Venice
November 1625, 16-28

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

Year published

1913

Pages

215-232

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'Venice: November 1625, 16-28', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 19: 1625-1626 (1913), pp. 215-232. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=89049 Date accessed: 17 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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November 1625

Nov. 16.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
313. ZORZI GIUSTINIAN, Venetian Ambassador at Constantinople, to the DOGE and SENATE.
On the 2nd inst. Montealbano left here without ever having audience of the Caimecan, despite the support of the imperial resident. So far as we ambassadors know, he has no letters to mitigate the slight. I think the Caimecan remained firm owing to the representations which we ambassadors made to him, but also because he saw they did not observe their promises.
I reported that the English ambassador did not join us in our offices, but wrote a paper giving the arguments against a truce. This paper came into the hands of the Captain Pasha, who gave it to Montealbano, who complained loudly that the ambassador calumniated the King of Spain and threatened to send it to his master who would remonstrate to the King of England against the ambassador. On the other hand he praised the other ambassadors.
The Vigne of Pera, the 16th November, 1625.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Nov. 16.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
314. ZORZI GIUSTINIAN, Venetian Ambassador at Constantinople, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The English ambassador has used every effort to move the Caimecan to rescind the order of the cadi of Aleppo in favour of our Consul Pesaro, but without success. Accordingly he sent to inform me that he would not move any more in the matter with the Turks, but would inform their ambassador with your Serenity about it in the assurance that justice would be done, and he would show me his report. He would only ask the Caimecan for two things, an order from the Porte that they will not prejudice the capitulations, and this not to annul what happened at Aleppo in our favour, but to prevent the emirs there from claiming that order would waive the capitulations; the other that as the protection of the English purser by our consul might have the worst consequences, he would ask for a declaration that everyone should have jurisdiction over his own subjects in accordance with the capitulations. He felt sure I should not oppose anything so reasonable and just and promised not to send before the English ship had left on its return to Venice, so that the consul may not use the order to stop it. I made a courteous reply, expressing satisfaction at his decision, and I promised not to offer any opposition to what he asked the Caimecan. I do not know whether he has got what he asked, but in any case it can do us no harm.
The ambassador has since sent to tell me that he has received fresh letters from their consul at Aleppo reporting fresh disputes with ours about the purser before the cadi, involving considerable outlay on both sides. I have not yet heard from our consul.
The Vigne of Pera, the 16th November, 1625.
[Italian.]
Nov. 16.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
315. ZORZI GIUSTINIAN, Venetian Ambassador at Constantinople, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I have informed the ambassadors of France, England and the States of the news from Germany of the departure of Prince Gabor with 10,000 men and some guns for Lower Hungary. They recognised the importance of the news. We decided to inform the Caimecan and other ministers and urge them to help the prince. The ambassadors fear that with the blandishments of Caesar and the Catholic, and the coldness of the Most Christian and the allies to Gabor's proposals, he may lean to the former side.
The Vigne of Pera, the 16th November, 1625.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
316. ZORZI GIUSTINIAN, Venetian Ambassador at Constantinople, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The secretary of the English ambassador has sent me the enclosed note without any further information.
The Vigne of Pera, the 16th November, 1625.
[Italian.]
Enclosed in
the preceding
despatch.
317. Note from Domenico Finine to the Venetian ambassador that the English ambassador has written to his colleague at Venice about the dispute over the consulage at Aleppo.
[Italian.]
Nov. 17.
Collegio,
Secreta.
Esposizioni,
Principi.
Venetian
Archives.
318. The secretary of the English ambassador was introduced this morning into the Collegio and said:
His Excellency has written to me from Turin a letter which I received last Friday. I could not come before to fulfil the commissions he gave me because I had a slight fever. He tells me that things are going well and the aspect of affairs has changed, the succours having arrived from France under M. de Vigniles to the number of 35 companies of infantry, and the Constable has also arrived at Moncalier. Thus everything is contributing to the advancement of the common cause. His Excellency contributes his share and is to make a levy of 3,000 Bernese for the service of the Duke of Savoy. He wishes the Baron of Spiez to have the command, who is now a colonel of the most serene republic, and asks you to allow the baron to accept this charge, as it does not seem likely you will need his services. The ambassador expects much from him as a capable and experienced soldier and that he can easily get the 3,000 men.
The doge replied, We thank the ambassador for the good news, which agrees with what we have heard. We rejoice at his operations. With regard to his request we will meet to discuss the matter. The Savio of the week said they would take up the matter at once and let him know. When the secretary was taking leave he reminded them of the request about the provision of wine for the ambassador's house. The Savio told him that this would also be despatched, and the secretary left.
[Italian.]
Nov. 17.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci.
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
319. ALVISE CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I do not find that the English fleet is to proceed to the Mediterranean either in whole or in part. Some say, however, that the Ambassador Blenville, who recently went to England, had instructions to ask for this. I do not think he arrived before General Cecil left. The chief object of the force is against the gold fleet and some attempt upon Spain, or at least to interrupt their trade. The Most Christian would like Houtim's ships to go to the Mediterranean, but with his domestic troubles he might use them for his own purposes.
The Hague, the 17th November, 1625.
[Italian.]
Nov. 17.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci.
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
320. ALVISE CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Buckingham has not yet appeared. A gentleman who recently came from England on private affairs left him at Harwich, where 16 ships were ready to bring him. When here they may serve against Dunkirk. Some say that he will not come, but will go to France and the Earl of Holland will take his place; others attribute the delay to lack of money, as some are treating with Burlamacchi for 700,000 florins. I learn from Denmark that this expedition will have some order for the northern league, as in order to induce the king there to send his ambassadors here, the English ambassador assured him there would be some from England. The English passed the same office with the Elector of Brandenburg, but I do not think that prince means to declare himself yet.
England's part depends upon Buckingham's visit. I do not think the ministers here have had letters from their Courts for more than six weeks.
Three very rich ships from the East Indies have fared badly. One fell a victim to the sea, the second returned to India and the third reached Ireland, whither they sent two ships of war to protect its passage. In England they announce the arrival of two galleons captured from the West Indian fleet, sent to support Baya. It is said they have persons of note on board. They will be taken to Zeeland at the first opportunity.
Quat, Gabor's ambassador, has come here. (fn. 1) So far he has only treated with the King of Bohemia, having been absent from Hungary a long while upon various negotiations. I hear on good authority that the king has written to England asking that one Mutius, a Scot, may be sent to Gabor to confirm his resolutions and asking for help for Gabor. He proposes to avail himself of Buckingham's presence, if he comes here, to make some arrangement. Here however they are not very sanguine.
The Hague, the 17th November, 1625.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Nov. 18.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
321. That the secretary of England be summoned to the Collegio and the following read to him:
An English ship reached Aleppo some time ago, hired and laded in this city by our merchants, and directed to them at that town, as has always been done and allowed. The English consul there claimed that our subjects should pay duty, and refusing to listen to our consul took the unprecedented step of appealing to the Turkish Courts. When our consul proposed to submit the matter to his Majesty, he refused. Thus our consul had to accept judgment in the Turkish Court and won his case, well knowing that it all arose from unjustifiable claims for duties. The action is most damaging in many ways. We have informed our ambassador in England of the matter, so that he may remonstrate to his Majesty about the consul's action as being unreasonable and contrary to the invariable practice of ministers residing with the Turks. We are sure that his Majesty will think the same and that he will provide a proper remedy to prevent the serious consequences that may result from such action. We have given you this information as a demonstration of the confidence which we have always shown, and in order that you may inform the ambassador, whom we esteem so highly, so that he may tell his Majesty.
Ayes, 137.Noes, 6.Neutral, 16.
[Italian.]
Nov. 18.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
322. That the secretary of the English ambassador be summoned to the Collegio and the following be read to him:
We were glad to hear the news you communicated to us in the name of the ambassador and we rejoice that matters have taken a favourable turn in Piedmont, and we hope for a favourable issue, especially with the prudent offices of the ambassador, whom you will thank for us. You will tell him that for his sake we agree that the Baron von Spietz may be employed on the levy the ambassador is making for the Duke of Savoy of 3,000 Bernese foot, especially as it will serve the public cause. We will direct our resident at Zurich to inform the Baron of this decision. The ambassador shall have the same facilities for wine for his household as are accorded to other ambassadors of crowned heads, the more gladly as we recognise his services to the cause and because of our esteem for him personally.
That orders be given to our officials for the wine duty to see that facilities are granted for bringing wine for the household of the English ambassador, such as are conceded to the other ambassadors of crowned heads.
Ayes, 137.Noes, 6.Neutral, 16.
[Italian.]
Nov. 18.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
323. To the Secretary at Zurich.
Orders to inform the Baron von Spietz that the republic will be glad for him to accept employment from the English ambassador for the levy of 3,000 Bernese for the Duke of Savoy, the ambassador having expressed his wish for this.
Ayes, 137.Noes, 6.Neutral, 16.
[Italian.]
Nov. 18.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
324. To the Ambassador in Spain and mutatis mutandis to the Resident PADAVINO in Germany.
Enclosed letters from the Bailo of the 6th October show the operations of Monte Albano and his departure for Vienna without obtaining one audience. The emperor arranged that his resident at Constantinople should continue the negotiations. He may be assisted by an imperial ambassador sent to the Porte to confirm the treaty made in Hungary. This is postponed for the present, however. You will keep on the alert to watch this business.
The like to the Ambassadors in France, England and the States, adding what follows, mutatis mutandis:
As this affair of the truce with Spain is very important, and designed to destroy the public tranquillity, we send this information to our ambassadors in England and at the Hague because those powers are equally interested with the republic. We direct you to inform his Majesty of everything, pointing out the insidious behaviour of the Spaniards, proving the necessity for his most prudent application, so that he may direct his ambassador at the Porte to unite with the others to prevent these attempts from succeeding. You will inform his Majesty that the Viceroy of Naples has directed the Imperial resident to send a Franciscan friar of the Barili family to Poland, a well known man, always employed by the Spaniards in such affairs, in order to persuade the Cossacks to infest the Black Sea and never cease from harassing the Turks, with the object of securing Spanish affairs in Marbianio next year against the Ottoman force, by compelling it to act on the defensive. You will tell us what you do in this serious matter.
Ayes, 137.Noes, 6.Neutral, 16.
[Italian.]
Nov. 19.
Misc.
Cod. No. 64.
Venetian
Archives.
325. MARC' ANTONIO PADAVIN, Venetian Secretary in Germany, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The princes of Lower Saxony have not yet declared themselves; but some of them, especially those better disposed towards Caesar, are very suspicious of the King of Denmark since the alliance between England and the Dutch. Owing to news of the capture of the bishoprics of Halberstadt and Magdeburg they have announced a diet among themselves to meet at Celerin in the March.
Vienna, the 19th November, 1625.
[Italian; copy.]
Nov. 20.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
326. To the Ambassador in England.
As your letters did not come by the ordinary we attribute this to some difficulty having arisen by the way; they have just arrived, but being in cipher we have not yet seen them. The secretary of England has been in our Collegio, and after giving us news from Piedmont, asked us to allow the Baron von Spietz to command the 3,000 Bernese being levied by the Duke of Savoy. We have heard nothing from Turin as to how the ambassador is making the levy. We direct you to discover if this levy is by his Majesty's order and if so with what object and whether the king will contribute to the cost. We enclose copies of the secretary's exposition and of our reply. We have also had read to the secretary what we wrote about the unjust pretensions of the English consul at Aleppo. We know that you will represent the matter as the case requires. Aerssens has left Holland for France, and we believe that the English ambassador will follow or else orders from his Majesty to the Court of the Most Christian. We must continue to support those ministers, as we must not lose any opportunity of working for the general welfare. You will also try to discover if the fleet is really going to the Mediterranean, as we desire to have certain information.
Ayes, 138.Noes, 0.Neutral, 4.
[Italian.]
Nov. 21.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
327. To the Bailo at Constantinople.
You acted rightly in supporting the action of our consul at Aleppo against the scandalous and pernicious attempt of the English consul to claim supervision of the goods of any nation laded on English ships. You also made proper replies to the English ambassador. We have informed our ambassador in England of the circumstances, ordering him to remonstrate with his Majesty, and we shall speak to the same effect to the Secretary of the Ambassador Wake here.
Ayes, 142.Noes, 1.Neutral, 6.
[Italian.]
Nov. 21.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
328. To the Consul in Syria.
We are much grieved at hearing of the pretensions of the English consul and his strange and violent behaviour. We feel sure that his sovereign will not approve, especially of his appeal to a Turkish Court. You skilfully overcame this difficulty, but such a course will be very difficult and costly if pursued, owing to Turkish avarice. We have therefore decided to remonstrate to the King of England and get him to order his consul to refrain from pursuing such a course owing to the danger it will bring upon the trade of all the nations, so that the French consul not unreasonably took the steps against him which you describe. We hope that our offices will prove successful and render further expense and trouble unnecessary, especially as we note that the affair has taken a favourable turn at the Porte owing to the prudence of our Bailo. If anything further happens you will send us word, so that we may issue the necessary orders.
Ayes, 142.Noes, 1.Neutral, 6.
[Italian.]
Nov. 21.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
329. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The quarrels with the French ambassador continue. The ministers here have spoken to me to the following effect. The king here desired good relations as much as the Most Christian when he concluded the marriage, but after being deceived so many times, they will not trust them without proper commissions. It is not the king's part to ask for a defensive and offensive alliance, but the Most Christian must propose what he wants. Peace is necessary in that kingdom and if secured it would restore confidence. Conway spoke to much the same effect but more openly; he said the ambassador had piqued the king by claiming a promise that might prejudice his state; concessions to the Catholics such as France desires would mean the establishment of rebels in this kingdom as they exist in France and Spain. The ambassador joined together public affairs and domestic interests; for the former he had no powers, for the latter he makes unseasonable and unreasonable pretences. If France really made offers, they are not so foolish or so opulent as to refuse help, but the French had deceived them throughout and the ambassador's only objects are to get advantages for the Catholics and to try and drag out negotiations until La Rochelle falls.
The religious question is the most sensitive point, also because with the fall of the Rochellese, the Duke of Buckingham and all his adherents would be lost before parliament, the danger being greater because of the opinion that the English ships and the defeat inflicted upon Soubise are the reason for the difficulties of that place and its ruin.
Conway further told me that he heard from France that the state of affairs looked very suspicious for their interests; the assistance for Italy was moving very slowly; the Swiss levies for Bassompierre may not be devoted to the common cause.
On the other hand Blenville told me that his king means to control the peace of his own realm; the English claim this upon terms of their own fantasy. If they would listen to him they would find that he desired the duke's preservation; he would find a way of arranging the question of the Catholics satisfactory to the king here, safe for the duke and honourable for the Most Christian, and as regards public affairs he could satisfy the duke without his making his journey.
I have reported these speeches to show the views of both sides. I try to bring about union, as these disputes can only result in harm; but the duke's absence delays business. He should now be at the Hague; the rumoured delay of his departure was only a device, to diminish his danger from the Dunkirk ships. After negotiating in Holland he has instructions to go on to France and try to secure a union with that king by fresh proposals, and peace with the Huguenots and La Rochelle in particular. The French ambassador has orders to prevent this journey, but having no credit he has no success. He states that the duke will either do all that the Most Christian asks, or he will return offended and full of hostility, seeing his nature. It is very important that the duke should not go to that court owing to a mysterious secret jealousy entertained of him by the Most Christian because of his attractive manners (per un arcano secreto di gelosia ch'ha il Christianissimo delle sue amabile conditione). For this reason, among others, the king has gone to Amiens to shorten the duke's journey, and so that he may not stay at the Louvre.
Conway remarked to me that this journey could only be prevented by the certainty that they could not secure peace in France. The secretary's agent, who was sent to France, after presenting his letters to the Secretary Vileocler, was not admitted to treat, everything being referred to the Ambassador Blenville. Thus the offices designed to discredit Blenville only confirm his authority, and the English are disappointed of their hopes of getting their way with the Most Christian by secret negotiations. I think the Duke of Chevreuse and the Marquis of Fiat are supposed to have raised these hopes.
All negotiations will be delayed until Buckingham arrives in France, and they resolutely put off treating with the ambassador here. He told me that the Most Christian regretted that the alliance with the Dutch had been made without informing him, but he would agree to this ratification, as he must either consent or make a declaration contrary to the service of the King of Great Britain, or else drive the States to break the alliance with him or to abandon negotiation with the king here. To the instances of the Ambassador Joachim to send an ambassador to the Most Christian for the league, he had promises from the king, but they will only be fulfilled when the duke is present and according to the results of his mission. For the same reason they have changed their minds about sending an ambassador to Italy, but the king has written to the Duke of Savoy, telling him about the league and urging him to induce the Most Christian to enter it. I do not know if your Serenity has ordered the same confidence, but that prince, by interesting himself in affairs through his ambassador in France for the peace with the Huguenots and by other designs, acquires credit with the king here.
Merchants have come from Bohemia interested in the ships taken, making remonstrance, and the French ambassador has protested strongly, saying that they will arrest English ships and goods in France. They have since promised the Dutch ambassador that the ships ordered to London shall not be unladed, but I fancy that the admiralty will only display the greater haste to unlade them all, giving rise to fresh offence. The Agent of the Palatine has submitted written proposals for satisfying the Kings of Denmark and Sweden, but it does not matter because the duke in person will arrange everything.
They say that the Infanta has recalled the Agent of Flanders. and the Agent of Spain has written for orders.
The damage done by the storm proves greater than ever, 24 ships being lost or injured, and the Dunkirkers, after their incursion on the Dutch fisheries, are said to have gone to Scotland. They fear attempts on Ireland, where they might easily create serious trouble. They have arranged to send a superior fleet of 40 ships after them, partly English, partly Dutch, but it is not certain whether they are ready yet. Those which served for the duke's passage will be engaged in this.
Nothing further is heard of the fleet, except that it is at lat. 48°. On the 17th they sent drafts by the merchants for Mansfelt and Denmark. On the 15th the king celebrated the escape from the gunpowder plot, going to church and dining in public state, while bonfires were lighted everywhere.
So much for the events of this week, the king having been away hunting in the neighbourhood. However, he is to be at Hampton Court to-morrow, and the queen will be back from Hampton Court.
I have received your Serenity's instructions of the 11th, 16th, 18th and 25th ult.
Kingston, the 21st November, 1625.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Nov. 22.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
330. To the Ambassador at Rome and the like to the other Courts and the Proveditori General.
The descent of the French into Piedmont has alarmed the Spaniards, who are gathering their guns and munitions at Pontestura and think of abandoning Verua. Feria has the bulk of his force there. The Duke of Savoy, with this help from France, grows more active and expects even more troops from the Most Christian. The Ambassador Wake was to levy 3,000 Bernese for Savoy's service and has issued his orders. Feria's army is diminishing, especially the German companies. They think of levying Walloons at Liège, and have asked the Swiss to let them pass. Mansfelt's troops do not want to serve against Savoy, so they propose to send them to Riva, where Popnain has asked for help. Popnain himself lies sick in the Comasco. The forces of the league in the Valtelline have not been able to carry out their plans owing to the snow, but they keep the enemy occupied. The fort progresses as well as the other works. The Genoese grow more and more uneasy about naval reinforcements from England and the Dutch, especially for the island of Corsica, to which they recently sent three companies of infantry. The Genoese have made no further progress against the duke, who considers himself safe on that side, having sent help to Mondovi.
Ayes, 153.Noes, 1.Neutral, 1.
[Italian.]
Nov. 23.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
331. ZORZI GIUSTINIAN, Venetian Ambassador at Constantinople, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Consul Pesaro in a letter of the 5th ult. informs me of his dispute with the English consul about the purser of the English ship, (fn. 2) which has already sailed. He tells me he has sent full particulars to your Serenity. I am exceedingly sorry to learn from him of the extortions made by the emirs there, especially the Aga of Alexandretta, availing themselves of the disputes between the consuls, and it would be wise to end them. I mentioned this to the ambassador, and he has written to his consul. Our consul has evidently not yet received the letters I obtained deciding in his favour about the 2½ per cent. claimed by the emirs upon which they base their extortions. Neither has he received the orders I sent in his favour about the English ship and others, which would frustrate any attempts of the English consul, who also acts as consul for the Dutch, for claims on account of two Dutch ships laden by our merchants for Aleppo.
In the English affair, through being beforehand with the Caimecan and dealing tactfully with the ambassador, I have closed all the ways against all unjust claims by their consul at Aleppo.
The Vigne of Pera, the 23rd November, 1625.
[Italian.]
Nov. 23.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
332. MODERANTE SCARAMELLI, Venetian Secretary in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
They are waiting to see where the English fleet will strike. The French ambassador told me that it will go to Spain, and perhaps afterwards to the Mediterranean, Sicily or Sardinia, and apparently the Genoese are alarmed. But the English ambassador told me what he had said before, that as the Duke of Buckingham left with sealed orders, with express instructions not to open them until they were many miles at sea, only surmises could be made. Only that morning Madame had given him to understand that the Most Christian her brother was going to Amiens to be near the coast to receive Buckingham, who was to land and go to meet him to propose that he shall enter this offensive league against the Spaniards and ask for the fulfilment of his mutual obligations with England; adding that if the French will do their part the English will make themselves felt in earnest.
Turin, the 23rd November, 1625.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Nov. 24.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
333. ALVISE CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The Duke of Buckingham and the Earl of Holland, ambassadors extraordinary of England, reached this court last Wednesday. Only 4 of the 18 ships which left Harwich could make the port, the others being wrecked or dispersed. The two ministers came dressed alike, just as they resemble one another in character and disposition. The Prince of Orange met them at the usual place and I sent my coach. The States are entertaining them. On the following day they had their first audience in the assembly, which consisted of the usual generalities.
Since then they have only had one meeting, with seven deputies, one for each province and the Prince of Orange. They did not present the ratification of the league in writing as was expected, probably waiting for the Dutch to satisfy France first; but they brought it in effect. They want a decision without waiting for the assent of the Provinces and they will obtain satisfaction. They want three fleets, one of 100 ships to follow up the work of the one already started, a second at the mouth of the English Channel, to stop commerce between the men of war of Dunkirk and Biscay and between all the north and Spain, and a third to scour the seas. To the first the Dutch will contribute a fourth. It will go against the gold fleet and Spain. The English alone will supply the other two, just as the Dutch will undertake the blockade of Dunkirk and the coast of Flanders. Other details can easily be arranged. Their plans about the land forces are kept secret. England is to provide a complete force at her own expense; the Dutch promise to have their forces ready whenever required.
I have heard that the English incline to land in Flanders, where they can easily obtain provisions for their army. The Dutch, on the other hand, are afraid of offending France, and I fancy also they fear that the English may occupy some position this side of the water. They advocate a landing near Bremen, as near to Denmark and their own country, as the three armies could face Germany together. But I fancy this will be opposed on the ground of expense, as without parliament, which Buckingham detests, it is not possible to support this burden.
Since Buckingham's arrival, Anstruther has appeared with two ambassadors from Denmark, the Chancellor Vluuel and Christian Tomes, (fn. 3) who returned recently from Spain. Their coming will establish the negotiations for a league, but so far no formal meeting had taken place, since, the ambassadors must first present themselves in the assembly. The outcome of the business is uncertain, but it is only just begun. This meeting will affect Germany deeply. If they decide little or nothing, the King of Denmark will look to himself. To influence Denmark the English have promised a diversion by Mansfelt and to pay 300,000 florins. France expresses an intention to supply 600,000 florins, and Sweden also offers something, but nothing has been actually accomplished yet, so that the king is displeased, and I hear that Picardiera, minister of the Most Christian at that court, is doing nothing for the common cause.
Buckingham has brought a small sum in cash; I understand that the remainder of the 800,000 florins will be partly in letters and partly in jewels. It is clear that the King of England cannot do much without parliament. It is said that this money will serve for Denmark and Mansfelt, whom the ministers of the two crowns have arranged to support for four months. Buckingham proposes to return to England in a few days, and he cannot do anything of moment in such a short time. I incline to believe that he may be covering some private business under the pretence of State affairs.
The Hague, the 24th November, 1625.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Nov. 24.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
334. ALVISE CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The English ministers, ordinary and extraordinary, came to see me yesterday. They told me that the league with the States was for the general welfare; they hoped I had instructions to interest myself in the matter. I spoke fully about all that your Excellencies have done for the common cause; my instructions were all in this sense, but I had nothing special about the league; the republic would welcome anything done for the general good. They said they knew I had had no time for definite instructions as they had come unexpectedly, but they had the king's special command to make this overture and asked me to report to your Serenity. They imagined you would contribute something for the common advantage, especially as they could promise the assistance of the English and Dutch fleets and diversions by land. It would be easy to arrange details. I spoke of the intolerable expenses born by the republic, and said I felt sure the forces of the league would help the republic, as it was true policy to support friends and hurt enemies. Two deputies of the assembly have called upon me to-day and made the same request as the English; I made a similar reply.
The Hague, the 24th November, 1625.
[Italian.]
Nov. 25.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
335. MARC ANTONIO MOROSINI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Soubise stays on in England, whence the Secretary Vigh recently arrived here to ask for the twelve ships that the king there provides. They have decided here to give them up as they hope they will not need them. The quarrel between the two monarchs grows worse. The English complain of Blenville for meddling in the affairs of others, and here they lament over the breach of the promises, giving asylum to enemies, not restoring the ships asked for, and the treatment of the ambassador in which they do not show sufficient regard for the prince he represents.
Letters of the 7th from Spain report that the English fleet had entered the port of Cadiz, cut the bridge, captured several ships there, and despatched 70 ships to meet the fleet expected from the Indies. Other ships could not go to the rescue, the Spanish fleet being divided between Lisbon and Cape St. Vincent. Their hopes here are raised most by the news that the Moors of Tunis, Algiers and other towns on the African coast have come out with more than 100 sail, and that they have an understanding with the English and propose to attack Andalusia or other parts of Spain, and recover their ancient habitation.
Poissy, the 25th November, 1625.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Nov. 26.
Misc.
Cod. No. 64.
Venetian
Archives.
336. MARC' ANTONIO PADAVIN, Venetian Secretary in Germany, to the DOGE and SENATE.
They make the most here of the damage inflicted upon the Dutch ships and conceive greater hopes of other successes against the English fleet.
Vienna, the 26th November, 1625.
[Italian; copy.]
Nov. 27.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
337. MODERANTE SCARAMELLI, Venetian Secretary in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The English ambassador had audience of his Highness after the French for the same object of congratulating him on the raising of the siege of Verua. After a long interview he sent his secretary to England, (fn. 4) asking his king to send the fleet to the Mediterranean and to pay 3,000 Bernese until the end of the war, so far as I can gather, for I could not get a word from him, despite the confidence he professes. His Highness is not really satisfied, although he pretends to be, as he does not receive such help from that quarter as this minister has frequently promised him.
Although this minister tries to have a hand in everything here and criticises the French very freely, it is thought that he has no instructions or negotiations of moment and only wants to make a show of doing something and proposing a marriage between one of the princesses here and the son of the King of Denmark. The senior prince remarked to my informant that this ambassador had come to Turin to refresh himself in good society after his retired life in Venice, hinting that he also was influenced by the 25 ducats a day he received from the duke for his expenses.
The ambassador told me that he would wait for the reply which his secretary will bring. He said he had not yet despatched the order for levying the 3,000 Bernese, as he did not want to begin before he had the money ready. He told me that the Master of the Ceremonies had been dismissed from his office and banished from the court, and Carlo Cahimo also had been imprisoned to please your Serenity. He asked that Captain James Scott, who has a company in your service on the mainland, should not suffer in his emoluments because his Majesty was employing him in the fleet, which they say is going to Lisbon.
Turin, the 27th November, 1625.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Nov. 28.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
338. To the Ambassador in England.
We have received no letters from you since those of the 25th ult., which arrived a week ago. We were very anxious to hear of the reception of the French ambassador extraordinary at that court and that he had effected a reconciliation and prevented the evil caused by misunderstandings between the two crowns. We repeat that you must devote your good offices to cherishing a good understanding and perfect confidence between the two kings, using due circumspection so that your interposition may not cause offence; you will show that we only wish to advance the common cause and do not desire to pry into private affairs. We shall also work for the same object in France through our Ambassador Morosini, whom you will keep supplied with information.
You tell us of the Earl of Carlisle going to Italy; we shall be glad to learn what instructions he has and if he is coming to us. We have not been able to learn from Turin or elsewhere with what objects the Ambassador Wake is staying with the Duke of Savoy after visiting the Swiss. There must be some mystery, but we cannot guess it, unless there is some idea that Wake, who was sometime resident with the duke, may unfold plans against the Genoese. This may serve you as a hint, especially seeing the requests of Abbot Seaglia's secretary of the king, for ships, guns and munitions. We shall await particulars from you, and repeat that we wish to know for certain whether a part or the whole of that fleet will enter the Mediterranean, and we also wait to hear of the progress made.
We are also in the dark about the levy Wake is to make of 3,000 Bernese. We referred to this a week ago, and we repeat our desire for information. Wherever you perceive that your offices will help the Duke of Savoy in his requests for assistance, you will afford them with due prudence, so that his Highness may receive fresh strength at sea, since any sea force that comes is bound to relieve our fleet of any anxiety since the Spaniards will have to attend to their own defence. We shall await news of the operations of Abbot Scaglia's secretary. We desire further particulars about the tendency of the king and ministers to support Soubise or no. This is a very essential point, and so is their real feeling about peace in France, and if they advise the Rochellese to submit to the king. We cannot help feeling puzzled, as on the one side they lay hands on the queen's household, and on the other one sees no sign of them slackening their rigour against the Catholics.
Ayes, 157.Noes, 4.Neutral, 2.
[Italian.]
Nov. 28.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
339. To the Ambassador at the Hague.
As it appears that the forces of England are marching under the name of the Palatine for the recovery of his States, we direct you to seize a favourable opportunity to discover adroitly from that prince and his wife what really are the objects of the king his brother, if he means to persist, where the fleet will go, and in short try to get to the bottom of this affair. The Ambassador Pesaro writes that the Dutch Ambassador Joachim asserts that they will not ratify the league before they have communicated with the Most Christian, to prevent jealousy. You will keep on the watch and discover which way the members of the Government lean and if they really mean to march in unison with England.
Ayes, 157.Noes, 4.Neutral, 2.
[Italian.]
Nov. 28.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Venetian
Archives.
340. To the Ambassador in England.
We rejoice at the decision against the Master of the Ceremonies. We are quite satisfied with all you have done in this disreputable affair. You will ask for a special audience of his Majesty, tell him that we are fully satisfied with the justice meted out to Lewkenor and thank him warmly, saying that we were always certain of his good will, but that we also beg him to release Lewkenor. You must make it appear that Lewkenor's release is due to our special request.
You did well to commend what his Majesty said to you about not abandoning the public cause, and you might point out the advantage of pressing on with the effects of the league with the Dutch in order to attain his Majesty's objects of restitution and peace; and that everyone must be on his guard against the machinations of the Spaniards, who try to profit by dissensions and discord. In Italy real progress is being made. The Duke of Savoy has raised the siege of Verua, the besiegers having lost quite 500 men, as well as arms and munitions. Prince Tomaso has made the Marquis Santa Croce retire near Mondovi. Thus the forces in Piedmont keep growing stronger and they are increasing in the Valtelline; the allies are doing their utmost to restore the dominion and liberty of the Grisons to their pristine state. All this should encourage his Majesty to persevere with his generous resolutions. You will make similar remarks to the well disposed.
Ayes, 157.Noes, 4.Neutral, 2.
[Italian.]
Nov. 28.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
341. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE
With the departure of the Duke of Buckingham I learned a very important secret about his private designs, as in addition to State affairs he wants to marry his daughter to the Palatine's eldest son. This idea has taken root since his return with the prince from Spain, although, contrary to the reports of the Spaniards, the late king thoroughly disapproved owing to his suspicions and from sentiment (per la gelosia et per il sentimento). He must rely now upon his Majesty's favour and presuppose his consent, otherwise it would be too great a crime for a subject to presume so far as an alliance with the next heir to the throne. But the duke can venture on anything, and he wishes to make himself secure in this way. I hear that the princess has given some secret consent without the knowledge of her husband, and I know that the Palatine was warned to look after his interests. He knows that he is recognised and supported because of his children, and once they have gone to England he will remain of no account and little attention will be paid to his restoration. Seeing the duke's influence he can neither refuse nor consent. (fn. 5)
This business will be treated with circumspection and kept secret among a few. The duke is supposed to be away not for his own affair; they await the issue with anxiety, since his Majesty sent him away on three expeditions before, but rather friendly than full of business, though he reported what was happening.
The ships which took him across are to join with Dutch ships to pursue the Dunkirkers. The king will provide twenty ships, including seven royal ones, and the Dutch twenty-four. There are various reports about the Dunkirkers, that they have gone north with designs on Ireland and to inflict damage on the stock fisheries, which would injure many nations. Some say that owing to the dangers of the navigation they have returned and suffered a partial defeat. This shows the uncertainty of the truth. There is no news of the fleet.
The French ambassador has asked audience of the king about the proposals of Vich, Conway's agent in France, touching the restoration of English ships and peace in that kingdom. The English pretend that they will leave the latter question to the duke, but as regards the ships they assert that the king has power to take those of his subjects anywhere, when he requires them. The ambassador declared his master's disposition towards peace, shown by the arrangement with the Duke of Rohan, his duchess being at court, Languedoc and all the towns having accepted it, and his Majesty was ready to grant it to Rochelle, but meanwhile he was prepared for peace or war, according to their behaviour. This speech only increased their suspicions. The king here knows of their preparations against that place.
The levies of Swiss confirm the application of France and the refusal to let the Dutch ships serve the Duke of Savoy suggests a siege by land and sea. The king has made advances for peace, but they are rather disputed than approved by the ambassador. On the subject of giving back the ships he said that the king might keep the merchantmen he has as long as he likes, for payment, and the time for the royal ship has expired with Soubise's defeat.
There is also the demand to give up Soubise and his ships, including the royal ship St. John, formerly captured by Soubise; but the English insist upon their claims to recover the royal ship, (fn. 6) the engagement having expired that they can take any English ship, and they will not give up those of Soubise. So the French propose to settle the matter by force, as they keep the ship well guarded. If the English do not give up Soubise's ships they may keep those which are in their hands, especially as they are worth more.
The consequences of these affairs will depend upon the outcome of Buckingham's journey, but one sees which way things lean, wherein many public and private interests are concerned.
Most of the captured vessels are unladed, and they have the money which was going to the Spaniards and the French merchants. The king has promised reparation and satisfaction, but as he has proclaimed that those concerned must appear within a few days to present their claims, it is interpreted that under a show of justice and the customs and laws of the country they mean to profit by delay. The merchants have betaken themselves to the Most Christian court with their complaints, and we shall see what course each side will adopt.
The French ambassador has yielded on two points, one, that he does not claim the revocation of the act against the Catholics, but only that the good ones shall not be molested; the other, that Soubise may stay on here at his Majesty's pleasure, but for the rest there are countless domestic broils with the French here in their claims for the queen. The ambassador is lodged in the king's house, following the example of the Spanish ambassadors at the French court at the time of the recess, but the nearer he is the less the confidence.
Soubise has dismissed some of his ships and has asked leave to take the others under the king's flag against his enemies, but they have decided nothing on the subject.
In the yearly offices where the community nominates but the king selects, his Majesty has appointed many justices of the peace in the counties, (fn. 7) from those who opposed the duke in parliament, and in this way they will be prevented from becoming members of parliament for a year. But his Majesty's efforts to protect the duke only increases the universal hatred against him.
The general disarming of the Catholics has taken place quietly. Only Lord Vaux, who previously served the Infanta of Brussels with an infantry regiment, resisted the king's officers. He has been summoned to court, imprisoned and tried. They attach importance to the event here, although he has the excuse that the king at first ordered them not to disarm the titled nobility. (fn. 8)
The Agent of Flanders has taken leave of his Majesty with a letter of protest and on the ground of indisposition. (fn. 9) At his departure they gave him a chain, as the Infanta had done to his Majesty's agent.
The French ambassador has received orders from the Most Christian to ask for the reinstatement of the Master of the Ceremonies, rather because of what the ambassador had written than from any wish to lessen the reputation of your Serenity. The ambassador said he claimed nothing from me, but for the sake of good relations between the two crowns I ought to allow the Most Christian to have the honour of this. I protested that I would always do my utmost to foster such relations, but this affair was not in my hands, and I would not act without orders from your Serenity. He would like the Master of the Ceremonies to return to court by his efforts, but I have countermined his plans and he will certainly meet with a refusal. He also asked the wish of the Most Christian about his behaviour to the other ambassadors and was charged to treat the ambassadors of the republic as equal to those of kings.
Kingston, the 28th November, 1625.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]

Footnotes

1 Mathias Quad de Wickerode.
2 The Peter and Andrew, master. Nathaniel Goodlade. Negotiations of Sir Thos. Roe, page 447.
3 Their names were James Ulefelt and Christian Thomassen. Aitzema: Saken van Staeten Oorlogh, vol. i., page 480.
4 Anthony Hales. See Wake's despatch of the 17/27 Nov., 1625. S.P. Foreign, Savoy.
5 It would almost seem as if Pesaro had seen Rusdorf's letter to Camerarius of the 19th October. See M. A. Green: Elizabeth Electress Palatine and Queen of Bohemia, ed. S. C. Lomas, page 250.
6 The Vanguard.
7 He means sheriffs. See below, in his despatch of the 5th December.
8 Lord Edward Vaux of Harrowden, and his brother William were imprisoned in the Fleet for assaulting one Knightly and another, who came to search the house for arms. Birch: Court and Times of Charles I., vol. i., page 56.
9 Van Male's letters of recall are dated the 26th October, the pretext there given is "afin de pouvoir donner ordre a ses affaires." State Papers, Foreign, Flanders.