32. To the Ambassador in England.
We have received your letters of the 26th January. You are
to watch carefully the proceedings of the Marquis of Velada, as
this is most necessary under present circumstances. We enclose
the usual sheet of advices.
Ayes, 126. Noes, 0. Neutral, 1.
33. Giovanni Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in England,
to the Doge and Senate.
The commissioners of Scotland make no progress with their
very difficult task. Although they have announced themselves
as willing, in conformity with the written demands, to present
themselves to the king in the guise of suppliants, and have asked
for audience more than once, they have not so far been able to
obtain it, and are very unfavourably impressed. Thus the
original hopes cherished by them and by the generality of obtaining
from his Majesty the satisfaction that they claim, grow less
and less, while the apprehension increases that with the efforts
for an accommodation proving absolutely futile, the Scots will not
wait any longer for an appeal to force and that they will again
take possession of the best fortresses of that country. In order
to secure the castle of Edinburgh against some sudden surprise,
his Majesty has ordered some troops to be sent hurriedly from the
frontier, and news comes that some have been introduced by the
Governor of Berwick, causing some stir among the people there.
This week they have sent off to Ireland all the officers come
from Holland, for the purpose of getting the troops there into
shape. The Lieutenant promises that they will be very numerous.
They have more confidence in prompt and faithful service from
them than from any other kind, believing the Irish to be thoroughly
antipathetic to the Scots.
Fresh misgivings encouraged with all their might by certain
interested ministers that the demands of parliament are likely
to be immoderate and that it will not be disposed to give satisfaction
to his Majesty, have supplied a motive for delaying the
orders for its meeting, and they contemplate postponing or even
allowing to lapse the public decision already arrived at. They
have held long and troublesome discussions these last days at
the palace, at which the views of the ministers are not in agreement.
This leaves their final decision in doubt, in which they
must be influenced by the important consequences seeing that
its meeting is the object of the fixed desires and great attention
of everyone. They are devoting every effort to find a way to
raise enough money from the people to meet present expenses,
supposing it does not appear expedient to assemble parliament,
or if the objects they aim at are not achieved, but every device
encounters insurmountable difficulties, and this leaves the ministers
and the Treasurer in particular in a state of great perplexity.
The king seems to feel very bitterly the continued imprisonment
of his nephew, as well as the pertinacity with which the
French demand his promise for his release, and on this account
his Majesty's resentment seems to be influencing his intentions.
They have sent a courier to the Agent Curcio at Nurenberg
instructing him to take active steps to induce the Electoral Diet
there to make some vigorous declaration in favour of that House
and of this same prince as well. The Catholic minister here does
his utmost to persuade his Majesty that his masters cherish the
most friendly disposition in this matter, and in order to stir them
to take some ill advised steps he offers prompt assistance.
This is all that I have to report this week. I have to-day
received your Excellencies' letters of the 28th January. I
regret to hear that my own have not reached you, though I
send them every week with such punctuality as the poor condition
of the Court here permits.
London, the 3rd March, 1640.
34. Girolamo Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador at the
Hague, to the Doge and Senate.
Their High Mightinesses have sent precise instructions to
their ambassador extraordinary in England to return with all
speed, and to endeavour not to be there at the arrival of the
Spanish minister. In spite of all their efforts to keep dark the
transactions of that minister it is well known, even among the
lowest people, that his mission has been unsuccessful.
The Hague, the 5th March, 1640.
35. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in France, to
the Doge and Senate.
The Agent of the Landgrave of Hesse has arrived at Court to
complete the negotiations about his troops. He presented
letters in favour of the Prince Palatine and the Ambassador of
Sweden has delivered others on the same subject from his mistress
to the king. Savigni and Noiers have visited the Prince. Since
the King of Great Britain shows so much reluctance to give the
satisfaction asked of him, they are directing their attention to
adjusting the matter with the Prince himself, if it be possible.
Paris, the 6th March, 1640.
36. The Secretary of the English Ambassador came into the
Collegio and spoke substantially as follows :
My lord, the ambassador, has been detained by various
accidents so that he has not been able to return to this city as
he wished. He has instructed me to express his devotion to
your Serenity and to say that he will set out at the first opportunity
to perform his duties.
The doge replied : We are glad to hear of the ambassador and
that he is well. He will always be welcome, both as ambassador
of the Majesty of England and for his own sake. As the time
for travelling is approaching he should have good weather for
his journey, and we shall greet him affectionately on his arrival.
37. To the Ambassador in England.
Renewed instructions to watch the proceedings of the Marquis
of Velada. Enclose copy of exposition of the English Resident
made in the name of the Ambassador Fildin. To take a suitable
opportunity to express to Fildin the Senate's appreciation of
his good will towards the republic and to tell him that he will be
welcome when he returns. Enclose advices.
Ayes, 123. Noes, 0. Neutral, 0.
38. Giovanni Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in England,
to the Doge and Senate.
Those who prudently advised the king to conciliate the English
people by proceeding to summon parliament have finally gained
the upper hand, and this week, without further delay, they issued
writs throughout the kingdom, causing extreme satisfaction
everywhere. The first sessions should take place about the
middle of next month.
They also afforded an opportunity to the deputies of Scotland
to see his Majesty privately. They besought him, in a very
humble manner, to grant them a public audience, so as to give
more publicity to their justification and to the proofs of their
obedience and loyalty. They subsequently represented that
the Scots claimed nothing beyond the full observance of the terms
agreed upon last year at Berwick. This means the expulsion of
the bishops and other radical measures prejudicial to the sovereignty
of the crown. The king, on his side, knows full well that
these demands cover the most subtle artifice, and are only
intended to strengthen their party in England. The king, with
an appearance of great anger replied in a few words, that they
were not going the right way to facilitate an adjustment. They
should put their demands in writing, and he would then deliberate
fully upon what he considered best for the general welfare
and service of his subjects there. All the same, they persist with
vigour and say that their instructions do not go beyond, so that
the negotiations for an agreement are in as doubtful a position as
ever, with scant indication of any mutually satisfactory compromise.
Meanwhile, in order to make that people bow to his will, by
active preparations for war, the king has issued instructions to
all his captains that they must be at Berwick with all their men
before the end of this month. He has also decided to strengthen
the army by the prompt addition of 2000 cavalry under twenty
captains, who have been nominated. They received loans to
complete the levy, two days ago, together with their patents.
Next week also the Lieutenant will proceed to Ireland. His
valued advice supports his Majesty in favouring the most spirited
action. He promises freely that even without subsidies from
parliament he will find a way to obtain promptly from the people
a fresh levy of 300,000l.
The news that the Most Christian has set Prince Casimir at
liberty has revived the hopes of the ministers here of obtaining
that of the Palatine also, especially in virtue of the last pressing
offices of the Swedish crown on his behalf.
The Catholic minister tries to represent to his Majesty as
approaching ever nearer the marriage between his daughter and
the Prince of Spain. He assured the king, at a special audience,
that when the Marquis of Vellada arrives, for whom they are
toiling at numerous and very rich liveries, his master will send
to this Court with his wife the Count of Monterei, in order to
convey the princess to Spain. Those who measure present
insinuations by past experience do not attach much credence to
these assurances, and they cannot persuade themselves that
even if the princess went she would subsequently get her husband.
The gentleman of Prince Tomaso persists in his stay at Court.
Having lost hope of persuading the ministers here to use the
influence of this crown for the reconciliation of Madame of
Savoy with the Princes there, he now proposes to open a mart for
ships of this country in the port of Villefranche. Besides other
advantages offered to the merchants he says that the Governor
of Milan, in order to facilitate the flow of capital which the ships
will bring, will set up a bank of 100,000 crowns in that town, and
will grant many exemptions and privileges to the goods which
proceed thence to that state. But the merchants here do not
commend this idea. It was mooted formerly by the late duke, but
was never carried into effect. In any case it would do harm to
the marts of Genoa and Leghorn, and accordingly, the persons
interested in those places do not fail to use every effort to thwart
these dangerous enterprises of the Savoyards.
The Catholic fleet has proceeded even as far as the Isle of
Wight, without hindrance from the enemy. They fell in with
eight Dutch ships, proceeding to Amsterdam with merchandise,
seized them after a slight contest, and carried them off to Spain.
The negotiations of the Dutch ambassadors remain as they
were, without making any progress. They have asked for a
fresh audience of the king, which is fixed for next Sunday. I
gather that they will not only represent that the reply they ask
for may be no longer delayed, but will also say something about
the ill feeling that is at present arising between the crown of
Denmark and their Provinces.
The Barbary corsairs, augmented to eighty sail, cruise in great
force to the very mouth of the Strait. They have of late plundered
sixty ships of divers nations. It is feared that an English
ship has suffered this fate. It left Cadiz with 400 chests of silver
to be carried to Flanders. (fn. 1) The Catholic minister is very distressed
about this, because of the blow to his master in view of
his expenses for the approaching campaign.
London, the 9th March, 1640.
39. Girolamo Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador at the
Hague, to the Doge and Senate.
Harsem, although he has received orders to return, feigns
indisposition, so as not to come back with a tarnished reputation,
as he raised the greatest expectations before his departure and
he has not succeeded in obtaining so much as a portion of the
The Hague, the 13th March, 1640.
40. Giovanni Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in England,
to the Doge and Senate.
As arranged, the Dutch ambassadors had audience of the king
last Sunday ; but their offices proved different from their written
announcements as well as from what everyone expected. Instead
of pressing for the reply from his Majesty which had been
fruitlessly urged and promised in the past, Arsem spoke to him
in a very serious manner, saying that as he found him immersed
in affairs of greater consequence, he had decided to return home,
without raising fresh questions, as his masters had recalled him,
leaving the old Joachimi here, with the sole purpose of cultivating
The king made no objection to his decision, but spoke at large
of his esteem and affection for their High Mightinesses. He
thus completely put a stop to the negotiations and compelled
this minister, with ever growing dissatisfaction, to follow up his
intention, accelerating his movements considerably. Thus he
took leave of the queen on the following day, and of her mother.
To show his resentment he did not ask for the usual public
audience of the king. He is only waiting for the Dutch ships
appointed to take him home.
M. d' Enflit (fn. 2) also left last Friday, who was sent by the Prince
of Orange ostensibly to pay his respects to the queen mother, but
really to arrange a marriage between his son and the princess
here, to suggest alliances and make other offers admirably
calculated to back up Arsem's negotiations, after having long
sighed in vain for answers to his offices. He left ill pleased to
see the advances of his master so little esteemed by the princes
here, and filled, no less than Arsem, with the most serious misgivings
that His Majesty is seriously contemplating ideas incompatible
with the interests of his country and of France as well.
In this connection this gentleman went so far as to assure the
queen mother positively that their stiffness here will compel the
States and the Prince himself, although they are not thoroughly
satisfied with the Cardinal Richelieu, to draw closer to that
crown and second all its designs, even those out of harmony with
the aims and objects of his government.
By virtue of the orders issued the whole kingdom and this
city in particular has been engaged this week in choosing members
for the parliament. For the most part their choice has fallen
upon, not only Puritans, but those who in the past have shown
most boldness in opposing the king's decrees, and excluding, with
definite and seditious declarations, the Catholics and all those who
served his Majesty last year against the Scots in the affair of
York. This exclusion, while giving further encouragement to
the cause of the rebels, shows the difficulties to which his Majesty's
demands and special interests will be subject in parliament.
Thus while on the one hand he is filled with well justified apprehension,
he does not forget to employ means calculated to win
to his side the parliamentarians with the greatest influence
(la quale per cio circondata da un canto dai sentimenti della piu
giusta apprehensione, non lascia dall'altro d'impiegar i mezi
valevoli a guadagnare ai proprii compiacimenti li Parlamentarii
di maggior credito).
Assisted by eight councillors of the Cabinet the king finally
allowed himself to be persuaded to hear the deputies of Scotland
again, on Tuesday. He closely questioned them as to whether
they meant to persist in their full demands, or whether, like
obedient subjects, they would submit to the goodness of their
prince. They took six days to reply to this. Everyone notices
that these deputies lose no opportunity of gaining time. By this
they hope that the vigorous war preparations will cool off, and
they look in particular for the meeting of parliament. From its
measures they hope, with good reason, for support and not the
cutting down of their proposals, and they also confidently expect
them to receive vigorous backing in the present trouble with
France and Holland by opportune if cautious assistance in
Following the precedent of the loan made by the Council, his
Majesty is now demanding from all the lower officials of his
household a payment of 2000l. each. Many have promptly
obeyed, by overstraining their private resources. They count
on raising over 100,000l. of their money in this way. (fn. 3)
They have ordered Wilimbanch to return without further
delay from the French Court if he cannot obtain final and categorical
answers about the release of the Palatine before a definite
London, the 16th March, 1640.
41. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in France, to
the Doge and Senate.
The Prince Palatine is all ready to come out of the Bois de
Vincennes, Bellievre having practically induced him to consent
to the satisfaction asked of him. They did not want to treat
with him alone, but in view of the disadvantages which might
arise from his being imprisoned longer, from the side of England,
they decided not to refine too nicely and to settle the matter one
way or another.
Paris, the 20th March, 1640.
42. To the Ambassador in England.
We have received no despatch from you by the ordinary of
Antwerp. The Captain of the Galeasses reports the capture by
pirates of a ship carrying Venetian goods. The captain of an
English ship is proposing to buy the contents of this ship at
Modon. The name of the captain is not known. You will
ascertain the facts and make strong representations to the king
for the restoration of the goods to our subjects, causing them all
to be sequestrated and the captain punished.
Ayes, 93. Noes, 1. Neutral, 1.
43. Giovanni Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in England,
to the Doge and Senate.
This week also the king and the ministers deputed from Scotland
have held a secret conference. So far there is no appearance
of any progress towards an agreement that would give reasonable
hope of domestic peace to this kingdom, such as is passionately
desired by his Majesty. He realises more and more from the
elections how little he can count upon the generosity and good
will of the approaching parliament, while on the other hand the
old suspicion of the sincerity of the Scots about an adjustment,
when they multiply difficulties, are increased by authentic news
that in Scotland they do not relax their activity in putting their
troops in order or in providing for all the other requirements
Meanwhile the accumulation of some considerable sum of
money ceaselessly occupies their chief attention here, in long
consultations. They are also enquiring with great diligence
into methods calculated to compel the people here to supply the
needs of the crown by prompt payments, without having to
depend in the future on the decision of parliament. Some
even strongly advise force if the obstinacy of the people does not
otherwise permit it. Wise men consider that this would be very
unlikely to succeed and that it might produce dangerous disturbance.
But the king, deceived in his hopes of obtaining from
parliament by gentle means the large grants that were expected,
supports this strongly, and is meditating how he shall carry it
into effect, if the stiffneckedness of the parliament men compels
him to dissolve the assembly without results, an event which appearances
seem to indicate as certain (per trovar modi di raccoglier
qualche somma considerabile di denaro non cessano qui intanto le
applicationi piu fisse, in longhe consulte, esaminandosi ancora con
molta premura i mezzi valevoli a costringere questi sudditi di
supplire con la prontezza degli esborsi ai bisogni della corona senza
dipendere in avvenire dall' arbitrio de Parlamenti, e vi e chi efficacemente
persuade a procurare con la forza Vintento quando dall'
ostinatione de popoli altrimenti non si possi conseguire. Consiglio
che se bene dalli piu prudenti e giudicato di difficilissima riuscita,
et atto a produrre pericolose novita, il Re, nondimeno deluso dalle
speranze di cavare con soave mano dal parlamento le contributioni
che larghe s'era presuposte v' applaude assai e va meditando il
modo di praticarlo quando le durezze de' parlimentarii lo necessitino
a discogliere senza frutto la ridutione come Vapparenze pronosticano
sia per certamente seguire).
A parliament opens in Ireland also, on Monday, and the
Lieutenant has posted thither. After he has set forth his
Majesty's desires there by his own strenuous offices, he has
orders to return to Court with all speed to take part in the important
events here, more especially with regard to the proposals
to be made by the new Catholic Ambassador Vellada. They
suppose him not far from these shores, as he has been several
days at Dunkirk, waiting for a favourable wind.
After receiving the usual present the Dutch Ambassador
extraordinary Arsem has left. In order to soothe him to some
extent the Secretary of State was sent to express esteem for him
personally and for his masters, and to declare again formally
that they wish to keep to the old beneficial relations, assuring
him that if they have not at present embraced the overtures for
a closer alliance, they will do so at a more opportune moment,
with mutual satisfaction and advantage. In responding to this
courteous office expressing the king's excellent sentiments towards
his masters, the ambassador seemed to go away completely
satisfied, though at bottom he feels very differently, as I wrote.
Before leaving he sent a gentleman with his compliments, to which
I made due response.
In his last despatch from Brussels the Agent Gerbier states
that the Duke of Lorraine proposes to accompany the Ambassador
Vellada to this Court, on the pretext of visiting Madame de
Chevreuse. This arouses the suspicions of the Cardinal Infant,
who fears that the sole motive for his leaving Flanders is to
advance his agreement with France. The king, who is equally
anxious to avoid occasions for fresh expenditure and also to
please the Spaniards, has adroitly intimated to the duke's agent
that his coming here under present circumstances may give rise
to suspicion and he would like the visit postponed to some other
time ; so it is thought that the duke will not follow up his original
idea. (fn. 4)
A youth, son of the Swedish Chancellor Oxisterne, arrived here
last week. He has kissed the king's hands, but it does not
appear that more than mere curiosity to see the country has
brought him here.
London, the 23rd March, 1640.
44. Girolamo Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador at the
Hague, to the Doge and Senate.
The government here is apprehensive of serious consequences
from their differences with Denmark. The king of England
wished to act as mediator and gave a hint to that effect to the
Dutch ambassadors. But their High Mightinesses, whose own
past actions give them little cause for confidence in that crown,
are afraid that the king of England would pronounce against
them and in favour of Denmark. He not only has a secret
understanding with that crown but there is a definite treaty for
rendering each other assistance mutually with eight ships of
war in every eventuality. Accordingly the Dutch will not
accept the offer.
The Hague, the 24th March, 1640.
45. Anzolo Correr, Venetian Ambassador in France, to
the Doge and Senate.
The Palatine has come out of the Bois de Vincennes, it is
believed on condition that he will not leave Paris without His
Majesty's permission. But this is not certain as since he came
out he has seen none of the ministers. He remains incognito
in the house of the English ambassador, awaiting the departure
of the Prince and ambassador of Poland, so that he may have the
house they are now occupying. This may be to-morrow, Prince
Casimir having already taken leave of the king and queen and
all the Court.
Paris, the 27th March, 1640.
46. Giovanni Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in England,
to the Doge and Senate.
A courier sent by the Earl of Leicester brought last Saturday
particulars of the decree issued in the French Court for the release
of the Prince Palatine. On Monday a gentleman of Wilimbanch
arrived with letters from the Palatine himself, announcing that
he is in the house of the Ambassador Leicester and is awaiting
his Majesty's commands. Although the king is highly gratified
to hear of his nephew's liberty, yet he openly betrays his dissatisfaction
at the way in which he has obtained it, feeling that
France has not shown due respect for this crown, but the representations
of other princes and considerations of state have
moved him to release the prince. The leading ministers complain
publicly of the lack of experience and easiness of the young
prince, in having brought this affair to completion without
informing the Earl of Leicester or Wilimbanch, as being scarcely
seemly for himself as well as England. The Spanish minister
here, on his side, fearing that the incident may weaken his intrigues,
devotes all his efforts to encourage their resentment here
and tries to confirm the king in his original belief that the disturbances
in Scotland are due to advice from France and the
Dutch, in their fixed intent to snatch that kingdom away from
this crown, in their own interests.
The Marquis of Vellada intimates that he wishes to postpone
his journey to this Court until after the Easter festivities, under
the mendacious pretext of not travelling in Holy Week, which
Spanish devotion sets apart for pious offices. The excuse does
not please them here, as they want to hear his proposals at the
earliest possible moment. They also entertain some suspicion
that the release of the Prince Palatine is the real reason, in order
that he may await some more precise instructions about his
offices from Spain or the Cardinal Infant. When he arrives I
shall keep a sharp look out on his negotiations, cautiously thwarting
as much as possible, anything that might prove disadvantageous
to the public cause, although it is probable that the
present domestic affairs of this crown, in their great disorder,
will suffice to remove all fear for this year, even if their leanings
The Scottish deputies continue their negotiations, but slowly
and without result, both sides being tacitly agreed to await the
issue of parliament, which is to meet at the beginning of next
month. The king's plan is to go on arming powerfully, without
creating alarm, ostensibly in order to subdue the rebellious Scots
by force, but with the secret intention of using these arms to
bridle the insolent demands of parliament and make them do their
duty. The deputies, on their side, hope that the war against
their country will not meet with the approval of parliament,
and consequently that it will not grant the king the subsidies he
requires to wage it, and then they will be able to seize such
advantages as circumstances offer them.
Meanwhile military preparations increase marvellously. They
recently reviewed several companies of cavalry, and the Earl of
Northumberland had orders to push on 500 of the best horse to
Berwick. Next week they make the general muster everywhere,
not only to make sure of the numbers, but equally to scrutinise
the quality of the men, endeavouring to have as few Puritans
as possible in the companies, as the king does not trust them.
They are also devoting incessant application to the naval
force. His Majesty is anxious to have ready next month forty
large well armed ships, provided with victuals and every other
requirement. The Treasurer declares that 150,000l. of their
money have just been paid from the king's purse for these requirements
A rich ship has arrived here from the Bermudas. Besides other
property it brings a considerable sum of money for the Catholic.
The merchants claim reprisals for one of their ships previously
captured by the Dunkirkers and have approached the king for
permission to take compensation from this money. The Catholic
minister resists this vigorously and intimates that if the request
of the merchants is heard, his master will seize the goods of
Englishmen in Spain. (fn. 5)
Your Excellencies' letters of the 1st inst. have reached me today.
I wish you every felicity at the approaching Easter
London, the 30th March, 1640.
47. Girolamo Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador at the
Hague, to the Doge and Senate.
Harsem returned from England six days ago and two days
later gave an account of his negotiations in the Assembly of the
States General and in that of Holland. He produced a letter
from the king which he is thought to have obtained to give
credit to his exposition as he got no reply either from the king or
from his ministers to his negotiations. He dilated upon the
king's friendly sentiments, but could produce nothing definite
as the king steadily maintained an air of indifference about the
destruction of the fleet in his port, and gave no open sign to
indicate whether he still remained incensed and wrathful or
whether he had relented and indulgently passed over the transgression.
Accordingly Harsem only obtained a general statement
of good will towards this state, which excites more approbation
than confidence. He was obliged to leave the question of an
alliance incomplete as the king seemed very averse from any
overtures in that direction. But he has left the impression in
England and here too that Joachimi will go on with that business.
But here they do not believe that it will result in anything
substantial. With reference to the Scottish war, while he reports
the eager energy of that crown, he has also dropped hints about
the king's disposition towards an accommodation, and about the
interval which everyone believes must occur between the measures
required for military preparation and the ultimate clash of arms.
With regard to the Palatine Harsem spoke quite soberly, as
the king seemed rather irritated than disposed to show his resentment
by definite action.
The Hague, the 30th March, 1640.
48. Alvise Contarini, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to
the Doge and Senate.
The Marquis Malvezzi has proceeded from Burgos to one of the
Biscay ports, where he embarked for England. He goes in the
capacity of ambassador extraordinary. They say he takes
remittances of 500,000 ducats to offer to the king there. It is
supposed that he is going to an affair already arranged, as the
English Ambassador here has treated in detail privately with the
Count Duke. It is believed that the business consists in an
offensive and defensive alliance between the crown and England,
the king undertaking to supply 300,000 ducats a year and 8,000
soldiers, who will be Spaniards they say, for the recovery of
Scotland, and on the English side to declare war at once on the
Dutch and the French, sending out the fleet against them, and
when Scotland is subdued to supply help to the House of Austria
for the recovery of Lorraine. After that is done the Spaniards
promise to restore the Prince Palatine to his dominions as has
been so frequently suggested. They also propose to accept the
English princess as the wife of the prince here and to send someone
to England to fetch her, so that she may be brought up at
this Court in the Catholic faith. Some feel doubtful whether
either of the crowns is in a position to fulfil its promises, yet in
spite of this they are confident here that this treaty will go far
to render vain the plans of the Dutch and the French in the present
campaign in Flanders, as they do not think that Malvezzi would
have been sent from here in succession to the Marquis of Velada
unless the matter had been practically settled. The remittances
for 500,000 ducats which he takes belong to the 5,000,000 which
were destined for Flanders.
Madrid, the 31st March, 1640.