Venice
July 1626, 21-31

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1913

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483-495

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'Venice: July 1626, 21-31', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 19: 1625-1626 (1913), pp. 483-495. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=89068 Date accessed: 28 July 2014.


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Contents

July 1626

July 21.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives.
665. SIMONE CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I sent my secretary to the ambassador of the States with certain advices, and he sent me back word that he heard from the Hague that, by order of the King of England, his Majesty's ambassador recently returned from Spain, and the Earl of Arundel, had both been sent to prison, being suspected of Spanish sympathies.
Paris, the 21st July, 1626.
[Italian.]
July 22.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Germania. Venetian Archives.
666. MARC ANTONIO PADAVIN, Venetian Secretary in Germany, to the DOGE and SENATE.
I have not so far heard anything said here about a league between the two crowns and the pope against England. However, Spain wishes to make an attack on that kingdom with a powerful fleet, and in such cases she would hope for help from the pope, while she expects France will remain constantly offended by the non fulfilment of the marriage treaty and will adhere to her claims for satisfaction, and will wait an opportune time to re-establish herself in that kingdom with the destruction of the Huguenots, which is represented as most easy.
Vienna, the 22nd July, 1626.
[Italian; copy.]
July 22.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Corfu. Venetian Archives.
667. PAOLO CAOTORTA, Proveditore and Captain of Corfu, to the DOGE and SENATE.
By the English ship Acquilla, master William Illes, sends the processes drawn up upon the affairs between the men of the galleys and the people of this island.
Corfu, the 22nd July, 1626.
[Italian.]
July 23.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
668. ZUANE PESARO and MARC ANTONIO MOROSINI, Venetian Ambassadors in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The English ambassador, after speaking strongly about the action of France and declaring that his king meant to go on against the Spaniards, left us the enclosed paper to send to your Excellencies. He said he would give a similar one to the duke and also send to the Swiss and Grisons in the hope that they would decide and answer as the occasion required. When I, Morosini, raised the question of the Margrave of Baden, the ambassador said that now the resolutions of France were clear, he would like to know for certain, if, when the republic disarmed, she would grant the margrave 4,000 of her disbanded foot, paid for two or three months, so that he might effect a diversion in Alsace. He pressed us to write to your Excellencies for a decision. He also asked that you should instruct your ministers at Rome, Madrid and Vienna to keep your ambassador in London constantly advised of what takes place day by day, since there is at present no minister of his Majesty at those courts. He also asked me, Morosini, to communicate what came to my notice. He would esteem this a great favour and would serve the common interests and welfare of all Christendom, since decisions might be taken in those places prejudicial to that crown, which they could easily resist or prevent if warned in time.
Turin, the 23rd July, 1626.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Enclosure.669. As his Majesty persists in his determination to employ his forces wherever he considers best, in order to check the unmeasured greatness of the Spaniards and Austrians and prevent them from oppressing more princes and states, I have thought it my duty to acquaint all princes and republics interested in the preservation of the public liberty, that with God's help his Majesty will send a fleet towards Spain, to be followed by a similar one at the end of September He will also send a fleet at once to Flanders, to scour the coast as well as a strong land force to be drilled in Holland this winter, so that they may be ready to carry out his Majesty's plans in the spring.
His Majesty imparts this in the hope that those who have so frequently desired to see a like resolution from England may take advantage of this opportunity and co-operate with him.
It cannot be denied that many princes and republics have warmly urged his Majesty to declare war on Spain, and the moment he took this step he was abandoned, so that the peace between the league and Spain has been made at the expense of his Majesty and his friends. However, his Majesty is assured of the sincerity of the Italian members of the league and begs them, for love of him, not to involve themselves in anything that may prejudice their own interests, but merely to make a sincere response to his good will.
The ministers of France have now enlightened the allied princes, and I therefore beg those interested to declare themselves categorically upon the four articles I have proposed before because time is important, and although his Majesty has not so far listened to the very advantageous proposals made him by his enemies, yet if he finds himself abandoned and that every one intends to take advantage of his rupture with Spain, he will be excused in the sight of God, the Angels and every one if he acts in his own interests in a way that prejudices those who first have abandoned him.
[Italian.]
July 23.
Cinque Savii alla Mercanzia, Risposte 147. Venetian Archives.
670. In reply to the question whether it is advisable to force English and Flemish ships which desire to lade currants at Zante and Cephalonia to bring their whole cargoes to this city. I fear this obligation may seriously affect the new impost, as the ships may not go to those marts; neither can I persuade myself that they will give up going to Leghorn for this, in order to bring their goods here, so that the currants in those islands will rot for lack of buyers, not to speak of the loss to the people of the islands, to the new impost and the fresh plantations which may be made at Lepanto and Patrasso and neighbouring places.
Agostin Michiel.
[Italian.]
July 24.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
671. MARC ANTONIO CORRER and ANZOLO CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassadors Extraordinary in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
On Sunday we took leave of the king. The Earl of Montgomery fetched us and brought us back, with the usual train of cavaliers and coaches. His Majesty received us in a great hall newly built for public spectacles, royally adorned with marvellous tapestries and gold. We spoke of your Serenity's old standing esteem for this crown, your indebtedness to the memory of King James, and enlarged upon his Majesty's praise. We said his qualities would always bind his subjects closer to him and win him the closer affection of the Most Christian. With these two crowns united all the princes of Christendom would be safe. The king replied that he thanked the republic for this embassy, speaking in complimentary terms of ourselves. He hoped we had been well treated. He would do his part for the general good, and asked us to take the same advice to your Serenity so that in the end we may secure a good peace. We replied that the actions of the republic showed her intentions and we could not doubt his Majesty's great ideas. His favour to us exceeded our deserts. Our gentlemen would pay their respects the next day, seven of them belonged to our leading families. The king expressed his pleasure and said he was sorry the rain had spoiled their journey. He again expressed the wish that we had received every attention. We thanked him warmly and indeed those with us have proposed something fresh every day to satisfy the curiosity of these gentlemen.
We passed the same office with the queen, telling her the pleasant memory we should take back of her constant favours and kindness, and also of her prudence and virtue directed to the welfare of these realms and general welfare of Christendom. For the benefit of the Count of Tillières, who acted as interpreter, we said that we were resolved to defend our liberty to the last gasp. We wished her Majesty long and most happy years and hoped she would co-operate in our objects, which concerned the welfare of the crowns of England and France, and we hoped her marriage would be the means of a better union between the two kings, so necessary to the tranquillity of all the princes.
The queen replied, speaking with great respect of your Serenity and expressing her pleasure at seeing us. Two or three times she wished us a pleasant journey. We shall start on Monday, please God. We have paid all our complimentary visits here and they have been returned. The Duke of Buckingham has been a third time to dine with us, with other leading men of his Majesty's Council.
London, the 24th July, 1626.
[Italian.]
July 24.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
672. MARC ANTONIO CORRER and ANZOLO CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassadors Extraordinary in England, to the DOGE and SENATE. (fn. 1)
We arranged two o'clock last Tuesday to take leave of the Duke of Buckingham. While we were waiting in the morning for the Secretary Conway to come and wish us a pleasant journey he sent his excuses because he was busy with his Majesty. He came afterwards to dine with us, with the Duke, the Earl of Holland and Lord Carleton.
The duke, Conway and Carleton spoke from time to time of the troubles abroad. They asked what were your Serenity's views and said you ought not to stand a part but act jointly with Savoy. We said the republic was always intent on the common good and would remain so in the future. Carleton, interpreting our reply to the duke, said in English that we were merely uttering compliments. We would not let this pass, but interrupted, pointing out how much the world owed to your Serenity, and how we ministers had to speak with reserve of the future. They expressed a high opinion of your Serenity and said they would like to come back the next day to have an hour's talk, and hear our views. We offered to call on the duke in his own house before leaving. This was arranged for the following day, and Carlisle was also there as the fourth. We all withdrew to a private room and when we were all seated, Conway, by the duke's command, spoke of the ambitions of the King of Spain and the House of Austria, advanced by treachery and bribery as well as arms. In this way they had long dallied with King James, using the marriage as a bait. This was made clear when his son was sent to Spain. Accordingly they drew closer to the Dutch and made an alliance with Denmark for fifteen years; they made the French match and employed Mansfelt. They gave Denmark 300,000 florins a month and Mansfelt 100,000, while the six regiments maintained in Holland cost quite 80,000 florins more. Last year the king sent a powerful fleet against the Spaniards, and will do the same this. He cannot long support this burden if others do not help him. There are two courses open, to support Denmark and encourage Sweden and Gabor and the present revolt in Austria (he also referred to the Margrave of Baden, but evidently did not rely much on him); or England, Venice and Savoy should join to attack Genoa, and the French will be forced to assist. He was very anxious to know what your Excellencies thought about this, knowing that for the general good you would not make objection to attacking another republic.
We fully agreed with what was said about the tricks of the House of Austria and warmly praised the operations of the crown, remarking how history was full of examples of this realm holding the balance in the world. The rising in Austria showed that there were openings if good princes would take advantage of them. There should be no question about supporting Denmark, as if he were conquered, we believe the liberty of Germany would be at an end and all other powers would be in imminent peril. It was very doubtful if he could hold out unless he was very well supported. The Genoa enterprise required mature consideration. The fact of its being a republic would make no difference to your Excellencies. If it were taken from the Spaniards it would deprive them of a great convenience and would undermine the security of their Italian dominions, but if the enterprise failed the harm would not be limited to the money thrown away. It would give the Spaniards firmer hold upon the republic, and the Genoese are very rich. We ended by saying every one knew your Serenity's care for the public welfare, and your actions showed that you kept an eye steadily fixed on the Spanish ambitions, and the republic is bearing very heavy expenses both by land and sea and had done more than its share in the league. We spoke of the number of troops in your Serenity's service. You might easily declare yourselves satisfied with the first article of the peace between France and Spain, restoring the status quo, and so released yourself from the present burdens. The duke remarked to Lord Carleton in English that every one knew the operations of the republic deserved every praise, just as the backing out of the French merited censure, and the king his master and his Council were much edified by what your Excellencies had done. But this was not enough, and nothing good could be effected without union. It was useless to do things piecemeal. We replied that as ministers we could go no further, but your good-will was evident. The duke asked us to report their instances to your Serenity, but they wished them kept a profound secret. They will do what they can here this year, helping Denmark and sending out powerful fleets, one of fifty ships to Spain and another of seventy or eighty sail to guard these shores. They will keep them till December. In the meantime your Serenity can give your decision, as the king cannot for long support such an expense, if he remains alone, and may have to withdraw or confine himself to defending his own.
We promised to make the representations desired, and encouraged them to persist in the glorious operations of the king. We have endeavoured to conform to the instructions of the Senate, especially those of the 22nd May last.
London, the 24th July, 1626.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
July 24.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
673. MARC ANTONIO CORRER and ANZOLO CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassadors Extraordinary in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
In two meetings with the ambassador of Denmark we have endeavoured to win his confidence, and his master's through him, just as we have left nothing undone which could help him here. He responded cordially and told us that so far his king has borne the brunt of the whole army alone, as well as supplying Mansfelt with money, without any support from the allies. He had 70,000 foot and 15,000 horse, but the garrisons swallowed up many, so that he could only put 40,000 into the field. He had recently granted his lieutenant to Mansfelt with 1,000 foot and horse. The king's own letters stated this. They were to go to Silesia to help the rising in Austria and encourage the movement of Gabor and Sweden. Gabor had recently sent a gentleman to Denmark promising that for 40,000 thalers a month he would advance with a fine army. Denmark would agree to pay a third of this if the rest were forthcoming. Sweden would be diverted against the Poles, as the truce reported was not true; it was only for four weeks, extended later to two more.
He promised us a note of the distribution of the king's troops. He told us that the king had given the command of Brunswick's force to the Duke of Weimar. With the elder brother of Brunswick alive, though incapable of ruling and in retirement, there was no one to claim the state, as the people were well disposed.
We hear, however, from another source, that the nobility are not disposed to suffer the rule of Denmark, while the people are devoted to him. When he returned our visit to-day the ambassador repeated the same things, and showed us the agreements made with this crown and the United Provinces. They were made very hurriedly and gave no time to treat with other princes. However, they include France and Sweden, who have offered their help, and he would like to invite your Serenity, Savoy, the Electors and Princes of Germany and the Prince of Transsylvania. He lamented that this invitation had not been given and spoke of the danger of the Austrians becoming absolute masters of Germany, thus endangering other powers. If his king was not helped, he could not keep the field any longer, and he hoped your Serenity would display your usual generosity. He asked us several times to represent this pressing need. He said his king would send a special ambassador, or a simple gentleman, if that was preferred in the interests of secrecy. We praised his king and said we found the king here eager to help him. We hoped all difficulties about obtaining money would be overcome. We spoke of the diversion caused by your Serenity, keeping the pick of the Spanish forces this side of the Alps. We spoke at length about the operations of the republic and tried to prevent the sending of an ambassador or gentleman to Venice. But as he kept repeating the idea, we promised to speak to your Serenity, and his king should hear from you. This insistence of his, agreeing with what the duke and others of the Council have done, makes us believe that he has been animated by some one of this Court.
To-day this ambassador has been to audience of his Majesty. I hear he was to press for money and would not be put off with promises. Three days ago another gentleman of Denmark left here for Paris for the same purpose, leaving everything here in charge of the new ambassador, while he tried to obtain money from the Most Christian.
The coming of the ambassador extraordinary has produced no better result here than the despatch of a few troops raised for the service of his king. To give him some satisfaction in the present extreme scarcity of money, the king is sending Carleton as ambassador extraordinary to France. He will start next week, and under cover of helping Denmark he will also have commissions for the settlement of difficulties about the carrying out of the marriage treaty and the queen's claim to arrange her household, while the king intends it to depend absolutely upon him. These difficulties afford the French a pretext for postponing the payment of the rest of the dowry. To obtain this Carleton will appeal to the need of helping Denmark. But we hear that the money has already been spent and assigned to individual creditors. Lord Carleton dined with us to-day and told us he had express instructions from his Majesty to forward the republic's interest in France. This embassy extraordinary will smooth the way for an ordinary ambassador and may induce more friendly feeling. We shall foster this whenever we have an opportunity.
They leave no stone unturned here to find money, but so far with scant success. Only yesterday the Flemish and French nation refused to lend his Majesty 200,000 crowns, and it is freely stated that if the king sends a command to any individual, he will rather go to prison than consent.
It has been proposed to increase the gold money ten per cent. having it all brought to the Mint at its present value, to be marked with a stamp and re-issued at the increased value. This proved advantageous on a previous occasion when the assay was better; but it was debased then, so they do not know what to decide.
They have also talked of setting up a Banco del Giro (fn. 2) in imitation of your Serenity's, but without a firm assignment, it is not thought it would succeed in the present state of credit.
They have issued orders for letters to the Commons demanding he subsidies, but as every one says that they will not be obeyed without a bill of parliament, they may not push them any further.
They will obtain something from the pulling down of many parks and houses of the king, fifteen or twenty years, by a gift under hand, but without parliament. This will not supply a steady revenue, such as they require.
The fleet will sail in a few days. Buckingham will not go with it. The Earl of Denbigh, his brother-in-law, and vice-admiral, will command, a man of no experience, so we hear. The number of ships will be considerably less than announced, as we are assured that there will be no more than twenty or twenty-five English ships and very few Dutch ones.
Strong remonstrances are made here from Scotland, because Buckingham intends to distribute the offices of that realm among his relations and dependants, taking away the past grants from their present holders under various pretexts, and also because they are trying to bring back to the crown all the revenues which pertain to ecclesiastical goods, taking them from those who enjoy them at present.
London, the 24th July, 1626.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
July 25.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
674. ZORZI GIUSTINIAN, Venetian Ambassador at Constantinople, to the DOGE and SENATE.
After the death of the Caimecan Giurgi the prince's ambassador decided to go to audience of his successor Rezep and told him all the particulars of his business, making the same requests as to Giurgi.He then went to the ambassadors and told them what he had cone, asking for their support, which they promised. The English ambassador said he had at last received despatches from his king that day about Gabor and the truce with Spain, with instructions to communicate them to me and the other ambassadors. These letters are duplicates of others written long ago which did not reach him. The king tells him of the league concluded at the Hague between his Majesty, the King of Denmark and the States; the French ambassador at the Hague also seemed inclined to enter at first, but on seeing the turn of affairs he said no more about it. The allies had sent ambassadors extraordinary to the Most Christian asking him to enter, but he excused himself. They sent to Venice, Sweden and Savoy to the same effect, to arrange about the contribution to Prince Gabor of 40,000 thalers a month, undertaking to prevent the conclusion of the truce between Spain and the Porte and the peace with the emperor, to bring about peace between the Persians and Turks, so that the forces of the latter might be more ready to serve them, and an order of the Sultan to the Tartars for the diversion of the Poles, and to the Pasha of Buda to make the emperor uneasy, as he had won over that Pasha by a present of 30,000 reals. With these things the prince promised the allies that if Mansfelt comes to his assistance with 8,000 foot and 3,000 horse he will throw himself on Silesia, Austria and Bohemia with 15,000 foot and 5,000 horse hoping to occupy them in two years. The ambassador said that his king ordered all these things as well as the interruption of the truce with Spain, acting with the bailo and other ambassadors, with unlimited authority to spend to obtain his objects. In reading the king's own letter he reached a passage leginning, if he found any of the ambassadors somewhat cold, but there he stopped, saying it could not mean anyone but the French ambassador. Closing the letter he said he would go that very day to audience of the Caimecan to back the prince's requests, but he was very doubtful of success owing to the arrogance and want of skill of that official, who was encouraged by the promises of the imperial resident and Montalbon. He asked me to do the like, lamenting the delay of his letters. He did not conceal his suspicion that the French ambassador had stopped them, as the secretary of state wrote that he had sent them by way of Paris.
On the following day the ambassador sent to tell me of his office with the Caimecan. He had found him very sparsely informed about the matter and about the quality of the allied princes. He tried to give him a favourable idea of them and impress him with the deceit of the imperialists and Spaniards, reminding him of Montalbano's proposals last year and the traps laid, as they were simultaneously, sending money to the Cossacks, and urging him to send an ambassador to the prince as soon as possible.
The Caimecan replied that as soon as he had the written paper promised by the Transsylvanian ambassador he would speak to the king and decide what seemed good. England got the ambassador of the states to perform a like office with the Caimecan, who gave a similar reply. I also went to him. He said he had received the promised paper and was favourably impressed with the prince. The Sultan was thoroughly aware of the evil designs of the Spaniards and imperialists. In response to his question I assured him that the alliance between England, Denmark and the States was perfectly true as well as the understanding with Sweden. He asked me if it was true that the Venetians, French, English and Flemings meant to collect 1,500 ships and attack Sicily and other Austrian lands, as the prince stated. I replied that they could easily do so and more. In all his conversation he did not seem so averse to Gabor's proposals as was feared, though he displayed ignorance and fear; possibly he had been bribed.
I informed the other ambassadors of my office, including the Transsylvanian.
The Vigne of Pera, the 25th July, 1626.
[Italian; deciphered.]
July 27.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Savoia.
Venetian
Archives.
675. MARC ANTONIO MOROSINI, Venetian Ambassador in Savoy, to the DOGE and SENATE.
Buglione has had several conferences of late with the Duke, the prince and madame too; but nothing definite has been decided. Buglione will promise nothing until the truce is arranged with the Genoese, and the duke puts this off upon various pretexts, with the object of seeing first what arrangement your Serenity makes with the French. It is true that the return of the Secretary Barozzi with the news of the dissolution of Parliament in England and a certain coldness with respect to giving help here, the duke has put aside all thought of war. He gave Buglione a reply in writing, which was sent by special courier to the king.
In my conversation with the duke I have several times assured him of the excellent disposition of the Senate towards his interests, though I have never failed to point out the impossibility of any betterment at present, as the weakness of the good side is only too clear, seeing that France desires his destruction and England is unable to help him.
Turin, the 27th July, 1626.
[Italian; deciphered.]
July 29.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Germania. Venetian Archives.
676. MARC ANTONIO PADAVIN, Venetian Secretary in Germany, to the DOGE and SENATE.
A truce is expected with the Dutch. They are said to have represented to your Excellencies that they can no longer promise themselves help from England, while France has grown cold and they cannot expect help from elsewhere, so if any reasonable proposals are made they will embrace them.
Vienna, the 29th July, 1626.
[Italian; copy.]
July 31.
Senato, Mar. Venetian Archives.
677. That in gratification of the King of England, in response to the office of the Ambassador Wake, through his secretary, Alexander Emengh, (fn. 3) an Englishman be pardoned the remainder of his sentence of two years in the galleys, passed on him on the 9th March last year by the Proveditore General in Terra Ferma.
That the secretary of England be summoned to the Collegio and informed about this grace and also that representations have been made to Constantinople about the intrigues of Spain, as his Majesty desired, and further that it is impossible to change the dismissal of Sir [John] Vere, without setting a bad example, because of his fault in not coming to render his services.
Ayes, 118.Noes, 5.Neutral, 7.
On the 7th July in the Collegio.
Ayes, 17.Noes, 0.Neutral, 2.
[Italian.]
July 31.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
678. To the Ambassador CONTARINI, designate to England.
We were anxious that the weather should favour your passage, but we recognise your willingness. We expect you will have reached the Court before the arrival of these present. You will find various instructions, part of which the ambassadors extraordinary will have executed. We can add no more upon current affairs, as it depends upon what the French ambassador extraordinary may say, and we will send later. We send you for information only some articles given by M. de Buglion to the Duke of Savoy, which the French call secret, about the peace of Monzon, and the copy of a paper given by the Ambassador Wake to ours at Turin. He gave one to the duke and sent others to the Swiss and Grisons to urge some decision about his constancy.
We willingly grant you the chain given you by the States on your departure as a testimony of our satisfaction in your useful services.
That the grant of the claim be balloted separately:
Ayes, 132.Noes, 0.Neutral, 1.
For the grant:
Ayes, 130.Noes, 1.Neutral, 4.
On the 30th in the Collegio, for the grant:
Ayes, 22.Noes, 0.Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
July 31.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives.
679. SIMONE CONTARINI, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The ambassador of the States told me that his masters had generously decided to prosecute the war with Spain in Flanders whether the crowns of France and England assisted them or no.
Paris, the 31st July, 1626.
[Italian.]
July 31.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
680. ANDREA ROSSO, Venetian Secretary in England, to the DOGE and SENATE.
The ambassadors extraordinary, after the fulfilment of every demonstration of honour, left this city on the 27th accompanied by the Master of the Ceremonies with the royal barques as far as Gravesend, where they were to be provided with one of his Majesty's coaches as far as Dover, to start them on their journey and take them home as soon as possible. The king, in order to make public demonstration of the satisfaction this embassy had afforded him, and of his esteem for the republic, sent one of his gentlemen after the ambassadors with a present of jewels for their Excellencies. They have left a name at this court for most prudent and worthy gentlemen, whose splendour and liberality have made a permanent impression upon all. I have had the honour to serve their Excellencies to the extent of my powers, and they have kindly appreciated my poor services. They have left me all the orders of your Serenity and other instructions to consign to the ordinary Ambassador Contarini, who has been waiting so long for a favourable wind to cross to this island, where I most anxiously await him, so that I may be able to return to my poor house, which languishes through my long absence. This, however, will not prevent me from doing my duty until he arrives and from spending the last drop of my blood in the service of the republic.
The king and queen with all the court have changed their quarters and are now at Theobalds, twelve miles from here, where it is said they will stop a few days before proceeding to some other place, not known for certain.
In the absence of everybody and since the departure of the ambassadors extraordinary I have gathered what few particulars I could:
The ambassador of Denmark, who continues his instances for money, told me that without the things promised by the confederates, his master cannot possibly continue the war alone. He is well disposed to the common wants, as shown by the expedition of the Count of Mansfelt, and by the sending of a good number of horse to the rebels in Austria though he has heard nothing of their passage as yet. He must have help from the other princes and from here in particular. They encourage his hopes, but these do not suffice to maintain his armies and feed his soldiers. He seems to hope for little without parliament, saying we cannot do with a little and we cannot have much in any other way. My king is surrounded by enemies and needs speedy and not tardy resolutions. He told me he had made overtures to the ambassadors extraordinary for some union between the republic and the King of Denmark for jointly helping the common cause, and when they are certain of the intentions of your Serenity they will send a special embassy or some gentleman specially qualified to treat with your Excellencies. Meanwhile, he suggested that you may receive some invitation from his Majesty by letter.
I confined myself to generalities, saying that his king merited the highest commendation for his generous spirit and his steadfast resolutions. Your Serenity esteemed him highly, but I would only tell him that the ambassadors extraordinary had sent a faithful report, and your Serenity would decide the matter with your customary prudence.
The colonel of the Duke of Weimar has left at last, with merely complimentary letters to his master. However, they gave him a diamond belt worth about 500l. sterling.
The quarrels between this nation and the French are renewed, news having arrived that in Normandy and Britanny the goods of English merchants have again been sequestrated, the French claiming, so I am assured, compensation for damages received many years ago from a ship captain, who after making an agreement with the French to proceed to the Indies with his ship, withdrew with it to England on account of some disagreements, to the prejudice of those concerned. They also claim compensation for another ship taken by Sir Henry Maynwaring, in the days of his buccaneering. The total amounts to some 20,000l. sterling.
They attach great importance here to these disturbances, which arouse great excitement. Amid various opinions it is thought that the French claim arises from the good treatment they have received in other arrests, when, I am assured, they obtained the most complete satisfaction. They want to establish the queen's household, but encounter many difficulties with quarrels between their Majesties.
The king recently presented to the queen the Marchioness of Hamilton, the Countess of Denbigh, the latter sister the former niece of the duke, and the Countess of Carlisle, saying: Madam, I wish you to receive these ladies as your ladies of the bedchamber, an honour very highly esteemed at the Court. The queen with the utmost modesty and equal prudence replied that his Majesty was master but she would never have confidence with those ladies, so they were neither admitted nor excluded.
Some days later the queen sent a note to the king with the names of some whom she desired should have appointments about her, but his Majesty, angry perhaps about the affair of the ladies, seems to have thrown it aside without reading it, saying that he meant to be master and dispose of her officers as he pleased. With matters at this pass it is not thought that Lord Carleton will leave so soon on his extraordinary embassy to the Most Christian, but they will first try to settle matters so as to have better grounds for requesting the payment of the remainder of the dowry.
They seem to be hastening on as much as possible the sailing of the fleet, but the general view is that it will not make any attempt this year or effect anything of moment, especially as the expedition would consist of but few ships, commanded by the Earl of Denbigh, with which we will coast about this island and guard it from attack. But even this little expedition cannot be carried out without some money more especially to satisfy the troops, who are to embark on the ships and are creditors for many instalments. The captains have jointly demanded satisfaction, but they cannot have it since the king lacks the means.
The hope is vanishing of being able to obtain money by means of issuing letters for the collection of the subsidies. They have not realised what was expected of them, except in the case of some courtiers who are expected to give some small sums of money, in their own interests.
In order to arouse some disposition to make contributions, they have spoken publicly to the people in the king's name in the great hall at Westminster, exhorting them to contribute to the subsidies promised by the Parliament, but not fulfilled, owing to its breaking up, for most just reasons, very well known to his Majesty, and by placing before their eyes the danger of the invasion of this kingdom and of the total loss of their goods, honour, wives, children and life itself.
The people listened attentively, but after they twice shouted: Parliament, Parliament (fu attentamente ascoltato dal popolo, ma doppo gridato per due volte altamente Parlamento, Parlamento).
Accordingly without this there is little or no hope of obtaining money.
The Earl of Brisuater, a dependant of the duke, has been made a member of the Council of State. (fn. 4)
I have this moment received a fat packet from Venice for the Ambassador Contarini. I shall reserve it for his arrival as I do not wish to meddle with what does not concern me.
London, the 31st July, 1626.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]

Footnotes

1 A portion of this despatch is printed by Barozzi and Berchet in their Relazioni, serie iva., pages 292, 293.
2 The Banco del Giro was founded at Venice in 1524 because of the failure of numerous private banks, and established at the Rialto. For its control and management the Senate appointed certain nobles of unblemished reputation, who found adequate securities. Every one could deposit any sum of money he pleased, which was entered to his credit in a book and debited to the bank without any charge. He could take it out when he pleased, in whole or in part. The money deposited could not be forfeited or withheld in any way. Payments were generally said to be made in bank money, of which 100 bank ducats were equivalent to 120 of those current. A depositor could make a payment by a mere act of book-keeping (giro di partita), i.e., by transferring the amount from his own account to his creditor's without the necessity for any employment of cash. Cash payments, however, could be made in small sums, or to foreigners, and for this purpose the bank always kept a sufficient amount in reserve to satisfy possible demands. Romanin: Storia Documentata di Venetia, vol. viii., pages 375, 376.
3 Called Alessandro Irwing in the copy preserved at the Public Record Office. On the 7th August Wilkinson writes: The third and last demand of his Majesty is the release of an English gentleman from their galleys, an answer to which I have here enclosed to your lordship. His freedom is granted but his debts must first be paid, and when his friends will give order here to some merchant to disburse so much money or will discharge his debts in Venice and in the galley where he is at Corfu, they may redeem him.—State Papers, Foreign, Venice.
4 John Egerton, Earl of Bridgewater, sworn a member of the Privy Council on Wednesday the 15th July. Birch: Court and Times of Charles I., i., page 125.