95. Gerolamo Agostini, Venetian Secretary in England, to
the Doge and Senate.
The Scots still announce that a part of their forces has crossed the
Teim, but this does not revive the hopes of the English in the successes
that were expected, indeed they have changed into suspicion and fear
that they will only receive weak assistance from that quarter, while
some even suspect that General Lesle is behaving perfidiously. The
Marquis of Newcastle is in the field in strength and is determined
not to lose the advantage he has through the separation of those
armies caused by the river. 2,000 Irish have landed at Carlisle
to reinforce him, while he also cherishes hopes that a powerful
party will rise up for the king in Scotland, and that the Irish will
cause a diversion in the north of that kingdom.
Unable to gain the ear of any of the Lower House to their offices,
the Dutch ambassadors have decided to write to its president.
This was in French and contained an assurance of the king's
disposition to peace, and their earnest desire to offer a sincere
mediation such as might be considered proper for the service of
the realm. They asked him to obtain a definite answer from
parliament. The president communicated the letter, after which
he was directed to call on the ambassadors and tell them that as
he did not understand French he was unable to read the letter.
He had tried to get a translation made, but could find no one
capable of rendering its terms in English, so he gave it back
to them so that others might not pry into their opinions. He did
this to the annoyance of the ambassadors, who knew it was an
excuse to avoid a refusal. They said that as the language was
general, they used it everywhere as their own, and the English
ministers themselves treated with the States in French. They
could therefore see that the substance did not meet with approval,
but yet they did not believe that they would be allowed to go
without an answer. When the president made his report, parliament
voted to extend the proposals for peace and send them to the
king, for the sole object of excluding the Dutch. But the Upper
House did not agree that the Council of State should meddle in
this, preferring that commissioners should be appointed expressly
for this purpose. So the question is still pending. Meanwhile
they announce falsely that the apparent desire of the royalists for
peace is all a sham, as the assembly at Oxford recently voted
the members here traitors, with those engaged in their service.
This is merely with the object of bringing the deliberation to
nought. The parliamentarians here have more confidence in
the people than in the government of the United Provinces. The
ministers of the churches of Zeeland, to whom they wrote, have
replied in the most friendly manner, wishing this alliance all
prosperity. Unlike this, the ministers of the French churches
would not even open the letters.
Colonel Grinfil, who went over to the king, was hanged in effigy
here last week. The feeling against him is extraordinarily strong,
because being a member of the Council of War, he has disclosed
important designs which they hoped to carry out at the beginning
of this campaign. He made known the understandings and plots
which were being contrived against Basing, Reading and in Oxford
itself and against the king's own person, all of which has been put
straight by the imprisonment of certain individuals.
Waller has already taken the field and is ordered to attempt
the relief of Gloucester in conjunction with Balfur, the first
attempt having failed with loss of the convoy. But there are
quarrels between the leaders, as Balfur belongs to the army of Essex,
with whom Waller cannot agree. So the former will be left with
little or no army this year, and he already complains that all their
efforts are devoted to seeing that the other is well provided.
The king is very strong in the West, to which Obton blocks the
way with 10,000 infantry, with which he may possibly enter
Kent next summer, where they are making great preparations
for resistance. If the two cities in the north, Newcastle and
Niuvarch hold out, where the defenders have cut up 300 of the
besiegers this week, his Majesty's affairs will prosper. He has
received from France and Flanders materials for arming 30,000 men.
Stimulated by the consumption for immediate needs, the
commissioners of accounts have begun their revision, and at the
outset they have found a leakage (intacco) of a million sterling.
Severity will not be shown against everyone, but it will serve to bring
down some who having looked after their own interests, have forfeited
their good name (ma servira pero ad abbattere alcuni che aggiustati
i proprii interessi sono decaduti dall' esistimatione).
A ship proceeding from Scotland to France was driven by the
weather into the port of Mardich in Flanders. On it they found
despatches from the gentleman who represents France in that
kingdom. (fn. 1) On opening these they found that he applauds the
divisions which are arising in Scotland, arguing that as a consequence
it may be hoped that these troubles will last a long time,
with advantage to France. These letters were communicated by
the Spaniards to his Majesty's agent at Brussels, not only to win his
confidence, but to arouse mistrust of the French, who disclose aims very
different from those for which in appearance they sent their embassy.
London, the 1st April, 1644.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
96. Advices from the Hague, the 1st April, 1644, forwarded
by Alvise Contarini, Venetian Ambassador to the Congress
The Princess Palatine, no longer receiving any assistance from
the king of England, her brother, has asked for 60,000 francs as a
loan from these Provinces, who are consulting together as to what
they shall do in the matter.
The ambassadors in England hold out very good hopes of peace
between the king and parliament ; nevertheless their advices
do not tally with the news received from various private persons.
[Italian, from the French.]
97. To the Secretary Agostini in England.
Acknowledge receipt of his letter and commend his efforts
in the matter of the currants. He will continue in the same
manner to support what is being done and to see that it is carried
on without hindrance generally, always maintaining that the
fruit is different in excellence from what they are able to obtain
from the Morea, which the English have always detested because
it is of a different species, as has been proved by demonstration.
He is to report the progress of that affair and the despatch of
ships, sending word also to the Proveditori of those islands, so
that they may correspond in their kind treatment of the English
with the friendly disposition at Venice.
Ayes, 126. Noes, 2. Neutral, 2.
98. Gerolamo Agostini, Venetian Secretary in England,
to the Doge and Senate.
From all parts come reports of successes for the king and of the
improvement of his prospects. Owing to the revelations of Colonel
Grinfil the intrigues of which they hoped to carry on the offensive
have been converted into a very feeble defensive. The Scots who
crossed the Tyne find themselves shut in near Sunderland in a country
naturally sterile and devastated by the inhabitants to their injury, so
that they lament having before their eyes the inevitable punishment
of their temerity, either by the sword or by famine. The very sea is
taking part against the succour which they implore, since a storm has
scattered eight ships which were bringing provisions from Scotland,
three of them entering the river of Newcastle. The instances of their
commissioners are weakened by the scant confidence which is now
felt in their arms, and put aside owing to fresh urgent demands, of
which your Serenity shall hear. In spite of this, as an expression
of the desire to gratify them, all that is left, parliament has urged
the merchants of this mart to take provisions thither, holding out
hopes that they will bring back coal, which is so much desired
here, with considerable profit, though that may easily be dashed
by the fear of losing all.
Prince Rupert has raised the siege of Niuvarch by a signal
victory. At his appearance the besiegers, numbering 7,000,
withdrew to the island formed by the River Trent. Being
attacked there by the Prince himself and a sortie of the besieged,
they were so terrified that they laid down their arms and asked for
quarter. The prince agreed and caused to be handed over all
their 17 guns, armour, standards and munitions, taking prisoner
some of the leaders. (fn. 2) He took many of the soldiers into his service,
sending the others home after they had sworn fealty to the king.
So that force is completely destroyed, with more prejudice to parliament
than anything it has yet suffered. The news arrived on Sunday
and was confirmed by three couriers on Monday. At the first
intimation, although on a day so much renerated here, they did not
hesitate to convoke the council towards evening. That body, putting
aside its ill will towards General Essex, sent commissioners to mollify
him and to ask him to give them in writing his requirements for the
prompt equipment of his army. This was done and on Monday
everything was arranged. In the mean time they sent a courier
to Waller, who is at Southampton facing his enemy Obton, to do
everything possible to avoid a battle. The king on his side is the
more eager for one and sent immediately a reinforcement of 5,000
men to Obton. who has since compelled the other to skirmish, with some
disadvantage. With every effort it is impossible that Essex can take
the field within six weeks. In that time it will be necessary for
Balfur, now with Waller with his cavalry, to abandon him, and so
one army will be strengthened at the expense of the other. It will
also increase the quarrels and disunion between the commanders,
as Waller hoped to become more independent of the other and had
almost achieved this.
All these disadvantages have not sufficed to give the parliamentarians
the least inclination towards peace. The Dutch have frequently
asked for a reply, but have not been able to obtain one so far, as the
dispute still rages between the Upper and the Lower House as to
whether the Council of State or the new commissioners should have
the conduct of this affair, which is a matter of no small consequence.
Meanwhile they are drawing up a declaration to the whole kingdom
to make it appear that it is the king and not parliament who is averse
from peace. The money of the state being distributed in private
pockets, they are unable to meet all the calls made upon them even with
the enormous taxes imposed, so they have a new and extraordinary
device to oblige every house to contribute to parliament the cost of one
meal per week for the whole family, which will be estimated according
to the condition of the persons. This tax will be more detestable to
the English than all the others, since it touches them in the part where
they are most sensitive.
The king also has ordained by proclamation that during this
war any foreign money may be tendered in the kingdom at its
value outside. If this has effect in the districts controlled by his
Majesty, they will be obliged to allow the same here, to avoid
losing their native money which, being perfect, will increase in
value and will all go out. That would destroy trade and exhaust
the customs, to the detriment of (fn. 3) his Majesty, but he is compelled
to have recourse to it, amid the ruin of his kingdom (che e
necessitata pero ricercarlo nell' esterminio del suo Regno).
A Frenchman on his way from Ireland to France with a safe
conduct of the king has been arrested near this city and brought
to parliament. They found letters on him from the Catholic
Council of that country to Cardinal Mazarin in which they ask
him to remind the queen of the promise made to them of 5,000
men, as though they do not now need them to help their own
party, they could be used to help the king. Many recognise
that if the offer is genuine it was obtained from Mazarin in France
under the pretext of preventing the Irish from applying to the
Austrians, and to win him credit personally at Rome, and that if,
owing to the numerous preoccupations of France he did not fulfil his
promise to the Irish, he is much less likely to do anything for the
king, especially now when he is more prosperous than when Harcourl
left him, and when in the matter of the peace he has shown more
intimacy with the Dutch.
I enclose a copy of the seditions letter, in Latin, sent by the
synod here to the ministers of all the foreign Protestant churches. (fn. 4)
London, the 8th April, 1644.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
99. Gerolamo Agostini, Venetian Secretary in England,
to the Doge and Senate.
The king's victory at Niuvarch has been set off by his usual
misfortunes. His Majesty recognising that a glorious end to
his troubles depended on the successful issue of the battle between
Obton and Waller at a time when other forces are not ready, was
eager that it should be fought soon by forcing the enemy, who had
orders to avoid one, since the royal forces were stronger. Accordingly
Obton advanced and engaged his adversary in several
skirmishes. The battle became general on Monday, (fn. 5) in which the
number of slain was not great, and the prisoners did not exceed
500 in all, but for some unknown cause the royal infantry fell into
such confusion that in an instant it all dispersed, so that the
general had difficulty in saving his baggage and guns. He has
gone to Reading, where he is now collecting his forces. Upon the
first news, though unauthentic, they announced a victory here
and caused the ministers of all the parishes to return thanks to
God and at the same time to urge the people to devote their
goods and even their lives to win once and for all the end of this
great calamity. This impression, though false, has done what was
required of it. as it has encouraged their spirits which were depressed
by the recent and much more considerable disaster. It has extracted
great sums of money and may even induce the citizens to take the
field, as they intend, to go with Essex, who is now getting ready.
Meanwhile they have sent some auxiliaries from this city to reinforce
Prince Rupert, having traversed Lincolnshire and demolished
the fortifications in undefencible places, has gone to Shrewsbury
to arm the Welsh levies with the captured weapons, and he is
expected to return to Oxford to secure that part from any attempt
by Essex, who threatens it more since the late disaster.
With the Dutch ambassadors pressing for a reply about the
peace, the two Houses have been engaged in a fresh contest and
quarrel. As the Lords persisted that commissioners ought to
be appointed to conduct this affair and not the Council of State,
the Lower House took a vote on the matter. This proved equal
with 64 each side, but though the president by his casting vote
decided for the Council of State, the Lords have not accepted the
decision, but persist in their opinion, seeing they have so many of
the Commons on their side. If this seed of division is cultivated
in a soil by no means sterile, it may produce fruit beneficial to
Meanwhile the president has paid a special visit to the ambassadors
to assure them that they will not be allowed to go without
an answer. All the same they have not hesitated to publish a
declaration to all the kingdom, in which by past incidents and
false conclusions they set themselves to prove that the king does
not want peace, while parliament is much disposed to it. The
Assembly at Oxford has also issued a declaration setting forth
the reasons which obliged it to meet there, inviting the others to
join with offers of pardon.
Parliament has given permission to various merchants to arm
ships to go privateering against those of the king and of Bristol.
These have become so venturesome that they have pursued and
captured their prey right into the ports of the States. The
ambassadors have complained about this to the Admiral Warwick,
after their Vice Admiral had vindicated them by arresting the
offender. Warwick disapproves such audacity and thinks that
as he will soon put to sea, he will unite such ships to the fleet, as
they may prove more useful than the large royal ships.
There have been various reports this week of engagements
between the Marquis of Newcastle and the Scots ; but they are
rumours without foundation circulated to chase away their late
dejection. Undoubtedly Newcastle would like to reduce them by
hunger without risking his forces but as he cannot prevent them
from receiving succour from the sea, he must seize his opportunities
and take another course. Meanwhile the Marquis of
Ontlet is using the opportunity to make them anxious about
some move in that kingdom in his Majesty's favour.
The queen has been in danger of a miscarriage through a fall.
She keeps her bed, and though no great harm has been done, so I
hear, they report her dead here, as they would like.
London, the 15th April, 1644.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
100. Gerolamo Agostini, Venetian Secretary in England, to
the Doge and Senate.
After traversing Lincolnshire and disarming 17 places there,
Prince Rupert has returned to Oxford with his army. Prince
Maurice has done the same with 4,000 men, leaving the siege of
Plymouth to the people of the country. With these forces
united with those collected by Obton since his defeat by Waller
and reducing the less threatened garrisons, the king has taken the
field. He has gone to Malsbero where he displayed the royal
standard to call upon the assistance of all devoted subjects, and
volunteers join him daily to increase his army, which now consists
of 15,000 foot and 8,000 horse. His Majesty proposes to make a
supreme effort to defeat Waller, and he can then proceed with a part
of his forces into Kent, where by prevailing he hopes to reduce London
to submission by fear and hardship and relieve both himself and the
kingdom from so much misery. On hearing of this parliament,
besides reinforcing Waller with some companies of auxiliaries from
this city and with other men from the Isle of Wight, is doing its
utmost for Essex to take the field, for whose army Elsberi is
appointed as rendezvous.
In order that this force may be equipped with the utmost
promptitude many of the leading members of parliament went last
Tuesday to the Common Council of the city, where they used their
eloquence according to the various offices which they occupy,
to urge a prompt and liberal supply of men and money, as if their
hopes were realised there would be a great saving of both money
While the Council is deliberating some decision which will be
favourable and serve to encourage the people, the reports of last
week have been renewed about a reverse inflicted by the Scots
upon Newcastle's forces. But unbiassed persons cannot credit this,
and it is unlikely from the most feeble condition of those forces,
which cannot be succoured from Scotland itself, which is demanding
assistance from General Lesle to quench internal fires, the Marquis
having captured Osblich and Aberdis, and advancing to St. Andrews.
The Dutch ambassadors perceiving that even after further discussion
since my last, the two Houses have been unable to agree as to who shall
give them their answer, have asked for a safe conduct from General
Essex to go to Oxford and take leave of the king. He begged them to
wait and informed parliament about it. Many disputes ensued in
which the party opposed to peace prevailed in the end. These decided
to inform the ambassadors through deputies, as they have done, that
if they will make known their credentials and commissions from the
States to treat with parliament, they shall receive a suitable reply.
The ambassadors perceive that the good party has been defeated by
this deceit, which is intended to put them off, and consequently that
party will be prevented from taking the affair, as they intended, out
of the hands of the Council of State, which is opposed to this boon,
so that little or no hope remains about their negotiations. They
express resentment that after such a long delay they have been given
a demand instead of an answer, and they announce that they wish to
go without any reply.
The Irish commissioners arrived at Oxford offer the assistance of
10,000 infantry in a corps if the king will grant them peace with
toleration for the Catholic faith and independence from the parliaments
of England, which they might easily obtain by connivance if
not by agreement. That assistance is greatly dreaded here, and
as they cannot prevent it by a diversion in that country, they have
ordered Admiral Warwick to send a squadron immediately to the
Irish sea to prevent them crossing.
For two or three nights running this week there have been very
considerable fires in the heart of this city. Although these have
been accidental, it is announced that they have been caused by
the royalists, to render that party more hateful, while some have
been put in prison merely for words.
The queen has recovered from her fall without a miscarriage,
and is well. She has sent here for her bed and other commodities,
which parliament made no small difficulty about allowing to go.
As the king is distracted by his campaigning I will perform by
letter the office committed to me by your Serenity about the
signing of the articles of peace between the allied princes, etc. I
enclose a letter which the Secretary Nicolas has asked me to
forward to the Secretary Talbot.
London, the 22nd April, 1644.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
101. Giovanni Soranzo, Venetian Bailo at Constantinople,
to the Doge and Senate.
The affair of the half (meta) has always been in suspense until these
last days, since after all the difficulties had been overcome another
was unexpectedly raised by the Cadi of Galata, who would never allow
the command to be registered, and even wished to remove from the
book a Buiurdi which the English obtained for this same interest.
The English ambassador sent his secretary to ask me to unite with him
in this affair. I replied that I would be pleased to serve him, but
I did not consider myself interested, as the merchants had obtained this
command, and if they should interest themselves the pretensions of the
Cadi would be much augmented. It only cost two reals to register
the command, but they now claimed 2,000, and he availed himself of
the favour he enjoys with the king ; but it is certain that in the end his
Majesty would not approve of such injustice. I said I thought
that the merchants should be left to do the best they could for themselves,
and that we should not concern ourselves in matters which
might irritate the Cadi for some other business of more importance.
After receiving my reply the ambassador sent his secretary to
thank me and to say that he agreed. He only begged me to direct the
merchants of the nation to make common cause with his own. I
perceived that his eagerness for this union was for no other purpose
than to cover himself with the authority of our command, as being in
force and valid, whereas, on the contrary, their Buiurdi, now that
the Vizier who granted it is dead, was lapsed and of no value. However,
I remarked to the secretary by way of a joke that I would
so contrive things that the command of our merchants should serve
as a good escort for the satisfaction of his Excellency, and I have
been as good as my word, though they have not been able to come
to terms at a lower cost than 900 reals between the two nations.
The Vigne of Pera, the 23rd April, 1644.
[Italian ; deciphered.]
102. Giovanni Soranzo, Venetian Bailo at Constantinople,
to the Doge and Senate.
A serious dispute has arisen between the ambassadors of France
and England, because when some English ships tried to move
next to four French ones, by the Custom House, the French
resisted and in the fight that ensued two Englishmen were slightly
wounded. The English ambassador demanded that the French
minister should cause the culprits to be punished. The latter
promised to do so, but gave a paper to his merchants to make
reply. These with the habitual vanity of their nation, published
some announcements making game of the English. After waiting
days for a reply, thinking himself slighted and having no
reason to trust the Frenchman, the English ambassador appealed
to the Vizier, who had the captains of the French ships arrested.
Witnesses were examined before the Cadi of Galata and two of the
French were convieted. Thereupon the French ambassador had
audience of the Vizier and succeeded in having an English captain
arrested, though he was immediately released on bail by order of
the Vizier. The dispute has cost each side over 10,000 reals, and
excited great scandal and derision even among the Turks.
Everyone said that the ambassadors should have submitted the
dispute to me, but I would not move because neither of the parties
made the smallest approach to me. The Resident of Holland
subsequently intervened, being very intimate with the Englishman,
but as the affair was arranged after the Turkish fashion
there has been no final settlement whatever.
The Vigne di Pera, the 23rd April, 1644.
103. Francesco Contarini, Venentian Proveditore of
Cephalonia, to the Doge and Senate.
Since the arrival of Don Vincenzo Cymera announcing the
reduction of the duty of the new impost from 10 ducats to 8, four
ships have come here of which one was English. This ship laded
1,582,000 of currants, leaving 200,000 on land as it could not
take a larger quantity, and most of this surplus remained unsold.
The price, if anything, is rather lower, since the agents here had
agreed together to keep their instructions secret and this gave
them the power to purchase with advantage owing to the
impatient rush of the people to sell.
I have found out that fresh commissions have now reached the
Flemings and English for the present year, and it is probable
that they will again make secret arrangements with the help
of an inhabitant in their confidence, who will not mind, provided
he secures his own personal profit, how much harm he does to the
community. I do not see how it will be possible to relieve the
condition of the people here either soon or easily, even if all the
currants are disposed of, unless the price is raised, and that is
difficult owing to the astuteness of the agents.
The difficulty consists more particularly in the superabundance
of the fruit, and will continue even if the English prohibition is
removed, as the merchants here hope will happen in the current
year. In addition to this the understanding between the people
and the agents does a great deal of the mischief. The rigorous
enforcement of the decrees [limiting plantation] would meet the
It was a wise decision to remove the sentence of banishment
against Hyde. It is to be hoped that he will try to show his
usefulness, more especially in laying the practice of smuggling
among the people.
Cephalonia, the 24th April, 1644.
104. Gerolamo Agostini, Venetian Secretary in England,
to the Doge and Senate.
The vigorous preparations which are being made here to
strengthen the armies to cope with the royalists serve to delay
any action and Waller has retired to Farnham to avoid any until
such time as Essex is ready and they can assume the offensive
with advantage. The offices of the parliamentarians in the
Common Council produced the desired results as that body has
decided to supply the most energetic assistance for the present
occasion, in which they vainly rest their hopes of bringing these
calamities to an end, as the people desire. While the Council
has decided to send out many of the trained bands they are
busy recruiting everywhere, and also pressing all sorts of persons
with barbarous violence. Special treasurers have also been sent
to the camps to give the pay, with obligation to render account to
The rendezvous is definitely fixed for to-day at Elsberi, to
which many of the parliamentary forces are directed that were
scattered about the country, and after Easter, which is next week
according to the style here, (fn. 6) Essex himself is to be there.
The king having quartered his army all in readiness about
Malsbero has returned to Oxford to make arrangements for the
safety of that place, against which the principal plans are aimed.
Meanwhile Prince Rupert has returned to Lincolnshire, where his
Majesty has decided to have the chief town fortified, so that the
country may not be exposed any more to incursions of the enemy.
Mortified by the message from parliament reported, the Dutch
ambassadors are doing nothing and keeping silent. The Lords,
who would like to commit the Commons to a treaty, have agreed
that the Council of State may extend the proposals ; but they
want to oblige them to present them to the House in three days.
The Council excused itself on the plea that it must attend to
matters of greater urgency, but they promised to have them
ready a week to-day, as they want them to go at the head of the
army and to be presented at the point of the sword.
The reports of the defeat of Newcastle by the Scots prove
false, as was expected. No formal battle has taken place between
the armies, as Newcastle attains his object by wasting them with
skirmishes and by hardship. As they cannot hope for succour
from Scotland, which is occupied by internal disturbances,
parliament has ordered Fairfax to get together as large a force
of cavalry as he can and march to their assistance. Obeying
promptly he has captured Selby, a small place at the entry into
Yorkshire, important as being on the River Humber, and for
some companies of soldiers quartered there, which were mostly
captured with their arms. (fn. 7)
The negotiations with the Irish commissioners about a peace
are approaching a conclusion. The king has no objection to
satisfying them even on the point of religion, to receive the benefit
of the help they promise of 10,000 men. He is only considering
the most cautious way of doing it, extending the royal protection
to the Protestants and the English in that country, whose goods
in that kingdom are to be restored to them.
General Piccolomini on his way from Spain to command the
forces in Flanders has landed at Falmouth and proceeded to
Oxford with a little money of his own. The ship which brought
him, carrying 200 cases of reals, has been driven into Portsmouth
by the parliamentary ships, when pursuing its voyage to Dunkirk.
The merchants who trade to Spain, seeing the danger to their
capital if these effects are disposed of, have presented a petition
to the Council of State to prevent it. So far the Council has done
nothing beyond sending some one to take a careful inventory
of the cargo. But meanwhile they are looking for means to
declare the ship lawful booty, and they announce that the
Catholic has sent Piccolomini here, under the pretence of
proceeding to Flanders, with money to assist the king. They
thank God who in His especial care for this cause has favoured
it by such a necessary provision in present circumstances. In
this way they try to justify their design to take possession of it
though it will be difficult to realise their purpose (che con difficolta
si lasciera di metter ad effetto). The Spanish ambassador, who is
indisposed is holding his hand, waiting for some intimation from
Piccolomini, who may not be able to send any, as with the utmost
severity they punish with death those who come from Oxford.
Piccolomini hoped in this way to escape the Dutch who were
lying in wait for him at the mouth of the port of Dunkirk. But
he may yet have to face the most difficult of his enterprises, in
delivering himself with honour and without harm from this people,
which at present knows no other law or culture than its own greedy
and rabid desires, without any respect for their own king much less
The queen, suffering from a kind of paralysis in one arm, has
sent for Mayerne, her chief physician. But he, fearing to expose
his fortune to the exigencies of parliament, though it was acquired
in her Majesty's service, has excused himself and sent his advice
in writing. Her Majesty is going to Bristol to enjoy the safety
and quiet there away from arms, during her confinement, which is
London, the 29th April, 1644.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]