Venice
June 1655

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1930

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61-73

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'Venice: June 1655', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 30: 1655-1656 (1930), pp. 61-73. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=89808 Date accessed: 18 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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Contents

June 1655

June 1.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
77. Giovanni Sagredo, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
A small ship which left the island of St. Christophers on the 23rd of last March, and has now arrived at Amsterdam, reports the seizure of some Dutch vessels with their cargoes by the English squadron. They were taken in the ports of the West Indies subject to England on the pretext of their usurping profits rightfully belonging to the London merchants. The incident has caused no small annoyance to the Dutch, as it destroys their trade in one of the wealthiest and most profitable directions.
Meanwhile as General Pen has not attacked any of the French islands he is more and more suspected of intending to attack the Spanish main, an event anxiously awaited at this Court, as an attack on the treasure of Spain cannot fail to render her more vulnerable.
Encloses Paulucci's letter.
Paris, the 1st June, 1655.
[Italian.]
June 5.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
78. To the Ambassador Sagredo at the Most Christian Court. (fn. 1)
Your abilities and the prudence shown by you in the weighty conduct of this embassy have persuaded the Senate to choose you ambassador extraordinary to England, in these critical and difficult times. The nature and character of the post are well adapted to your high qualities. From this you may judge of the high opinion held of you. We are considering the form of your instructions, which will be sent as soon as possible.
Ayes, 136. Noes, 0. Neutral, 2.
[Italian.]
June 5.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
79. To the Resident at Naples.
You will continue to observe the proceedings of General Blach and similarly find out where the armed brigantine in Sicily has gone, sending us full particulars.
Ayes, 136. Noes, 0. Neutral, 2.
[Italian.]
June 5.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venatian
Archives.
80. Lorenzo Paulucci, Venetian Secretary in England, to Giovanni Sagredo, the Ambassador in France. (fn. 2)
One of the most determined individuals after being summoned to Pay some tax, of insignificant amount, boldly refused and said roundly that the time was past for the exaction of the taxes, and as there was no longer a parliament or a king, while the laws were always in force, he did not consider himself bound to pay any more. With this determination to defend himself and with the support of others of like mind with himself, the case was brought before a civil judge. His arguments were there set forth with some freedom and some reflections on the name and authority of the Protector. When he heard of it measures were taken without loss of time to silence the advocate, to stop the connivance of the judge and the temerity of the chief party, by the arrest of all three. They have been brought to the Tower so that their example may warn others against speaking against the Protector or disturbing the peace. (fn. 3) By such precautions his Highness provides for everything and especially against any internal disturbance in the present state of affairs everywhere.
The number of prisoners in the Tower being rendered excessive by the addition of these three his Highness has considered it desirable to send some of the chief ones away. So some were unexpectedly removed by water at night and escorted by horse and foot to various strong places in the provinces, so that the Protector can do what he likes with them and particularly with the most disaffected, without the fear of any outcry. Although he has granted many of the late conspirators their lives, he has had the capital sentence carried out on some of the ringleaders. This was not believed here and yet it is certain by the letters from the provinces. Thus by punishing some and terrorising others the Protector's rule becomes more and more consolidated. Fortune confers all her favours on him as he has derived tranquillity rather than confusion from these secret conspiracies, all plots have been luckily discovered and the webs woven by treason so broken that they are unlikely to be joined again, unless something of greater consequence occurs unexpectedly, as is possible in new states dependent like this on the force of arms alone.
The utmost compassion is felt here at the violent death suffered by Protestants in the dominions of the duke of Savoy. That prince is much condemned for his conduct. Their petition for help has been sent to several Protestant countries and neighbouring parts, and have also reached the Protector's ears. He has openly shown his satisfaction at this and his lively sympathy. It is stated that a collection has been started in this city to raise money for their relief, and it is also said that on their behalf the fleet of General Blach may leave the Barbary coast and sail for Villafranca or some other important port of Savoy to avenge the wrongs of those poor folk and to take away from there as many families as they can to give them a haven and the free exercise of their faith in Ireland. This government has one sole and devoted object, to root out the Catholic faith from Ireland and introduce Protestantism in every corner of it. There is some idea also that this incident may delay if not entirely prevent the agreement with France. The English are inclined to believe that the duke's decision to treat with so much severity the Huguenots who have taken refuge there may be due to the persuasion of his mother to gratify her distressed sister, the queen of England. It is certain at any rate that this affair has stirred them greatly against those of the Catholic faith, who are for the most part reduced to live in the country to escape the severity of the recent proclamation.
Letters from General Blach inform the Protector of the loss inflicted by his fleet on the pirates of Tunis, with this difference from the news of the merchants, that instead of taking they burned nine of the pirate ships, and that they did considerable damage to the town and port of Tunis, or perhaps Porto Ferrino.
The Catholic ambasador extraordinary is understood to be far from hopeful about receiving a satisfactory reply to his proposals; indeed since his second audience he has shown more and more evident signs of how little he got from the Protector.
Last week four merchants of this mart representing the Levant Company came to me. (fn. 4) After telling me about General Blach's operations against the Tunis pirates, which had prevented them from proceeding to the East to serve the Grand Turk, and had thereby rendered a good turn to the most serene republic, they handed me the enclosed memorial, containing four articles, setting forth the grievances of the Company, for me to forward in order to obtain the redress and justice that they look for from his Serenity. They make this appeal to the supreme authority of Venice before laying their complaints and petition for justice before the Lord Protector who would not deny them his powerful advocacy. They would wait two months for the state's decision. After thanking them for the good news, so glorious for their arms and advantageous to all Christendom, I promised to transmit their memorial to his Serenity together with a report of what they had said, feeling sure that full justice would be shown to their country. They went away satisfied and said they would come again in two months to hear the state's decision.
Repeats his petition for supplies.
London, the 5th June, 1655.
[Italian.]
Enclosure.81. The Levant Company desires to be relieved of the following grievances and wrongs done to them in the islands of Zante and Cephalonia.
(1) an unjust tax of 2 pieces of eight per thousand on currants paid by the Company since 1640 by virtue of a sentence obtained by John Bromhall for a pretended debt of some 33,637 lire, although the Company actually owed nothing; yet since that date have not only paid the whole debt but 40 to 50,000 thalers more, and are still forced to continue payments up to the present time.
(2) the great quantity of currants forced upon their agents every year by the governments, at their own most excessive price.
(3) the tenth paid by the Company upon currants, which ought to be paid by the natives.
(4) the compulsion used to force their ships to serve the republic of Venice, which are afterwards dismissed without satisfaction.
[Italian.]
June 12.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
82. To the Ambassadors Sagredo and Giustinian in France.
We learn of the departure from Flanders for England at the same time of the Marquis de Leidem, the Marquis of San Stefano and Count Sot (sic), on a complimentary mission and to treat with Cromwell at the same time. We are the more glad of your departure on that most important embassy. Money on account of old advances will be paid to your agents, to hasten your departure and we are sure that your services will prove most fruitful. Letters of credence for the Protector are enclosed; delay must not hinder your starting. Meanwhile you will inform Pauluzzi of the public decision so that he may tell Cromwell at once, expressing the regard of the republic for his Highness. You will tell Pauluzzi of the public satisfaction with his services and that he will be relieved when you arrive in London and may return home after eight years' service.
Ayes, 100. Noes, 0. Neutral, 1.
[Italian.]
June 12.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
83. To the Protector Cromwell. (fn. 5)
The esteem of our republic for your Highness has been fully expressed by our letters and orally by Pauluzzi, who has been staying in London for us some time. But as we desire to render the cordiality of our sentiments more conspicuous to the world, we have directed Giovanni Sagredo, knight, who is finishing his embassy in France, to proceed to England as ambassador extraordinary to perform this duty. We ask that your Highness will be pleased to receive him with your habitual courtesy, and trust him as ourselves. We wish you many happy years.
Ayes, 100. Noes, 0. Neutral, 1.
[Italian.]
July 12.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
84. Giacomo Quirini, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
Two days ago General Blach's fleet entered Gibraltar. The Duke of Medina Celi, with the same friendliness as before offered him the Port of Cadiz for repairing two vessels which had been damaged by the sea. Nothing of consequence has been learned about his plans, but they have found out that at the island of St. Christopher General Pen engaged a number of sailors. This increase of their forces and provisions makes the Spaniards fear that the English may make a landing in the island of Cuba, but provided they do not attack the ports and fortresses of the Catholic, the Spaniards will pretend that there is no formal war, in conformity with the articles of their ancient confederation.
The Ambassador Cardenas has renewed his appeal to be relieved, the Marquis of Leide having already arrived at London, to all appearance on a purely complimentary mission.
Madrid, the 12th June, 1655.
[Italian.]
June 14.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
85. Lorenzo Paulucci, Venetian Secretary in England, to Giovanni Sagredo, the Ambassador in France. (fn. 6)
In the court of the lord chief justice representations have recently been made of the inconvenience in carrying out laws framed by king and parliament, in the absence of which the affairs of the kingdom and of the people cannot function as smoothly as is requisite, in virtue of which a considerable number of the provinces refuse to pay any longer the present extraordinary impositions. If the laws continued in force they were violated by the continuation of the contributions, if not, then it was necessary to admit that force was used, to the detriment of the liberties and privileges of the nation. So the people appealed to the throne of justice to obtain what is equitable from it for their relief. Against so strong an argument the judge could only adopt the expedient of making soothing observations and deferring judgment until the next session, which will be in a month. Meanwhile the Protector will have time to take his measures and arrange for a decision in favour of his authority. It is already stated that by an understanding with the chief officers of the army a great council of war is to be held in which the chief business will be to invite the Protector to assume the legislative power, so that he can rearrange this important point of confused justice and shape and refashion the laws as he pleases, thus shutting the mouths of many and cutting off from all the hope of more parliaments in England. I understand that this is projected by the military in concert with his Highness.
Nothing definite has yet been arranged in the peace with France, but in order to arrive at something definitive they have decided, I learn, to send thither two individuals, instructed upon the extreme difficulties of the treaty. They left four days ago, accompanied, it is said, by a servant of M. de Bordeaux. Another person, though it may be one of these two, has been sent to the duke of Savoy with letters from the Protector making a strong remonstrance upon the maltreatment of the Protestants in his dominions. The Protector heard of their sufferings with tears in his eyes and it is certain that he takes this interest keenly to heart. It is said that the collection throughout England for their relief will exceed 300,000l. sterling, the disposition of which will depend on the Protector's will.
The Spanish ambassador extraordinary so far has had little to negotiate and less satisfaction. His departure is now announced. It is thought that the great demands made here have put a stop to his proposals to pay a large sum down to divert the English fleet from the West Indies. Good news from that quarter is expected and 12 good ships with a considerable force of troops are destined to reinforce that fleet.
Fresh news constantly shows increasing advantage gained by General Blach over the pirates of Tunis, as he has taken a number of slaves, released many, captured 14 guns, in addition to the 9 ships burned. It is said that he keeps inflicting serious losses on them and has sailed with the fleet to another port named Suza with the intention of burning ships taking refuge there. Upon this news the merchants of the Levant Company went to the Protector to recommend their interests in the Levant, pointing out that if the Porte took any revenge on the goods of Englishmen at Constantinople it would mean the ruin of a great many families of his most obedient people. The Protector promised them his protection always, but said he could not help supporting the courageous forces of England under General Blach. It is said that his Highness intends to order Blach to sail to the Levant to protect the interests of the nation in case the Turks commit any violence against them. God grant this may be so, since there is no doubt that the English would gladly employ their forces to avenge themselves, and this would help Christendom and our country in particular. The point is worth consideration by the state.
An envoy is expected from Portugal sent on purpose with rich gifts for the Protector although the peace between the two countries is not fully ratified, indeed it is understood that some English frigates recently took a large ship sailing from Brittany with a valuable cargo of textiles, belonging to Portuguese merchants. (fn. 7) The Resident of Portugal makes representations and labours for its release, but so far without result.
24 cases full of the most costly wines from the Grand Duke's cellar have reached the Resident of Florence in a ship from Leghorn, as a present for the Protector. (fn. 8) So it may be said that every prince contributes marks of regard and esteem for his Highness and the power of this state. I have done what I could orally to bear witness to the sentiments of the most serene republic.
Deprived of succour from your Excellency for practically 7 months I live in great anxiety and have to keep very much in the background. My necessity and the dignity of the state call for prompt assistance from your Excellency or from the Senate.
London, the 14th June, 1655.
[Italian.]
June 15.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
86. Giovanni Sagredo, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
The treaty between France and Cromwell still hangs in the balance. It is said that he has stated that if the crowned heads are anxious to maintain a perfect understanding with him, he insists on their interesting themselves in maintaining him, including him in the general peace and striving which can do the most to consolidate his greatness. He will not meet with any difficulty as his powerful fleets procure respect for him abroad while at home obedience is enforced by the army, so that everything will prove smooth and easy to him.
Encloses letter from England.
Paris, the 15th June, 1655.
[Italian.]
June 15.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Napoli.
Venetian
Archives.
87. Andrea Rosso, Venetian Resident at Naples, to the Doge and Senate.
The ship of General Blach which arrived here from Barbary some weeks ago will not now go back to rejoin his fleet, so it is reported, which is at present in those waters, but will proceed straight to England. Among other things which it has taken on board, and particularly silk, it will take to the Protector Cromwell six horses of this kingdom for stud purposes. (fn. 9) The abandonment of trade by the English merchants here, even at a loss, and the disposal of all their household goods with the intention of withdrawing from the dominions of the Catholic king, makes the Spaniards uneasy about the intentions of Cromwell. On the other hand there are some who declare that Blach is about to come to unite with their naval forces.
Naples, the 15th June, 1655.
[Italian.]
June 10.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Zurigo.
Venetian
Archieves.
88. Antonio di Negri, Venetian Resident at Zurich, to the Doge and Senate.
The Duke of Savoy has published a rigorous ban against the leading heretics of the valley of Lucerna. It is stated that a deputy of England is at sea to carry representations to his Highness in Cromwell's name. (fn. 10) Others say that General Blach has orders to approach the coasts of Savoy with his fleet. This much is certain that the people at Genoa and the neighbouring parts are greatly agitated.
Zurich,the 19th June, 1655.
[Italian.]
June 19.
Venetian
Transcripts.
Public
Record Office.
89. Giovanni Sagredo, Venetian Ambassador in France, to Lorenzo Paulucci, his Secretary in England. (fn. 11)
The Senate has learned from your letters the intention of Record Office, sending an English ambassador to Constantinople. Should there be time they desire you to visit him and insinuate what becomes the public service by not permitting the Turks to avail themselves of English vessels to the detriment of Christendom, flattering and encouraging the good disposition which the Senate supposes him to entertain towards the state's affairs, and endeavouring that he shall depart well impressed towards the state's interests. You will also endeavour to discover the commissions which he takes, minutely informing the Senate of everything. Paris, the 19th June, 1655.
[Italian.]
June 22.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Venetian
Archives.
90. Lorenzo Paulucci, Venetian Secretary in England, to Giovanni Sagredo, the Ambassador in France. (fn. 12)
With the advice of the chief officers of the army the Protector devising some measure to bring order into the affairs of justice, the confusion in which is calculated to give rise to worse disorders and to lead to an increasing outcry among the people. Thus everything tends towards his assuming the legislative function. The army alone can confer this on him and give vigorous support in case of need for the abolition of the old laws and the institution of new ones which are better adapted to his Highness' requirements. So this is at present the most important business. It seems that the Protector cannot properly make enactments without dressing himself in another title, and large numbers in the army itself show themselves disposed to oppose this, for good reasons, so it behoves the Protector to devise some satisfactory expedient for settling this important question before the law term opens, in a few days' time, when it is confidently expected that something noteworthy will be determined.
The good news which has been impatiently expected from the fleet in America still tarries. It is feared that the reports current here may prove true, that the enterprise has not proved so easy as was anticipated. Yet whatever happens the English count on assured advantages from that expedition, and in default of conquests it will mean interfering with freedom of trade, and so inducing the Spaniards to make an advantageous composition with this state, in which England would obtain the freedom to trade which has so far been denied them.
The Mediterranean fleet, since the affair at Tunis, is reported off the Barbary coast sailing towards the Spanish coast in the direction of Cadiz for the purpose of meeting the Spanish galleons expected there with the fleet from the Indies. Thus their animosity against the dominions and property of the Catholic seems steadily on the increase. For this cause it is stated that both Catholic ambassadors may leave here soon. The extraordinary has had no audience since his third and will doubtless leave soon, the ordinary will probably stay on until some greater cause arises for his departure.
But for the affair of the Protestants in Savoy it is thought that the peace with France would have been concluded and announced. But the intention here to protect and vindicate them may easily lead to difficulties unless the satisfaction is given which was demanded in the message sent to the French king. While they are waiting for this the operations of the forces of Savoy and France against those poor people are strongly condemned here. The collection for their relief is to begin on the 14th inst. by their style, all through the kingdom, and the Protector has ordained a solemn fast for that day, charging the preachers to tell their hearers of the outrage and martyrdom suffered by the Protestants and to urge the people to contribute liberally. A committee has also been appointed to superintend this important interest. It does not seem unlikely that the money thus collected may one day be employed to the detriment of Savoy through an understanding with the Swiss Protestant Cantons, who by this inducement might easily be persuaded to fight, especially outside their own country. There is no doubt that the government here interests itself greatly in that affair, and feeling grows more bitter against the Catholics in this country and in Ireland especially, where the majority of them are practically cooped up in a corner of the country, while more than one of the Irish religious has recently been put to death in a barbarous manner.
The Protector is constantly engaged in unearthing plots against his present quiet, and arbitrarily throws into prison now one and now another suspected person. To encourage others to servehim he has recently knighted some who resisted the late conspiracy, (fn. 13) so that they may wear this decoration in their districts as a sign that they have served his Highness well, and also as a sign of his present authority which he exercises on all occasions exactly like a king and despotically.
After the envoy from the Prince of Transylvania had paid his respects to the Protector and made some overtures about affairs, which went no further, he has received despatches from here to take back with him.
Request for supplies as reduced to the greatest distress and menaced by the law. Encloses accounts for the month of May, making him creditor, and consequently debtor in England, for 7 months.
London, the 22nd June, 1655.
[Italian.]
June 22.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archieves.
91. Giovanni Sagredo, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
Cromwell's envoy sent here about Piedmont and the protection of the heretics has had audience of the king, but the Cardinal avoided conferring with him, for fear of offending Savoy. He enlarged on the action taken by that prince which tended to extirpate the heretics after they had been tolerated for over 100 years, and said that the real object was not to suppress Protestantism but to seize the property of those who professed it. All those of the same confession, by no means few in numbers, would take the matter up, and the flame might possibly consume those who struck the first sparks. Owing to the kinship between France and Savoy and the king's moral influence with the duke, Cromwell was anxious that his own representations should be supported by those of his Majesty. The reply consisted in ample promises and an assurance of good intentions.
Encloses Paulucci's letter.
Paris, the 22nd June, 1655.
[Italian.]
June 24.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Capitano
delle Navi.
Venetian
Archieves.
92. Lazzaro Mocenigo, Captain of the Ships, to the Doge and Senate.
Account of the fight at the Castelli on the 21st inst. Reports the capture of three ships: the Sultana and one English and one Flemish ship. The English ship is named Principe di Toscana, of 28 guns. The Sultana can be used for the fleet. The Flemish and English ships are being kept with it. The former was commanded by a Flemish captain; the latter, so it appears, by Doaner of Smyrna, brother of a Turkish renegade. Has had no time to ascertain the particulars about this or of the injury which it did to the Venetian fleet. This English ship was sent ahead of the others to open the way to the enemy.
From the ship at Idilles, the 24th June, 1655.
[Italian.]
Enclosure.93 Examination of a slave taken from the Turkish fleet.
The fleet comprised 24 sultane with three Christian merchant vessels, one French and two English. The former is that of Giacomo Sacchi, taken by force into the service. One of the two English belonged to an Armenian who lives at Leghorn.
[Italian.
June 26.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archieves.
94. Giacomo Quirini, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
General Blach sailed from Gibraltar with 37 powerful ships and proceeded to the waters of Cadiz, where he asked for the fort of Puntal, which is at the mouth of the port of the island at the east, for the more satisfactory accommodation of some of the ships of his fleet. This was not permitted by the duke of Medina Celi, governor of that coast, who based his action on the articles arranged between them with these realms. Notwithstanding this repulse Blach hangs about off la Rota and Santa Caterina, getting it mentioned, from time to time, that he must be directing his course towards Africa to give a lesson to the corsairs of Sale, subject to the king of Morocco, dealing them the same measure
as was meted to those of Tunis and Biserta.
This unexpected return to Spain in the month of June and this unprofitable sojourn of a great fleet is an indication sufficient to arouse suspicions of evil intentions against the four galleons of the fleet. Most urgent orders have been sent to these not to put out to the open sea, or leave the waters of the Indies.
In the mean time a good proportion of the English of Malaga, Cadiz, Seville and San Lucar, who may amount to some fifty families, have embarked by night on the fleet, taking their money with them, all things which indicate some upheaval and the very worst intentions. Others have set about lading an English ship for Genoa, without any discrimination about the nature of the cargo, which is not suitable for Italian consumption, though that is where they are sending it immediately. The other English traders of Biscay, San Sebastian and Bilbao have also withdrawn with their goods. The only ones who remain stationary and immobile are the ones here at Madrid, numbering seven households, who are unable to extricate themselves from the imminent peril and do not attempt to do so.
Madrid, the 26th June, 1655.
[Italian.]
June 28.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
95. Lorenzo Paulucci, Venetian Secretary in England, to Giovanni Sagredo, the Ambassador in France. (fn. 14)
Although condemned to a certain amount of retirement to avoid my creditors, in the absence of supplies for my subsistence, I still continue my weekly reports, as in duty bound. His Highness has been consulting the most eminent lawyers upon the question of his assuming the legislative power in order to give force and authority to the laws and to the judges. Many powerful arguments have been adduced for and against, but the majority agree that it cannot be done without the authority of a parliament. The question is still in debate though it is practically decided in his Highness' resolute mind, knowing as he does the obstacles and the necessity of making some provision before the opening of the next law term which will enable him to render his authority independent and to prevent the disorders which might result from this way.
So every day, with the support of the military and the favour of this city, which the rest of the kingdom will readily follow he is preparing to make some change in the government, by change of title or some other expedient, which will give him ample powers, without parliament, to enforce, repeal or introduce laws enable justice to be done without confusion. Owing to the present disorder in the judicial forms some of the leading judges have handed in their resignation to the Protector, declaring that they cannot administer justice satisfactorily or perform their duties (fn. 15) so they leave it to the prudence of his Highness to make more adequate provision. This step does not disturb the Protector because it falls in with his desire to have some of the lawyers out of their posts and to put in others entirely dependent on himself. This is expected to come with the new order disposed by his Highness.
Foreseeing that this fresh cause for discontent in a matter so important to the people as justice might stir them to unite with the old causes of so much disaffection, the Protector has considered obsta principiis a sound policy. Accordingly he has had various individuals of rank arrested this week and taken to the Tower, for the purpose of nipping in the bud the mischief that he knows is constantly brewing to overthrow his absolute authority, which he continues to exercise in every department. Other important prisoners have been suddenly removed by sea to the island of Barbados, in order to cut them off utterly from any hope of regaining their former comforts or liberty. It is said that this knowledge induced Lord Grandison, in despair at the loss of his property and liberty, to take his own life on the ship. (fn. 16) It is thus clear that by the ruin of the great and of malcontents, by violence and the use of force, the Protector aims at securing his position.
This day is being celebrated with remarkable exactness as a holiday and day of prayer for the ill used Protestants in the valleys of Savoy, as ordained by the Protector. (fn. 17) To-day also they begin the collection for them and to head the list and induce others to contribute liberally the Protector has promised 2,000l. sterling. The preachers make much of the outrage and martyrdom of so many. To make a greater impression on the congregation some of the churches have been painted a blood colour. Although the steps taken by France to help the remaining Protestant families induce them to believe here that they had little or no complicity in what has been done, yet they are not entirely trusted and it is commonly thought that the peace between the two countries may be held up on this account.
The ambassador extraordinary of Spain has taken leave of the Protector in the most stately manner. He goes ill pleased as he found the way shut against any overtures for negotiation.
From a visit paid me by the Agent extraordinary of Sweden I learned that an ambassador extraordinary to the Protector has been appointed by that monarch and has started. (fn. 18) According to report he will have a numerous train of the nobility of the country. Here in the mean time they are proposing to send some one for the ratification of the peace between Sweden and England.
The Protector has recently dubbed some more knights among his most faithful adherents, and assigned them a large annual pension, as a reward for their services in discovering the late conspiracy.
By the security given me by a confidential friend I have succeeded in putting off some of my creditors for a few days longer and have thus stopped legal proceedings, which I would shed my blood to prevent, for the honour of my country.
London, the 28th June, 1655.
[Italian.]
June 30.
Venetian
Transcripts.
Public
Record Office.
96. Giovanni Sagredo, Venetian Ambassador in France, to Lorenzo Paulucci, his Secretary in England. (fn. 19)
Pities his needs but cannot forget his own. Obliged to meet his own debts and has not had a farthing from Venice. Has allowed him for loss on exchange for which he has received 20 pistoles, and all the expenses in his monthly accounts, as well as all postages. Has only allowed reckoning during time of own embassy. The question of donations is one for the Senate. He will receive the balance sheet of the whole next Saturday to compare with his own books.
Paris, the 30th June, 1655.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 The Italian text printed by Barozzi e Berehet: Relazioni, Inghilterra, page 368.
2 Forwarded with Sagredo's despatch of the 12th June.
3 Cony's case. He refused to pay duty on imported silk. His counsel, Twisden, Maynard and Windham, were committed to the Tower on 18–28 May. Cal. S.P. Dom. 1655, page 168.
4 At the Court held on 15–25 May six deputies were chosen, headed by the Governor Alderman Riccard to speak with the Venetian Agent about the burdens at Zante. Levant Co. Court Book, f. 251. P.R.O. S.P. For. Archives, Vol. 151.
5 The Italian text printed by Barozzi e Berchet: Relazioni, Inghilterra, page 369.
6 Forwarded with Sagredo's despatch of the 15th June.
7 Probably the Patience of Amsterdam taken by a French warship and later by the Nightingale, Capt. Robert Vessey, and brought into Plymouth. She was actually sailing from Dunkirk to the Canary Islands, but had Breton sailors on board. Cal. S.P. Dom. 1655, page 479.
8 Sent by the Endymion on 20 February. Thurloe: State Papers iii., page 147. Salvetti records the arrival on 11 June. Brit. Mus. Add. MSS. 27962 O, f. 436d.
9 The Success. The horses were bought by Cromwell. The ship was to sail on 14 June o.s. Thurloe: State Papers iii., pages 152, 391, 550.
10 Samuel Moreland.
11 Taken from the Sagredo MSS.
12 Forwarded with Sagredo's despatch of the 22nd June.
13 Dr. Shaw only records two at this, date, John Coppleston, sheriff of Devon on June 1 and John Reynolds, commissioner-general in Ireland on June 11. Knights of England, Vol. ii., page 223.
14 Forwarded with Sagredo's despatch of the 30th June.
15 Richard Newdegate and Francis Thorpe resigned their patents on 3 May o.s. Henry Rolle, the Lord Chief Justice, resigned on 7 June o.s.
16 John Villiers, viscount Grandison was alive and in the isle of Wight on 30 August. Cal. S.P. Dom. 1655, page 307.
17 The fast was on the 14–24 June. Bordeaux to Brienne on that date. P.R.O. Paris Transcripts. Cal. S.P. Dom., 1655, page 183.
18 Christian Bond.
19 Not in the file of the Ambassador's letters. The text is taken from Mr. Rawdon Brown's transcripts, made from the Sagredo MSS.


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