Venice
January 1626, 12-19

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1913

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278-288

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'Venice: January 1626, 12-19', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 19: 1625-1626 (1913), pp. 278-288. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=89053 Date accessed: 17 September 2014.


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January 1626

Jan. 12.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
415. ZORZI GIUSTINIAN, Venetian Ambassador at Constantinople, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I have made every effort to discover about the truce negotiations from the Greek Giovanni Zucchi. He came to propose trade between common marts, a free port at Brindisi, and exemption from customs, especially for silk. All these things were held out by Monte Albano as inducements to the Turks, but the offices of myself and the other ambassadors showed them the impossibility of these offers. I enclose a paper handed to the ministers here by the English ambassador against Monte Albano's proposals, especially about the Persian trade and the Indies. All the ministers received it favourably except the Captain at Sea and Bairam Pasha who refused to see the paper when the dragoman brought it to them. However, the Caimecan, Calil and the others stand firm, and so long as the Caimecan, remains in office I do not think we need fear it.
The Vigne of Pera, the 12th January, 1625 [M.V.].
[Italian; deciphered.]
Enclosed in
the preceding
despatch.
416. Paper presented by the English Ambassador against the truce (fn. 1) .
It being reported that a certain Bolognese and subject of the pope has arrived at the Porte, announcing himself as an agent sent from Naples to offer peace to the Sultan in the name of the King of Spain, a good friend thinks it an office of true friendship to expose the falseness of this pretended messenger.
In the first place he is not a public minister, having no letters of credit or commissions from the King of Spain; if he has any from the Viceroy of Naples, it does not become the Sultan's dignity to treat with a subject, who may be disowned by his master.
This messenger was sent here for the arrival of the Jew Cormano, who was first imprisoned at Naples for a spy, though afterwards released. They want to restrain the Sultan while the Spaniards are engaged in other wars, and by presents and impossible offers make a show of peace which they will never keep without the pope's approval.
His proposals are equally false. His first offer to release all the Turkish slaves is impossible, as Malta and Florence would never disarm their galleys for Spain.
The second that the King of Spain will see that no harm is done to Turkish subjects in the Mediterranean is absurd, as Malta is a religion founded on purpose to make war upon the enemies of their faith and the King of Spain has no authority over them. The same applies to the Knights of St. Stephen, who are subjects of the Grand Duke. But granted that the King of Spain could persuade the Maltese and Florentines to peace, is it likely he would guard the sea for the Sultan and allow the pirates of Tunis and Algiers to go and ravage his dominions in Italy and elsewhere? If the Spaniards keep their promise, the Sultan will have to bridle these. But the offer is deceitful and they only want to consume the Sultan's galleys with this security, leaving themselves masters at sea.
The offer to supply this state by way of the Red Sea and Ormuz with all the spices, bocasin (boghasini) (fn. 2) silk and other goods of India and thereby increase the Sultan's customs, is deceitful enough to make impudence itself blush. Everyone knows that the Spaniards were hunted out of Ormuz by the English three years ago, and that they dare not show their faces in that sea, being supplanted by the Great Mogul and the English; they dare not leave their ports and in all that district they have nothing but Goa and three or four other poor towns. Their fleets and the Viceroy were thrice defeated at sea by the English, at Surat, before Goa and finally in the Persian Gulf near Ormuz. They have nothing left there and the English in any case would desire nothing better than to see them at the entrance to those seas, as they could not escape.
The Sultan should remember that a while ago when they had possession of Aden and if he granted them free passage in those seas, they would turn their eyes upon their loss. It is well known that the English and Dutch have taken all the places whence they promise to supply the spices, such as Ternate, Banda, Java, Bolloron, Amboyna, Bantam and Sumatra, so that Spanish subjects have not dared to show themselves in those seas for the last twenty years. To make matters clearer, all the merchants trading do not stop at Cairo at present the English or Flemish bring all those goods to Constantinople in their ships which in time past they bought at Aleppo.
The fourth offer to pay a large sum yearly to the Sultan for customs and provide more goods of every kind and at a cheaper rate than the English, French, Venetians and Flemings now trading under the Sultan's protection, is a pretty story but wise men know that the Spaniards do not give a large sum of money for nothing, and where can they get the cloth, kerseys, lead, tin and other goods brought here by the four nations? It is well-known that they obtain them for their own use from England and France. Ask the Granatini here if Spain can supply these goods. Oranges, lemons, figs, raisins and wine are the natural commodities of Spain and they have nothing else to send. Where are the Spanish ships to furnish this commerce? It is known that they lack merchant ships to keep up their trade, in the Indies and Brazil.
The fifth offer that the King of Spain will induce the King of Poland to restrain the Cossacks is more ridiculous than the others. If Poland can do this he will try to on his own account, but the Spaniards cannot help him. Does Poland think more of the requests of the King of Spain than of the well being of his own subjects? Experience shows that weather alone subdues the Cossacks. The only real remedy is for the Sultan and the King of Poland to maintain a good peace, giving time to reduce the Tartars and Cossacks to subjection.
For these reasons it is more than evident that this minister has been sent to deceive and to make offers which they cannot carry into effect. They only want to gain time and they will never observe any proper peace with the Sultan. The use they make of the present negotiations is to publish throughout Christendom that the Sultan has asked peace of them.
If this negotiation proceeds, the King of Spain and the emperor will gather all their forces to crush the princes of Germany friendly to the Porte, occupy the passes of Italy and expel Bethlen Gabor from Hungary and Transsylvania, and then the House of Austria will be in a position to show the nature of its friendship for the Sultan, and this negotiation will induce all the other princes of Christendom, who were determined to resist the increase of their greatness to follow the same example and make peace with Spain.
[Italian.]
Jan. 12.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
417. ZORZI GIUSTINIAN, Venetian Ambassador at Constantinople, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The ambassador of Transsylvania has left and with him Jussef Aga. He did not take leave of the ambassadors but sent the resident in his name. The ambassador of France sent his secretary to me and the other ambassadors to ask if we had any orders from our princes to say anything to him about Gabor's proposals, hinting that he had received some orders about this from his king. I said I had heard nothing from your Serenity and you might be waiting for his Majesty to move. England made the same reply and the ambassador so far has not let either of us know any more. It is probable he has received orders but does not want to declare himself before the others.
The Vigne of Pera, the 12th January, 1625 [M.V.].
[Italian; deciphered.]
Jan. 12.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
418. ALVISE CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
They have not yet converted the jewels that Buckingham brought here into money, as the amount exceeds a million florins. They want the States to promise for the time of redemption, and John Carleton has returned from Amsterdam upon this business.
The Hague, the 12th January, 1626.
[Italian.]
Jan. 14.
Misc.
Cod. No. 64.
Venetian
Archives.
419. MARC' ANTONIO PADAVIN, Venetian Secretary in Germany, to the DOGE and SENATE.
With their usual assurance the Spaniards promise themselves success against France also, speaking of the open quarrel between that Crown and the English. They declare that the Most Christian has informed Buckingham that until satisfaction has been given about Soubise's ships and the marriage articles touching the Catholics, he need not trouble to come over.
The King of Spain has informed the princes of the empire of the descent of the English upon Cadiz, showing that they have broken the peace unprovoked and driven him to defence and offence.
Vienna, the 14th January, 1625 [M.V].
[Italian; copy.]
Jan. 16.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
420. The secretary of England, when the deliberation of the Senate about the incident of the consuls of England and the republic at Aleppo was read to him, having again requested that the advantages and prerogatives of Captain James Scot might be kept for him, he being now on the English fleet, and having asked for a cask of wine for his household equal to what the ambassadors of the republic have in England, that the secretary be summoned to the Collegio and the following be read to him:
We are anxious to satisfy his Majesty's request for Captain Scot so far as is possible. On the 7th March the captain received permission from the Senate to return home for six months. Afterwards, when Scot was in England, our Ambassador Contarini at the Hague asked him to return to command his company. Now that we hear that Scot is in the fleet by his Majesty's orders we agree to keep his rights and privileges for him if he returns to his company in six months.
We can only repeat what we have said before about the wine; the ambassador shall enjoy the same privileges as the other ambassadors of crowned heads. We feel sure that he will rest satisfied with this and he may be assured of our affection and esteem.
Ayes, 140.Noes, 0.Neutral, 6.
[Italian.]
Jan. 16.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
421. To the Ambassador at the Hague.
The differences between France and England. As before, he will urge the States and England to try and induce the Huguenots to obey their sovereign, and also make representations to the French Court through its ambassadors.
Ayes, 140.Noes, 0.Neutral, 6.
[Italian.]
Jan. 16.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Venetian
Archives.
422. To the Ambassador in England.
After some weeks without news we received four of your despatches yesterday, of the 28th November, and the 5th, 12th and 19th ult., with particulars confirming previous advices from France and the Hague. We most regret to hear of the continued misunderstandings with France. Your offices with the French ambassador were quite in accordance with our views. You will continue the like with the ministers, pointing out the advantages of peace in France and a good understanding between the two crowns, as a division between them is certain to affect both Italy and Germany. This point is clear and you may show that it also weakens his Majesty's forces.
On the 28th November by way of Germany we sent you our orders about the Master of the Ceremonies, to procure his release, and we also sent a duplicate by way of France. We commend your office with the French ambassador. We send you a copy of the offices of the Secretary of England in our Collegio and of our reply to his proposals, especially about the Consul at Aleppo. You can make use of this in discussing the affair.
Ayes, 140.Noes, 0.Neutral, 6.
[Italian.]
Jan. 16.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
423. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The king out of consideration for the needs of his service, the desires of the queen and the requests of the people has come to this city, all fear of the plague having passed, though some uneasiness remains, as eight persons died this week.
I continue the service of your Serenity until the mercy of the Senate shall release me. Meanwhile my expenses increase. I have already ordered new liveries.
The Dutch ambassadors have left. Carleton started for France accompanied only by the Bishop of Manda and Botrù; they de layed three days because the French ambassador here requested the release of the Jesuit and another religious as being his servants, and that the Governor of Falmouth should be called upon to explain his conduct to the Most Christian's ships. When they would not listen to him, he declared he would withdraw and that when the ambassadors landed in France their ministers would be arrested. After long disputes and consultations the king ultimately satisfied him by releasing the prisoners and by promising to write the letter requested to the Governor of Falmouth.
The ambassador prides himself upon having nobly sustained the interests of his king, and also recently at the news of the preparations against the ships hired to the Most Christian and for the advantage of the Rochellese which the Most Christian is determined not to give up, when he induced the king here to spend his efforts and remain deceived by his ministers, as the negotiations about the ships are quite different from what his Majesty believes, and thereby suspending everything, and the English ambassador will serve to give time for the designs against la Rochelle. The king said that he really ought to examine the contract, but as regards Soubise, he was under no obligation for him to remain or to leave this kingdom, for the ambassador now claims that his Majesty shall detain him here.
What he said about la Rochelle is of no small moment, as I adroitly won his confidence and he told me that their plans are so advanced that those who withdraw or advise to the contrary will be rebels to the king. The Cardinal Richelieu could have no further influence in the matter; either God must intervene or Rochelle will fall. He considers it so hard pressed that without further attack it must fall in a month. For that reason he rejoices at the sending of the ambassadors, as they only want time and he has already obtained half his wish.
News from France says the opposite, that the town is not in such a bad plight, and they are disposed to prosecute their designs only if they are sure it will be easy, though dangers may make them change their minds. Those of the religion state that with the good-will of the King of Great Britain, with the constant union of the churches of the kingdom, and with the suspicion of a third party, they hope to hold their ground and obtain peace.
The ambassador further told me the reason for the departure of the Bishop of Mande, who decided to go upon the announcement that English ambassadors were to be sent, under the pretence of settling the differences which might arise about the coronation, but really to give information about the state of affairs and to back the ambassador, as the people here are mistaken in their confidence in that prelate, unless Cardinal Richelieu has interposed covertly or unless the magnificent jewels received by the bishop and Botrù make some difference. However, Botrù stated that the ambassador here will undoubtedly be recalled, and it seems that they are by no means satisfied with him in France.
A courier who arrived recently confirms the general rumour about his going and the coming of the ordinary ambassador, who may leave after the arrival of the ambassadors extraordinary at that Court. I have already reported the substance of their instructions. I may add that they will request prompt despatch for their affairs on the plea of having to be present to report to parliament. The peace of the Huguenots will be the first object, and I fancy that they hope that the Huguenots will submit to everything reasonable and will treat for this, but also that the most Christian, under these assurances, will concede the conditions he has already granted. In order to support their offices by a show of force they have ordered Peninton to take a considerable number of ships to the Isle of Wight, which they consider near enough to make France uneasy.
London, the 16th January, 1625 [M.V.].
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Jan. 16.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
424. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The ambassador of Savoy arrived at a fortunate moment, he saw the king and queen at Hampton Court, being lodged and entertained at that Park as he is in this city in the house usually occupied by the Duke of Buckingham. No ambassador has ever been more feasted and honoured. The duke feasts him and waits upon him at every hour, one may say. The king sees him privately; he could not have greater demonstrations.
He has paid his complimentary offices and shows that the chief reason for his coming was to urge the embassy which has already been sent to France. He expresses views which cause pleasure, that Rambouillet's embassy will only be to pay compliments in Spain, that matters in that kingdom are not in the condition imagined, that the quarrels with this country do not please those who recognise the difficulties. (fn. 3) They aspire to peace and he has had much to do with the negotiations with the Huguenots.
He makes the most of the credit which his master may have in that kingdom in order to advance his own particular interests, which consist chiefly in a request for ships. They have deputed commissioners for his proposals, the duke, the treasurer, the Earl of Carlisle and the Secretary Conway. One may judge of the result from the necessities of this Crown. His intimacy here is due to his having secretly obtained the support of the Duke of Chevreuse, who is very highly esteemed at this Court, so that the interests of his Highness may move in concert with those of the king here, in enmity to the Spaniards and a desire to please the French; but as it is thought that the duke is not very pleased with the French, they hope in case of the worst to have a source of communications (corispondenza) and their first object here is to have a party in France. They want the ambassadors to leave promptly. Probably the negotiations will mostly be confidential, and they hope it will do much to calm things down.
They have spoken about a general league, asking if his Highness and the republic will join. He replied that Savoy and Venice are as closely tied as possible and if they draw in France the others will follow, adding that in France they fear nothing but the name of the Spaniards and the league in Germany concluded at the Hague does not displease the ministers there, and by good management they may win her. He told me, however, that it was a mistake not to trust to their own efforts without the French, that mistrust of our own strength had alienated the pope from us, otherwise he would be with us against the Spaniards and the French, but we must be on our guard against treaties and snares which may be laid at Rome.
Abbot Scaglia has not exchanged visits with the French ambassador, each claiming that the other should call first, that being the custom at this Court without distinction of princes. As I could not depart from custom without orders, I visited him quietly in the country, and so he came first to see me here.
I go on to the communications made to me by Mansfelt's gentleman. They are trying to prevent the King of Denmark from making terms, and if they cannot prevent this the princes concerned will try and get him to hand over his forces to them; they would like the provision supplied to Denmark to be divided equally between Mansfelt and Gabor, and offer to assist the latter's designs in Silesia and Bohemia. He points out that the King of Denmark will never go far from the country of Hasem, that he alone will risk using the sword without the fear of losing territory, and how France can enjoy the advantages which otherwise the House of Austria will have. Chiefly with the object of obtaining money he asks for the levy of two regiments of English and Scots. No reply has been given. If they object that he has not provided the force with the money they gave him, that he has not the requisite understanding with the Palatine, that he has failed England in two things, in assuring them that he would go by France when he knew that the French hid not want him, and in giving it to be understood that France would pay him much whereas he has received little, this is merely the excuse for a reply, but they are waiting to see what will happen in France and at the meeting at Brunswick, whence no news comes, and possibly nothing will be decided without parliament.
It is confirmed that four vessels of the fleet, though not the largest, perished in a storm. Cecil is in Ireland with the greater part of the king's ships, sick. The greatest losses are among the men, as with the sufferings at sea, the cold and sickness, few have returned. They think constantly of putting matters straight again, and recovering their reputation, which they consider easy, as the force remains.
They have issued three proclamations, one forbidding the exportation of arms and munitions and frauds; the second ordains that ships leaving the realm for trade shall be armed in order to resist enemies; the last forbids the king's subjects to trade with Spain or any of the dominions of the Catholic and Infanta, his Majesty promising to look after his people (fn. 4) . They have not declared that Spaniards and Flemings must not bring goods, but war and reprisals act as a sufficient declaration.
This proclamation has brought to my knowledge a compact made in the alliance with the Dutch, to ask all friendly princes not to trade with Spain, and if this cannot be secured, that they may examine all ships going to the states of their enemies and take prohibited goods, though promptly releasing the rest without harm, so that with the fleet at sea everyone will be subject to vexation, because verification is difficult, as has proved the case with the reprisals made.
The French, by the show of arresting ships, which they did not carry out, have obtained the release of goods to the value of 150,000 crowns, but the other interested parties encounter many impediments despite the royal declaration that all goods, shown to belong to friends, shall be released, as they raise objections about the proofs. With regard to the merchants recommended by your Serenity, I have also had fair words and delay, and I fear that it will be impossible to obtain final satisfaction without showing resentment.
London, the 16th January, 1625 [M.V.].
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Jan. 16.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
425. ZUANE PESARO, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
With respect to the incident with the English consul at Aleppo, the Secretary Conway told me that his Majesty is still anxious to satisfy your Serenity, and has devoted his serious attention to the matter. They summoned the merchants of the Levant Company for information, who referred them to his Majesty's ambassador at Constantinople, on whom the consul at Aleppo depends. They have written both to Constantinople and Aleppo. The ambassador has orders to see the matter satisfactorily arranged or else to send reasons such as would enable his Majesty to maintain good relations with your Serenity.
I told him that the matter was clear, and I told him I would inform your Serenity of the king's goodwill, and remarked that I felt sure that the consul would be punished for appealing to the Turkish Courts.
I understand that those who have served in those parts say that the consul erred in not regarding the interests of friendship and the public interests of the king and the republic, but that all merchants who lade on English ships pay duty to the English consul, including the Turks themselves; that Venetian goods would be exempt if laded upon an English ship that was made entirely Venetian, but not for a single voyage, and deceit had been shown in changing the name of the master and the flag, merely to defraud the king of his duty. Such incidents have not happened before, but all goods pay the consulage, as the English who lade on Venetian ships pay the Cottimo without making any difficulty, and if the master deceived by making himself Venetian the consul could proceed against him without moving against the Venetian consul. I fancy I have heard of a similar case, but the English consul at that time referred the matter to Venice to be arranged with the Ambassador Wotton, and it is still undecided. (fn. 5)
These particulars have reached me, but as they do not oppose my arguments I have had no occasion to act. The merchants here attach importance to the matter, especially as the consul states that he has expended 1,600 piastres. As they disapprove of the consul's action, it is unlikely that they will appeal to the Turk again. However, from the way Conway spoke I fancy that they have sent orders to sustain the matter at the Porte for the benefit of the Turkey Company and the consulage.
Your Serenity's commands of the 19th December have reached me, and I hope I have acted in their spirit about concord between the two nations and the matter of the league. I am sorry that the preceding commissions have not reached me, and I hear nothing of the satisfaction of your Serenity about the funeral incident, which was settled some time ago.
London, the 16th January, 1625 [M.V.].
[Italian.]
Jan. 16.
Collegio,
Lettere.
Venetian
Archives.
426. To the Ambassador in England.
Order to endeavour to obtain restitution of the goods of Marc' Antonio Marta laded upon the ship St. Andrea, as requested by his petition, enclosed.
Ayes, 22.Noes, 0.Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
Enclosure.427. Petition of Marc' Antonio Marta, stating that he laded 22 chests of beads (Paternostrami) and a small barrel of spices on the ship S. Andrea, captain Luke Danielsen, a Fleming, to be consigned to his agent Abram Oyens, at Amsterdam, and he understands that the ship is now at London, taken by the English fleet, as has befallen many others, or by some other accident, and the Captain a prisoner, as they claim that the goods belong to Spaniards or subjects or Spain, and asking that the ambassador in London be directed to recommend his interests and obtain the restitution of those goods to his agent.
[Italian.]
Jan. 17.
Senato,
Terra.
Venetian
Archives.
428. To the Proveditore General in Terra Ferma.
Order to pay a salary of 25 ducats a month to Captain Thomas Lathom, who offered to enlist troops for the republic in England, the preceding Proveditore General, Barbaro, having received an order to the same effect, the captain being a deserving and experienced soldier who has served the republic upon other occasions.
Ayes, 89.Noes, 0.Neutral, 1.
[Italian.]
Jan. 19.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Signori
Stati.
Venetian
Archives.
429. ALVISE CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in the Netherlands, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Two deputies of the Assembly have left for Amsterdam with orders to facilitate the pawning of the jewels from England. (fn. 6)
The Hague, the 19th January, 1626.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 Printed in the Negotiations of Sir Thomas Roe, pages 455, 456, where it is dated the 2nd October, 1625.
2 Bocasin, a kind of buckram that hath a resemblance to taffata and is much used for lining. Cotgrave: French Dict. Roe's paper as printed gives here "spices, calico, shashes and goods of India."
3 See Blainville's despatch to the king of the 26th January. He writes: "Je ne manquerai point de ma part a faire valoir le voyage de Mons. de Rambouillet en Espagne, quoique I'on I'aie voulu iei tourner en affaire de meant; je ne sais si cela vient de l'ambassadeur de Savoie, mais on dit fort assurement qu'il a promis de faire engager les affaires si avant dans l'etat de Milan par son maitre, que votre Majesté sera contraint de faire la paix avec les Rochellois, lui otant par la le moyen de faire cello a Espagne, quelques personnes qu'elle y puisse employer." Paris Transcripts. Public Record Office.
4 The proclamations forbidding trade with Spain and ordering the arming of ships are from Hampton Court on the 24th December, 1625 o.s.; the third proclamation, issued on the 25th December, is against the "embezelling" of armour, munition, victuals and other military provisions. Steele: A Bibliography of Royal Proclamations of the Tudor and Stuart Sovereigns, vol. i, page 171.
5 The previous disputes about the Consulage dues were between England and France, and took place in 1609, Vol. XI. of the Calendar, Preface, pages xxxvi xxxviij, but there is no mention of the matter being referred to Wotton.
6 The arrangements on the English side were made by Mr. Crow and Mr. Carleton. The Assembly deputed Mons. Alanynes of Geldeland and Mons. Marteleevens of Holland. Abstract of letter from Mr. Dudley Carleton to Sir Dudley Carleton, of the 5th January. S.P. Foreign, Holland,