereunte mori.
[Italian.]
Oct. 10.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
263. To the Ambassador in England.
This week we have no letters from you. The last were full of news both curious and useful. We were glad to learn the views of the Duke of Buckingham as expressed to you and we commend the prudence of your replies. We clearly perceive that the English think more of their own private interests than of the pressing needs of Germany, and they will take the course which they think offers them the greatest advantages. This is an important consideration, especially now when circumstances call upon prudent princes to consider the general welfare as well as their own. That sovereign in particular ought to think of the condition of the Palatine, his brother-in-law, and the state of Christendom, which should induce him to encourage those who act rightly. However, the aspect of affairs is changing. Denmark is facing Tilly, and the King of Sweden is progressing in Livonia. All this makes us hope for more vigour and success.
You will direct the attention of the ministers to such views and urge that if his Majesty joins with France to support Mansfelt, it cannot fail to help the public cause. We hear that at the Hague the ambassadors of the two crowns have jointly decided to provide Mansfelt with 60,000 florins; this persuades us that the two kings will do the right thing here. We have instructed our Ambassador Morosini in France to encourage every union between the two monarchs, and we charge you to do the same, though with wise reserve.
The French Ambassador Extraordinary Blenville should have arrived. You will use this opportunity to encourage union between the two crowns. The Chancellor of Denmark has arrived at the Hague as ambassador extraordinary. Apparently negotiations for an alliance are on foot, to include France, England, Sweden and the States. You will closely observe what is done or proposed, without declaring yourself, and send us word.
We understand from you that the delay in granting satisfaction about the funeral incident arises from private matters at Court and the plague. The Ambassador Wake says the same, and that he has not heard from the Court for four months, except one letter from Conway, the Secretary of State, sent without date or signature. He said he would repeat his offices and begged us to have patience, assuring us that we should receive satisfaction. We should like to feel sure of this, but you will continue your offices until due satisfaction is obtained.
In relieving Antonio Barbara, who was Proveditore General in Terra Ferma, of his charge we have chosen Francesco Erizzo in his place, who was to have gone as ambassador extraordinary to England. Accordingly we have selected Angelo Contarini, who was our ambassador in France, for this task. You will inform his Majesty and the ministers of this.
Ayes, 100.Noes, 1.Neutral, 3.
[Italian.]
Oct. 10.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
264. To the Ambassadors in France, England and the States.
Enclose letters from the Bailo at Constantinople of the 22nd August with particulars of the present state of the negotiations for a truce with Spain, the difficulties of peace with the emperor and the hopes of the Transylvanian for an alliance with the princes of Christendom friendly to the Ottoman house. The gentleman from Naples has not yet had audience of the Vizier. The peace in Hungary is said not to be approved by the emperor. This important news will serve you for information and to use if the matter is discussed at Court.
We have instructed our Bailo to unite with the ambassadors of the powers which have the same interests to keep the ministers to the promises made to Gabor, insisting that the Porte must protect his actions. You will make representation so that instructions may be sent to the ministers at the Porte to assist these designs in every way and persuade the Turks to keep their promises. With Turkish help Gabor can make a most profitable diversion. By such arguments you will try to make a favourable impression on the ministers.
We have also heard that Gabor has written assuring the emperor that he will not attack his dominions, thanking him for the title of Most Serene, and promising to direct his forces where he pleases. This seems very different from what Gabor's resident said at the Porte, although our letter also states that Gabor sent to the Tartar king offering to join him against the Poles because of the damage done to the Sultan by the Cossacks. This would be very different from serving Cæsar and it is incredible that the Tartars should contemplate such action at present, as they have a good understanding with the Cossacks and help them against the Turks. Probably the prince is hesitating until he knows what reception his proposals will meet with at the Porte. Accordingly you must show the greater zeal.
Ayes, 89.Noes, 1.Neutral, 3.
[Italian.]
Oct. 11.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
265. To the Ambassador in England.
The Ambassador Wake, after making a prudent office with the Grisons in their Pitach at Coire, has gone on to the Swiss, and at Zurich and Berne he has impressed upon them the care of their own liberty and the preservation of their allies, speaking of our republic in particular. He has sent us confidential communication of this through his secretary, and he seems a worthy and sincere minister, deserving of special praise which you will express to his Majesty and the ministers when an opportunity occurs.
The like to the Hague, adding: You will also express our satisfaction to the Ambassador Carleton.
Ayes, 73.Noes, 0.Neutral, 5.
[Italian.]
Oct. 11.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
266. To the Ambassador at Rome and the like to the other Courts and to the Proveditori General.
The last letters from France report the departure of the cardinal legate without arranging anything for which he went. The French are hastening their preparations for Italy; the constable being urged to relieve Verua. M. della Vignola has started to reinforce the Duke of Savoy. Feria seems disposed to make a strong diversion, urging the Genoese to move against Savoy.
Popenain has received reinforcements and thought of taking Morbegno, but the league, being also reinforced, recaptured the abandoned works and drove the enemy from Mantello. The Marquis of Coure has orders to hasten the construction of the new fort. The Swiss troops are marching towards the valley and the French are beginning to arrive. Many of Mansfelt's men have deserted. Ten galleys are to visit Naples to take the regiment of 2,000 men for the Genoese and the cavalry for Milan. Feria is raising taxes to pay them and the viceroy is imposing new burdens to obtain money, which the people resist.
Ayes, 73.Noes, 0.Neutral, 1.
[Italian.]
Oct. 11.
Senato,
Secreta,
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
267. MARC ANTONIO MOROSINI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Infanta and Spinola remain near Dunkirk. They have enlarged the Mardyke canal near Gravelines, whither they have taken the new ships. But these cannot put to sea without great peril, as the Dutch still guard the port and the mouth of the Channel.
There is no news from England. M. de Blenville wrote recently from Boulogne that all the ports of that kingdom were still closed, and he had heard some rumour of an attempt of the Catholics to capture Dover castle. Some say that the king is going to Plymouth to see the fleet start, and that is why he has kept the ports closed.
The Most Christian's fleet has captured the island of Oleron, driving out Soubise, who has sailed for England with a few ill-equipped ships, pursued by several royal vessels. It is thought that the war is over. All the Huguenots incline to obedience and peace except La Rochelle, but necessity may act as their school to control their passions.
Paris, the 11th October, 1625.
[Italian.]
Oct. 13.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
268. MARC ANTONIO MOROSINI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Ambassador of Savoy has decided to send his Secretary Barocio to England. He will leave in an hour and I am sending letters by him to the Ambassador Pesaro.
Paris, the 13th October, 1625.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Oct. 13.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
269. DOMINICO DOMINICI, Venetian Secretary in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The English Ambassador Wake has arrived in this city from a visit to the Grisons and the Swiss. I tried to draw him on the subject of the slight committed by the Master of the Ceremonies at the late king's funeral. He said he had written about it to some of the leading men, but had not yet received any answer from his king, though he expected one. He told me he thought his journey had greatly helped the common cause. On arriving here he had called upon Prince Vittorio and Madame; he expected to see the duke, who had lodged and entertained him. He did not know by what way he would return to Venice.
Turin, the 13th October, 1625.
[Italian.]
Oct. 15.
Senato,
Secreta,
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
270. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
While I was hoping that my preceding despatches had reached your Serenity safely I heard that they had been stopped at Gravesend. Accordingly I resolved to obtain the opening of the ports by the royal command, and send post to France. The king returned from Plymouth after having left the necessary orders for the fleet, which was not in the condition supposed. The Duke of Buckingham changed his mind about leaving for the Hague and stopped at that port to hasten the dispatch of the fleet. News has arrived that the troops are on board, and the duke may be here any moment. After seeing the Ambassador Blenville, who will arrive here to-day, the duke will leave for Holland. I am assured that he has the amplest powers to treat, and the king has already ratified his operations. He is to gather information from the King and Queen of Bohemia and try and unite all means considered necessary for their reputation. He will deal with a league for Germany and devise a way for bringing France in, and according to the proposals of Blenville and what he can gather from them he will go to the king again.
They think he will try to raise money from the merchants there upon the credit of the States and the king's guarantee, but he wants to bring back the desires of the Palatine and a faithful report of the satisfaction of his wife, and by these means be able to recall parliament and so protect himself behind these shields, while making sure of willing contributions from the people.
That this mission is for a general confederation is confirmed by the offices of the Palatine's agent here with divers princes of Germany, the report of the duke's departure for this and the certitude of the fleet sailing and the king declaring for open war tending to encourage them.
The duke will take letters of exchange to pay Mansfelt and the King of Denmark, to whom they have sent their promises, approving of Mansfelt's departure and the progress made by the ambassadors of the two crowns.
They are very pleased with the King of Denmark, who reports two successes, which they call small victories. They declare him steadfast for the war and lament his being abandoned by the Princes of Lower Saxony, that Luneburg has declared for the emperor, and Brunswick only remains undecided through his offices. They seem ill satisfied with France because she does not fulfil her promises to make diversions in Alsace and Germany.
The Council here clings to the idea of union with France; the Agent of the Palatine admits they must try to win her, but if difficulties continue, the king here must act by himself, and must leave the Princes of Germany to profit by themselves in the hope that the encouragement given by the French for union and the promises of money may at least produce some effect. (Si faccino almen sordamente effective.)
Here they assert that they will not draw back even if France does not join, as they have gone too far. What they have done suffices for open war, and there will be more.
They have issued various proclamations, (fn. 5) but notably for the exercising of the militia, and for this all the officers have been sent to their posts. They have recalled all his Majesty's subjects serving the emperor, the Catholic king and the Infanta, whether by sea or land. This is practically a declaration of war. The king and his ministers assert that his Majesty has broken the peace with good cause; the agent at Brussels has been recalled and when he has crossed the sea they propose to dismiss the agents of Spain and Flanders.
To avoid danger they have decided to disarm all the Catholics here and in Ireland, and they have also sent orders to disarm all who are considered suspect.
To provide money they thought of melting some old golden vessels of the crown, but as this would not produce any considerable sum, they gave up the idea. To meet the expenses there is no other way than summoning parliament. However, they will take advantage of the chests found in the captured ships; about 100,000 ducats have already reached the king's hands. They will use it all and then think about the persons interested, as it is uncertain whether everything belongs to the Spaniards or Flemings. As the ships come from Hamburg they have thought fit to inform the sea towns of the fact and the reasons why the king is making war, urging them to favour this side and not agree to the emperor's proposals, or yield to Tilly's arms.
The Agent of Bohemia has performed various offices to make sure of war, pointing out the disadvantage of doubtful resolutions and half measures. He seems satisfied and urges the king to make representations in France to help his master and throw over Bavaria, and to ask for help for the princes near Metz, though with little hope of success. However, the ministers here are satisfied that Soubise's defeat will render matters easier for the interests of the Palatine and the hopes of peace in that kingdom. The king has declared himself at war and that he does not wish to open any kind of negotiation and they are to send such instructions to Anstruther as the Palatine desires.
It seems that the people of Frankendal are compelled to take the oath of fealty to the Infanta, as imperial commissioner, and to make contributions. This is done throughout the country and Bavaria means to make all the Upper Palatinate Catholic. They would like to help those people here, but find it impossible without war.
This same minister has treated for Gabor's interests, and apparently the duke will take letters for him to Holland. I expect offices of encouragement rather than contributions.
The Secretary Conway has promised that the decision about the Master of the Ceremonies will be carried out as advised. I feel sure that the duke will give it the final touches when he comes.
Salisbury, the 15th October, 1625.
Postscript.—News has come that the fleet has left port fully equipped. They will await a favourable wind to sail. I fancy the Dutch ships will remain before Dunkirk to continue the blockade.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]

Footnotes

1 An abstract of Roe's copy of this letter is printed in the Cal. S.P. Dom. Add. 1625–49, pages 51, 52.
2 The paper, in Latin, is preserved among the State Papers, Foreign, Germany (States), and dated the 10th June, 1625.
3 The Marquis of Blainville.
4 The preacher was the minister of Tichfield. The incident happened on Tuesday the 30th September. Tillières gives an account of the matter in his Memoires (ed. Hippeau). pages 102–4.
5 Three proclamations were issued on Sept. 4th, to adjourn a part of Michaelmas term because of the plague; for captains and other officers to return to their charges and to make current French coins called "cardecues." On Sept. 11th, a further proclamation was issued calling home all of his Majesty's subjects employed in the service of the emperor, the King of Spain or the archduchess. Cal. S.P. Dom., 1625–6, pages 97, 103.