September 1644

Commons Journal

Lords Journal

Acts and Ordinances

Thurloe, State Papers

CSPD Charles I

Calendar of the Committee for Advance of Money

Calendar of the Committee for Compounding

CSP, Venice

Cecil Calendar

Venice
September 1644

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Institute of Historical Research

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Author

Allen B. Hinds (editor)

Year published

1926

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131-141

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'Venice: September 1644', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 27: 1643-1647 (1926), pp. 131-141. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=89598 Date accessed: 17 September 2014.


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September 1644

Sept. 2.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
144. Gerolamo Agostini, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
While awaiting the development of the monstruous machinations of the leaders here, there is a scarcity of news and events. Contrary winds have kept the Palatine on the other side of the sea, though he is eagerly expected to excite the king's jealousy and force him to give in the sooner. As the object in sending for the Prince has not been disclosed to the Scots they cannot discover their attitude towards the question, but on account of reports about it which are widely spread, they have pushed on this week with the articles for peace to be proposed to the king and have settled them. This would seem to argue a disinclination among them to make so great a change, with dishonour and loss to the king and the nation too. There have been great and warm disputes, as some of the influential English cannot be persuaded to make the offer to his Majesty, although they know quite well that consent to the exorbitant conditions proposed (fn. 1) in parliament. The Scots have decided upon two courses touching (fn. 1) of the royal House, for their own advantage and the punishment of his Majesty's followers, restricting these to a definite number in each count, as that will serve sufficiently as an example and to overawe the rest, whose goods will not be exempted, since such a copious destruction of notable families and persons is not good for the country. These articles are to be sent to General Essex to forward to his Majesty. But others must first be examined, presented only yesterday by the city of London for their own interests and to indicate the persons who may not be pardoned, to be sent with the others. Thus although the Lower House has already decided, these additions involve fresh consultations, and may afford an opportunity to the opposition to have them withdrawn or to stop them being sent. If the king refuses them, as seems most likely, he exposes himself and his posterity to damaging judgment and pronouncements, to escape from which he needs greater resources than he commands at this moment (sottomette se medesimo e la posterita a pregiudiciali censura e decreti da quali ha bisogno di maggior forza e che di presente non tiene per redimersi).
After his Majesty's attempt to win over Essex by the letter reported, of which I enclose a copy, he continues to confine him in the same place without giving battle, the conservation of his army being too important. Some skirmishes have occurred and the royalists have recently taken a very considerable place which prevents food and munitions from reaching Essex by sea. (fn. 2)
After long discussion parliament has at last decided to send General Waller with 6,000 foot and 4,000 horse to the West to attack the king there and force him to retire or to fight. The murmurs of the people have stimulated this decision, which has been resisted by the dislike of Essex, and by others because (fn. 3) Waller, and by many from fear that this reinforcement may put an end to the business, which they want to go on, for their own advantage.
The Marquis of Arghil has gone with 6,000 foot to meet the Earl of Antrim, who with a few Irish raised for the king's service, has been so ill advised as to invade Scotland. The defeat of those poor folk is expected soon as they cannot receive any assistance, since the Protestant rising in Ireland is holding its own and help will be sent to them from here.
Prince Rupert is staying in Cheshire without moving and without other pretension except to preserve himself as best he can. Some horse and foot have gathered for the king's side in Cumberland and Westmorland, where they do not like the Scots so near, but they do not venture to attack them under Newcastle, whose capture draws nearer.
Although no reply has yet been given to the Dutch ambassadors or contemplated, yet the seizure by the States of English goods has roused parliament, which has deputed commissioners to give them satisfaction about the ships seized, while some have already been released.
The French resident has refused audience in the manner offered, as he claims parity with the Dutch ambassadors, considering that the superiority of his master more than counterbalances the inferiority of title ; but as he was not going to propose anything acceptable, parliament is indifferent about making the way easy. He has asked for a passport to send to the king, but has not yet received a reply, indeed the ministry here suspect that he has letters from the queen to send to the king.
London, the 2nd September, 1644.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
Enclosure. 145. The King to Essex.
Sure he would embrace an opportunity to relieve this suffering kingdom. The time is now. Let him join the king. If any oppose they shall be made happy in spite of themselves.
From Liskeard, the 16th August, 1644. (fn. 4)
[Italian, from the English ; two pages.]
Sept. 2.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Minister. Venetian Archives.
146. Advices from the Hague, of the 2nd September, 1644, forwarded by Alvise Contarini, Venetian Ambassador at the Congress at Munster.
The States have provided two ships for the passage of the Prince Palatine to England. He refused a ship sent by parliament, as it appeared laden with a large sum in ready money, the exportation of which is forbidden by the laws of the country.
[Italian.]
Sept. 9.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
147. Gerolamo Agostini, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The king's forces, increased in numbers though short of arms, are still holding Essex, with the parliamentary army, in a space of five miles in Cornwall. As he can only receive scanty provision of food by sea, he is suffering from an unbearable shortage of every sort of provision, especially for horses. The nature of the position does not allow him to give battle, which the royalists would not willingly engage (fn. 5) on which his Majesty's hopes at present rest. Waller has set out with a very powerful army from here to effect a diversion, but his soldiers are disaffected and as he does not wish well to Essex on personal grounds, it is doubtful if he will effect what is desired. Essex for his part leaves no means untried, even to laying snares for the king's person. Viscount Wilmot, lieutenant colonel (commissario) of the royal cavalry has been arrested and sent prisoner to Exeter, the secretary of state having intercepted letters from him to the general concerting with him a way to get the king into his power. There are other accomplices, to examine whom his Majesty has gone himself to Exeter with only 50 horse. If he again shows clemency on this occasion he will reap a bitter harvest for himself. Opton has been appointed to Wilmot's post of lieutenant colonel, and it is said that General the Earl of Brancfort, a Scot, somewhat suspected of disloyalty, is about to resign, possibly because he is afraid of being dismissed with dishonour.
The affairs of the North are so depressed that in spite of the rising in the king's favour in Cumberland and Westmorland, which was considerable, they receive no relief, and some forces from Lancashire have gone against the insurgents. The Scots, to be free to go to their help, have again demanded the surrender of Newcastle, but the governor replied that he would hold out to the last, and if he was compelled to surrender, he would let in an English garrison and not a Scottish one.
The forces of Prince Rupert attacked in their quarters near Chester by Cromvel, a parliament leader, have lost 300 horse. (fn. 6) The Prince is in Wales, where he is supposed to be trying to raise reinforcements which will have to be strong to enable him to recover York and repair the damage which the king has suffered by his fault.
The risings continue in Ireland against the peace there, but they move slowly here in sending the help required. But they have decided to get together 80,000l. for the purpose, and this will be found easily by the merchants concerned in the first payments, whose hopes are raised of gaining possession of the lands promised by parliament as a reward.
The Prince Palatine arrived at Gravesend yesterday, and it is expected he will proceed to Greenwich to stay there a day or two. The ministry here wanted to give him a formal reception, but he seems to wish to make the entry private. He will be lodged in the royal palace, and it is remarked that parliament has had made ready the room where the royal Council used to be held.
The articles of peace have made no progress this week or even been considered, under the pretext of parliament being busy over the despatch of the army.
The Dutch ambassadors and the French Resident are still slighted, without any reply, and the first have received scant satisfaction even over the recovery of their ships.
London, the 9th September, 1644.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
Sept. 10.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci. Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
148. Antonio Barbarigo, Venetian Proveditore of Zante, to the Doge and Senate.
Some four days ago an English ship arrived in the port here, having come from Leghorn to lade currants, its capacity being a million or thereabouts. The price was fixed at 22 reals the thousand, though with the greatest difficulty, because Mr. Charles Vivian, the merchant to whom this ship was directed would not rise to 18 reals, the opinion being held that there would be some amount of competition between rival buyers and that the currants of these islands will all find a market, especially as the harvest has been small.
Zante, the 31st August, 1644, old style.
[Italian.]
Sept. 13.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives.
149. Gio. Battista Nani, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
The king and queen with Cardinal Mazarini and the ministers have gone to Fontainebleau. This is due chiefly to the queen's desire to get away from the crowd. There is also the further consideration of the queen of England who, thanks to the waters of the baths, has recovered in great measure from her indisposition and will very soon make her appearance before their Majesties. They have thought it better that the meeting should take place in the country, where it will be less observed and more brief as they do not like to have that princess making a long stay in Paris. After this she will have Sciatothieri assigned to her as a residence ; where she will be able to live more in accordance with her tastes, with less show and expense.
Paris, the 13th September, 1644.
[Italian.]
Sept. 16.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci. Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
150. Gerolamo Agostini, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Thwarted by the perverse ill fortune which has usually dogged his enterprises the king has failed in an effort to strike an important blow against the army of General Essex. His Majesty had schemed with the help of some soldiers, to set fire to his munitions. The apparatus was ready, the matches lighted and the army in battle array to attack at the same moment, in the hope of winning victory in the confusion, and of purifying the rebel blood by fire. But the fire was discovered and put out in a few minutes, the co-operators escaping. Yet they are suffering great hardship, and the cavalry, rendered daring by impatience, attempted to force a quarter of the royalists, from which they were repulsed with considerable loss. For the relief of the general they have constant recourse to prayer, and they lament the time lost through indecision. Meanwhile the king grows stronger every day, although with unarmed and inexperienced troops. Waller, who was sent that way some days ago with a strong army, has got no further than Farnham, the soldiers being indignant at marching under the command of his wife, who being zealous in religion, grown ambitious of the popular favour and predominant over her husband, has usurped the general's baton. To please them parliament has recalled her, and sent fresh and urgent orders to Waller to advance without delay, and not content with this they have sent orders to Manchester to go there also with his troops.
Prince Rupert, abandoning the North in despair, since the troops he left behind have been defeated by Bruerton, has gone to Bristol with 500 horse, and is marching to join the king, so that most of the armies of the kingdom will soon be concentrated in the narrowest corner of the West, and from the issue his Majesty will either put himself into a state to continue the war, or will have to yield to adverse fortune.
The Prince Palatine arrived in London on Saturday evening and went to lodge at the royal palace prepared for him. There were lively disputes in parliament as to the form of the compliment to be paid him in the public name, since the generality do not approve of his coming. The controllers of this machine decided upon the form of which I enclose a copy, which they chose to have read to him by commissioners, four of the Upper and eight of the Lower House, who went to him. They have assigned him 30l. sterling a day for his expenses but have limited the time to fourteen days. I enclose a copy of his reply, which he afterwards gave in writing at their request, displaying an obsequiousness and reverence to parliament only equalled by his perversity against his uncle. For the rest, guided by councillors of his nation, there is no hypocrisy that he does not practise. While they were preaching privately, he appeared on Sunday in the chapel of parliament, while he has visitea the most zealous ministers of the synod with great respect. He does not yet, however, meet with the entire approbation of the people, although he attracts an extraordinary amount of attention, being rendered more conspicuous by reason of the reports circulating about his pretensions, than he ever did before when he visited England in time of peace. He is receiving visits from the foreign ministers, and although the Dutch ambassadors claimed the right hand in the palace, they accommodated themselves to the ancient use. Audience is appointed for me on Sunday morning as I wanted to let the French resident go before, to follow his example. Meanwhile his chief councillor has paid his respects to me, expressing the indebtedness of his Highness to your Serenity, for the orders given to the Ambassador Contarini at Munster. I replied suitably.
The Scottish forces are still besieging Newcastle. After its capture, which they hope for soon, they mean to have an understanding with the English, with whom they are ill satisfied, as they are not behaving straightforwardly with them or with the same intentions. They are creditors for the old debt and for the recent one of 900,000l. sterling, and yet the English do not think of satisfying them or of observing their other compacts. Here they only want to live amid the confusion of religions, and with authority shared by a few, sustained by chimaeras and new inventions without coming to an end. But the Scots must have relief, as they are so deeply involved with the burdens of their own country, which is poor and barren and cannot hold out any longer. The Scots so modified the articles that if the king could not embrace the peace with authority he might at least do so with convenience ; but these have been laid aside, and for the last two weeks not a word has been said about them either in parliament or in the Council.
The Dutch ambassadors have given up thinking about getting an answer, but are devoting all their attention to trade and have obtained that foreign ships will be permitted to go to any port soever, even of the king, provided they do not take money, arms or munitions of war.
The French Resident wanted to go to his Majesty to hand him back all the instructions and letters given to him for the treaty of peace, apologising for not having been able so much as to get a hearing, but they have refused him a passport, which makes him more disgusted than ever. Yet they are somewhat anxious about France. Quite recently they arrested near Exeter a courier sent by the queen of England to the king. The letters have been read in the Council but they maintain a strict silence about them, and they have secretly sent to that Court, under the pretext of private affairs, a French Huguenot who used to be employed as agent of his Majesty, (fn. 7) to observe the proceedings there and to keep in touch with the leaders of his party.
London, the 16th September, 1644.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
Enclosure. 151. Office read and presented to the Prince Palatine by a Committee of 4 Lords and 8 Commons, on the 30th August, 1644.
Parliament only knew of his coming at 12 o'clock on Thursday. Surprised at not being informed before. Parliament has always had his affairs at heart.
Reply of His Highness.
Obligation for this and past favours. Made the journey to show his sincere regard for the good cause they uphold, and hopes his being present with them may prevent misunderstandings. Wishes them all success in the great work they have undertaken for the good of the Protestant cause. He hopes to satisfy both Houses more amply of the reasons for his coming, and he will gladly follow any advice which the Houses may be pleased to give him. (fn. 8)
[Italian, from the English ; 4 pages.]
Sept. 17.
Cinque Savii alla Mercanzia. Risposte Venetian Archives.
152. John Brumel, who is indebted to various persons of Cephalonia for currants, which were entrusted upon his word to Thomas Simons, general factor of the English Company and creditor of the Company for large sums, supported by letters from his king, asks for a safe conduct to go and meet the charges of the Company and to satisfy his debts. The request seems to be a reasonable one.
Dated at the office, the 17th September, 1644.
Matteo del Leze Savii.
Gabriele Zorzi
Vincenzo Correr
[Italian.]
Sept. 22.
Senato. Secreta, Deliberazioni. Corti. Venetian Archives.
153. To the Resident in London.
Acknowledge receipt of his letters of the 26th ult. The coming of the Palatine amid all the doubts and pretexts calls for close attention, amid the successes and the ever increasing pretensions of the parliamentarians. We observe also the lack of friendliness in the relations with the Dutch and the curt manner of treating with the minister of France. All this calls for consideration and demands fresh diligence and accurate reporting of the news. Advices of Italy ; election of Pope Innocent X. (fn. 9)
Ayes, 118. Noes, 7. Neutral, 4.
[Italian.]
Sept. 23.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
154. Gerolamo Agostini, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Thanks to his steady persistence the king has at length defeated the army of General Essex, which he was besieging in the West, and without a battle has won the greatest victory gained by either side in the present war. All ways of succour being closed the besieged suffered greatly from shortage of food, the more so because the country people were so bitter against them that they buried their things to prevent them having them. Accordingly Essex, seeing the delay of the army to open a road for him, and no help from Waller, with all the adverse circumstances, no prompt obedience from his men and no valiant determination in himself, by an act of cowardice rather than disloyalty stole away by night with a few from his quarters, and taking a small boat went by sea to Plymouth. The cavalry led by desperation, crossed by the same place with a loss in men and horses that may well be imagined. The infantry implored and obtained quarter, only the men being allowed to go, and leaving in his Majesty's power 36 guns, all their most copious munitions and 10,000 arms, which come in very usefully for his Majesty's needs, as nearly half his army, consisting of 20,000 foot and 12,000 horse, was without arms. (fn. 10)
The general did not dare to come here and wished to go by sea to Portsmouth, but was driven back by the wind. He is doing his utmost to assemble troops. Parliament has written to Manchester, Waller, Cromvel and Brun to join him to stop his Majesty's advance by a battle, as they fear his coming this way. But the discords and quarrels between these leaders may easily lead to disorders among them, and all together they will not be able to get together an army half as large as the king's, who in the meantime has summoned Plymouth to surrender and sent forward 2,000 horse relieving the strong house of Basing, which has been besieged for so long.
As a different issue in the West meant a lost cause, so this great victory raises the king from the dust and puts the sword again in his hand to seek a successful conclusion to this affair, which this city disputes with him more than all the rest of the kingdom.
It would help the king greatly if matters were re-established in the North. There has been a feeble ray of light, as the Scots make no progress at Newcastle. Only a few remain there, as a part has been obliged to go against the insurgents in Westmorland and Cumberland, who are increasing while three regiments have been recalled to their own country, greatly disturbed by the few Irish who landed there under the command of the Earl of Antrim, who joined with a party of malcontents are causing the Marquis of Arghil no slight preoccupation.
The insurgents in Ireland will also have to yield, as the Catholics are withstanding them stoutly, and the provision made by parliament for that kingdom will now have to be employed elsewhere, owing to immediate requirements, as has happened before, affairs at hand are more urgent than those far off.
All these events, making the issue doubtful again, have put an end here to the idea of going on with the peace proposals, since the king will not submit to the laws which they propose for him. The Dutch ambassadors, busy with their commercial transactions, are apparently doing nothing in the matter, knowing it to be useless. The chancellor of Scotland, who arrived quite recently, is also disappointed, finding them very far from the disposition which he hoped.
The Prince Palatine still remains here, with his hopes dissipated, not having found the slightest whiff to second them. Even those by whose advice he came, influential as they are, seeing the strong opposition in parliament, have not ventured openly to suggest anything in his favour. He will have to leave in a few days, with the stigma of an ambition more reprehensible than his father's since it involves disloyalty to his uncle, which renders him odious to foreign princes and to parliament itself. I have seen him and he showed me the greatest courtesy. He urged me to thank your Serenity for the instructions given to the Ambassador Contarini at Munster.
The French Resident Sabran, after a great struggle has received his passport to go to the king, in good form, as the first one sent him left out his titles.
A gentleman of the Duke of Lorraine has arrived here with letters to parliament for the release of his Agent, who has been in prison a long time and his goods sequestrated. He is negotiating but has not yet obtained what he wants.
Two leading Irishmen have escaped from the Tower. (fn. 11) Suspecting that they had taken refuge in the house of the Spanish ambassador parliament sent commissioners on purpose to search it. He resisted this and spoke very warmly. In spite of this they have arrested a Scottish servant of his and threaten him with torture to find out all about them and about the goods of the Catholics which he holds.
London, the 23rd September, 1644.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
Sept. 27.
Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives.
155. Gio. Battista Nani, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
A courier has passed this way with all speed to Borbon to take to the queen the great news of the victory over Essex. Her Majesty is so happy in her native air of France that she finds it equally salubrious for her bodily ailments and for the relief of her mind as well.
Paris, the 27th September, 1644.
[Italian.]
Sept. 28.
Senato. Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.
156. Gerolamo Agostini, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
With the victory in the West the aspect of affairs here has promptly changed, and his Majesty's party has taken heart everywhere. With his numerous army divided into three corps he approached Plymouth without delay, and although he has not succeeded in taking it in three vigorous assaults, yet he has it closely invested and is hopeful of success. Meanwhile, Warwick has come into the Downs with the fleet, well supplied with victuals. The king has also taken Barnstaple and other inferior places, towards a complete occupation of that part of the West, which will be of great advantage to him, as well for the help from France, whence a ship has arrived with munitions and arms, as for other things, if he takes Plymouth.
Parliament is making the most strenuous efforts to have an army capable of meeting him. They have sent for several commanders here, with their men, and have arranged for five regiments of citizens to take the field from this city. But with money scarce they are short of all requisites, having lost a considerable number of the best guns in the kingdom and a quantity of arms and munitions. The commanders themselves do not show that obedience which is desirable and they quarrel with one another.
General Essex is at Southampton, collecting troops, but with scant success. Balfur, lieutenant general of the cavalry, has reported the losses suffered in passing through the royal forces, and asks for money. His men are dejected and he is marching with 2,000 to meet the general. Manchester, who has the most flourishing corps of 7,000 men, has been to parliament to point out the necessity for a reserve. This is in order to avoid putting himself under the general, but the present crisis does not admit of excuses or reserves, and they have sent him away with orders to continue his march. However he can find plenty of excuses to enable him to get off, if he wishes to, as his obligations are to the associated counties.
If Plymouth is taken it will be a great achievement ; but those most devoted to his Majesty would have liked him, before the winter, to have made an effort to march into Kent. This is the only stroke that can win him back his crown, and they are afraid that the chance may slip. The delay enables the parliamentarians to perfect their preparations, with a disadvantage to the king as great as he experienced at Gloucester, after the capture of Bristol.
The inhabitants of York, encouraged by these successes, which draw the enemy's forces away from them, have made a rising against the parliamentary garrison, which has evacuated it of its own free will, to avoid greater danger, and leaving the town free, so they write. This much is certain : the Scottish army is divided. One part has returned to Scotland, to put down disturbances, which are increasing ; and another portion has gone to Cumberland and Westmorland against the insurgents, leaving only a few at Newcastle, who have suffered loss from a sortie of the besieged. That town is mined in some parts, but the mines have not been fired, as it is hoped that fear of them will prove more effective, because the country there near the sea is not suitable for mines.
In spite of all these advantages the king is generously renewing his offers of peace. He has sent to parliament by a trumpet the letter of which I enclose a copy. Owing to an objection raised by the Council of State that the address was faulty, it was only read in the Houses yesterday. At the same time they proposed to settle and despatch to his Majesty the articles they have had in hand such a long time, merely for the purpose of gaining time, so as to parry this thrust, which may give occasion to the Scots and others, who wish for peace, to speak in favour of it, in the present weakness.
The Palatine no longer pays or receives visits. He regrets the credulity and confidence he placed in those who sent for him, whereby this ill advised prince sacrificed his honour and interest to gratify the passions of those who made the experiment at his expense for the sake of forwarding their own audacious designs, which have encountered such fierce opposition that they have not ventured to do battle for them. It is said that the Palatine will issue a manifesto, but it would be better for him to conceal the reason for his coming, rather than to put forward a proposal or demand to parliament in his own interest. But whatever he does he will find it difficult to remove the general opinion and impression, which is only too well justified by his reply to the parliamentary commissioners, which I forwarded.
The Dutch ambassadors, immersed in their commercial affairs, did not meet with the response which they desired and left last week, with protests and angry words to the commissioners appointed to treat with them.
The Spanish ambassador, since the examination of his servant, fearing the wrath of parliament at his being concerned in the escape of the two Irish prisoners, has handed in two very humble papers in justification of his action. But to-day these men have been found in the house of a Flemish Catholic, and sent back at once to prison. Parliament is acting with great severity in the matter, and this causes the ambassador a great deal of anxiety.
London, the 30th September, 1644.
[Italian ; the part in italics deciphered.]
Enclosure. 157. Letter of the King to Parliament, dated from Tavistock, the 8th September, 1644.
Renews offer of peace and reconciliation, in spite of his recent victory and suggests the consideration of his neglected message from Evesham of the 4th July. (fn. 12)
[Italian, from the English ; 3 pages.]

Footnotes

1 Obliterated by damp.
2 Polruan, east of Fowey, occupied on the 14-24 August.
3 Obliterated by damp.
4 Text in Journals of the House of Lords, Vol. VI., page 670. Rushworth ; Hist. Collections, Part III., Vol. II., pages 691-2.
5 Obliterated.
6 The victory of Sir W. Brereton, at Malpas on the 26th August, O.S., over the royalist horse under Sir Marmaduke Langdale. Journals of the House of Commons, Vol III., page 611 ; Cal. S. P. Dom. 1644, page 473. Cromwell was not there but a Major Cromwell was among the prisoners. (Rushworth : Hist. Collections, Part III., Vol. II., page 746) and this perhaps accounts for Agostini's mistake.
7 Réné Augier. See Agostini's despatch of the 18th November below.
8 Text of office and reply in Journals of the House of Lords, Vol. VI., page 695, the former on August 31 and the latter on Sept. 2, O.S.
9 Giovanni Battista Pamfili, elected on the 16th September.
10 The surrender at Lostwithiel took place on the 2-12 September. Essex escaped on the day preceding.
11 Lord Maguire and Hugh Maomahon. Journals of the House of Lords, Vol. VI., page 709.
12 Text in Journals of the House of Lords, Vol. VI., page 708. Rushworth ; Hist. Collections, Pt. III., Vol. II., page 712.