Index
O, P

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

Year published

1930

Pages

383-392

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'Index: O, P', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 30: 1655-1656 (1930), pp. 383-392. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=89841 Date accessed: 18 September 2014.


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O

oath:
-, to be taken by Protector, 2; bill upon, 11; those who refuse imprisoned, 79.
-, required of army officers, 35; to be taken by Catholics, 54.

Obson. See Hobson.

Ocean. See Atlantic.

Ochincurt. See Monchy, Charles de, marechal d' Hocquincourt.

officials, called upon to account for money received, 211.

oil, price halved in Andalusia by English action, 120.

Ommeren, Rudolph van, Dutch ambassador to Pinerolo conference, 74; arrived too late for settlement, 117.
-, advocates diet of Protestant Cantons, 118; congress at Payerne to hear proposals, 120, 123; not pleased with settlement, 126, 135; proposals for peace among Vaudois, 131.

Ontiveros, marquis of. See Bañuelos, Manuel.

Opdam, sieur d'. See Wassenar, Jacques de.

Oporto, Portugal, Brazil fleet ordered to go to, 84.

Oran [Algeria, N. Africa], supposed English designs on, 223.

Orange, House of:
-, exclusion of resented by States, 7; jealousy caused by alliance with Stuarts, 100; talk of altering exclusion clause against, 202.
-, vigorous opposition to alliance with England, 202.

-, Princess of. See Mary, daughter of Charles I.

Orbetello, Orbitello [Prov. Grosseto, Italy], consigned to England by treaty with France, 192.

ordnance. See guns.

Orlandini, Pietro Paolo, account of affair at Porto Farina, 49.

Ostend [W. Flanders, Belgium]:
-, Fiesco asks protection against ships of, 3.
-, offered to Charles as place d'armes, 111; pirates of will find easy prey in English merchantmen, 138; depredations by pirates of, 234.
-, ships from in Downs, seized, 134. archduke witholds letters of marque from applicants at, 174; squadron formed to check piracies of, 201.
-, French to assist Cromwell to take. 176.
-, fleet may be recalled against, 222; decision to blockade, 225; blockaded, 255.
-, ships of, capture Cullen, 248n.

Ottomans. See Turks.

Overton, Robert, major general, implicated in Wildman's plot, 4 n; sent to London and put in Tower, 15.

Oxem, ? Oxford, royalist conspirators in condemned, 53.

P

Pack, Christopher, Lord Mayor of London, present at city fire, 26; Cromwell sends for about militia, 27; informs Council of project, 32; submits names of officers to Cromwell, 37; troops reviewed before, 40.

-, -, alderman, chosen member for London, 256.

-, Packe, Henry, commander of the Amity, 220.

palaces, royal, to be kept for use of Protector, 2.

Palatine, Elector, of the Rhine. See Charles Louis.

-, Prince. See Rupert.

pamphlets, with grievances of Anabaptists against Protector. 102.

Panama, Central America, plate late in reaching, 30.

papacy, Cromwell points out to Sweden opportunity of humbling, 232.

papal nuncios. See under ambassadors.

Papal States. See Church, States of the.

papists. See Catholics, English Roman.

Pardi, Colonel, presses Rupert about service of Modena, 105.

Paris, France:
-, despatches dated at, 7, 10, 16, 21, 23, 27, 30, 33, 36, 38, 42, 45, 47, 52, 61, 67–8, 70, 73, 77–8, 81, 158, 162, 171, 176, 183, 189, 193, 196, 199, 203, 212, 215, 220, 273, 275, 279, 285, 290.
-, news from, 46, 259.
-, expulsion of Charles from, 30; Court absent from, 121.
-, report in of attack on Bendish, 77; courier robbed on way to, 185.
-, Sagredo leaves for London, 103; Bastide sent to, for treaty, 138; Bordeaux returns to, 156, 158; Bordeaux stays on in, 171, 176, 183, 188; Bordeaux expected from, 190, 195, 198.
-, agent of Cromwell incognito at, 183, 310; Lockhart starting for, 195, 210; question of his reception at, 215; he is received in, 220.
-, Charles sends to brother at, 207; York remains at, 212; York has to leave, 240.
-, Court leaves, 223; Lockhart tells Cromwell of negotiations at, 295.
-, London not inferior to in population or wealth, 308.
-, Louvre, Lockhart received at, 220.
-, Notre Dame, 223.
-, parliament of, 223.

parliament:
-, Protector to take oath to summon, 2; provision for calling future, 11; Cromwell will be in no hurry to summon new, 15, 100.
-, Cromwell accused of despotic dissolution of several, 19; reverence of people for, 21–2.
-, Wildman's declaration and risings due to members of, 42.
-, old members of, dispute Cromwell's right to levy taxation, 50; conspiracy defended by duty to, 55.
-, Cony contends no tax without, 62; question before lord chief justice, 65; Cromwell cannot be given legislative powers without, 72.
-, proposal from city for summoning, 99; people clamour for, 222, 224, 241; decision to call, 226, 240; but likely to produce disorder, 227, 231.
-, only called to please people, 231, 233, will be entirely under control, 233–4.
-, proposal to choose by Major Generals and Protector would cause disturbance, 234.
-, to be elected and general, members approved by Cromwell and Council, 240; manner of election to described, 256.
-, principal object to arrange sucession, 240.
-, likely to give Cromwell legislative power, 241.
-, will have to consider best way of raising money, 241.
-, with legislative powers Cromwell can dispense with, 241; Cromwell set up and dissolved two, 305.
-, passionate longing of people for, 253; a new one in June, 287.
-, Venice never sent embassies to, 310.

-, the long:

sales by order of declared valid, 1; employed militia against Charles I., 40.

Richmond compounded with, 52; those who never did disservice to, obliged to support Cromwell, 83.

sold furnishings of Charles at very low price, 125.

disclosure of proceedings one of chief defects of, 142; officials of time of, to account for money received, 211.

Cromwell claims to resell church lands sold by, 211; loan to, by goldsmiths, 302.

Charles's misfortunes due to failure to stand up against, 300; audacity increased in proportion, id.

Essex poisoned by, 300; pay of troops increased to attract men to side of, 306.

Scots sold king to, 300; discussion as to his treatment, 300–1; Cromwell insisted king should be sentenced by, 302.

entire government in hands of, at king's death, 303; royalists reduced to submission to, id.

becomes generally unpopular, Cromwell dissolves, 304–5; Cromwell elected to and turned circumstances to advantage, 311.

-, the first Protectorate:

decides religion must be Protestant, 1; discussing form of government, 4; unlikely to make Cromwell's seat stable, 5.

measures to satisfy army, 1–2.

financial decisions, 2; question of Cromwell appearing before, 14–5.

Cromwell desires end of, 4; proposal to make Cromwell king renewed in, 7; will petition for extension of term, 11.

acts presented to Cromwell for ratification, 7, 11, 14; extraordinary tax discussed in, but not passed, 25.

Cromwell might not observe oath of, 11; Cromwell handles with tact and dissimulation, 15.

Cromwell gets power legitimated by, 15; Cromwell harangues, and dissolves, 17.

dissolution will incense military, 17; members vent spleen by placards against Cromwell, 19; dissolution of resented, 21–2, 24, 29; Cromwell issues manifesto justifying dissolution, 25.

taxation claimed to follow intention of, 25; some members of Council absent themselves since dissolution, 27.

difficulties and suspicion increased since dissolution, 29.

-, the second Protectorate:

fleet to be kept out till meeting of, 241; Court in constant stir over, 251.

writs issued for, 244, 248; some counties refuse to nominate candidates for, 248; progress of elections to, 254, 256, 259.

may take up peace with Spaniards, 244; certain to want peace, 252.

measures to secure docility of members, 251; opening expected to lead to disturbances, 252–3.

libels suggesting suitable members for, 252; people expect to relieve them of taxation, 253.

Cromwell can stop trouble from by dissolution, 252; Cromwell and Council busy designing instructions for, 253; army will guarantee Cromwell against thunders of, 254; Cromwell has misgivings about, precautions, 201–2.

pay of troops held up till opening of, 254; troops given assignment to prevent mutiny at opening of, 254.

preoccupation over delays Giavarina's audience, 257; list of members submitted to Cromwell, 259; some likely to be rejected, 261.

some change of government likely to follow opening of, 259; Cromwell thinks self in peril with meeting of, 261.

opening eagerly awaited, 261; Vane imprisoned to prevent making trouble in, 264.

steps to prejudice against Charles, 263; 120 members excluded from, 266; Cromwell defends action, which approves, 268.

opening of, Cromwell's speech at, 266; talk of making him king, 269, 277, 286.

election of speaker, two bills passed, 266; appointing committees, regulation of internal affairs, 268; passes bill against Stuarts, 269, 276.

dealing with reform of laws, 269; appoints commission of enquiry, 271.

question of Spanish war before, 269; approves of war, 271, 287; pleased at capture of galleons, 272.

ordains fast for kingdom, 269; despatches of Blake and Montague read in, 273.

Cromwell wants Lockhart back because of, 271; affairs proceed smoothly, 274.

discusses means of waging war with Spain, 273, 275; means of paying for fleet, 279; by confiscations, 281.

considering extraordinary tax to pay for fleet, 273, 276, 279; puts question aside, 281.

absentees recalled to, except those not approved, 274; works with great secrecy, difficult to discover decisions, 283, 286, 288.

sets up tribunal to keep eve on plots, 276.

takes up question of succession, 282, 295; wants to make Protectorate hereditary, 282–3, 286, 288; Cromwell thanks and declines, 283–4, 287.

wishes to incorporate Scotland with England, 284.

will want decision about royal title before separating, 287.

Cromwell goes to, to assent to bills, 288; done nothing but domestic and private matters, 294.

agrees to tax for war, 288; may be continued, to deal with succession, 295; continues though term has expired, 297.

Parma, Italy, supposed in league against House of Austria, 33.

Pasqualigo, Marc Antonio, Venetian Proveditore of Zante, despatch to the Senate, 49.

Patience of Amsterdam, captured by English frigates, 67n.

Paul, the Chevalier, Mons. Pol, Blake means to fight, 6, 16.

Paulucci, Lorenzo, Venetian Secretary in England:
-, despatches to Sagredo, 1, 4, 7, 11, 14, 17, 19, 21, 24, 27, 31, 34, 36, 38, 42, 45, 47, 50, 52, 54, 57, 59, 62, 65, 68, 71, 75, 79, 82, 85, 88, 91.
-, despatches to Giustinian, 93, 96, 99, 101, 105, 109.
-, letters of Sagredo to, 68, 73, 1655:
-,-, representations against reception of Fiesco, 5.
-,-, asks for money and supplies, 9, 33, 36, 38, 41, 44, 46, 49, 52, 54, 58, 61, 70, 80, 89, 92, 95, 98, 101, 103.
-,-, in debt, 9, 38, 44, 52, 54, 89; desires recall, cannot remain without support, 13, 41 staves off creditors, 73.
-,-, to make representations against granting warships to Turks, 10; speaks to Fleming about, 34.
-,-, explains delay of ambassador, 35; to inform Cromwell of Sagredo's coming, 64.
-,-, exchanges visits with ministers of Denmark and Sweden, 49; visits Lede, 59.
-,-, Levant Co. presents memorial of grievances to, 63, 87; promises to transmit, 64; does so, 107.
-,-, to be released when Sagredo arrives, 64; to inform Cromwell of Sagredo's appointment, 78, 80; informs Thurloe and Fleming, 82; informs Cromwell, 85–6.
-,-, assurances of Venetian good will, 67; hints at help against Turk, 86.
-,-, condemned to retirement to avoid creditors, 71; in greatest difficulties, 75–6; borrows from Salvetti, 103.
-,-, Fleetwood visits, 73; pays respects to Lede, 76; attended entry of Bond, 93; visits him, 96; at banquet of, 101; visited by Bond, 152.
-,-, satisfaction with service, 78; asks to leave before Sagredo's arrival, 79.
-,-, cannot leave if debts unpaid, 79; relief granted to, 82, 122–3; sums due to paid to Sagredo, 88.
-,-, visits Cardenas, 103; acted virtually as resident, 107; Cromwell expresses satisfaction with offices, 124.
-,-, Sagredo's report on what is due to, 107; waiting for remittance before leaving, 112.
-,-, memorial for Galilee handed to, 115; Fleming told of advantage of Sagredo coming soon, 125.
-,-, letter of Cromwell commending, 135; thought to have set out for Venice, 153; went to France and took French wife, 165.
-,-, delay of audience referred to, 177; mission without character was resented, 310.

Payerne, Payerna [Fribourg, Switzerland], conference at, about Vaudois, 120, 123, 131; Swiss deputies leave, 126.

peace between France and Spain, English pleased at disappearance of hopes of, 288; Cromwell's object to throw every obstacle in way of, 296.

Pearl, state ship, left at Naples, 3; being careened, 7; sent home by Blake, 101.

peers. See nobility.

Pegnoranda. See Bracamonte, Gaspard de, count of Peñaranda,

Pelican, state ship, destroyed by fire 184.

Pell, John, English resident at Zurich:
-, continues without business, says embassy from Venice would be welcome, 31.
-, congress at Payerne to hear proposals, 120, 123; not pleased with settlement, 126, 135; proposals for peace settlement, 131.
-, returns to Zurich after staying at Geneva and Berne, 188; too late to upset agreement, 199; only foreign minister left at Zurich, 278.

Pen. See Penn.

Peñalva, conde de. See Meneses, Bernardo de.

Peñaranda, count of. See Bracamonte, Gaspard de.

Peneguiao, count of. See Sa e Menezes, Joao Rodriguez de.

Penn, Pen, William, General of the Fleet:
-, sails from Portsmouth, 5n; talk of joining Blake, 8, 12; going to W. Indies, 18, 20.
-, conjectures about employment, 12; impatience for news of, 20; no news of, 22.
-, to take troops on board at Barbados, 18; going to S. America, 22; Cardenas reports sailing to king, 24; news of confounds Spaniards, 30.
-, ships ready to follow, 26; engaged sailors at St. Kitts, 65.
-, Lede's mission will not divert, 33; news of operations awaited, 60; no despatches received from, 86.
-, reported at Todos los Santos, 37; preparing attack, 46; reported near Barbados, 55; expected to attack Spanish Main, 61; reported capture of S. Domingo, 80.
-, reinforcements constantly reaching, 79; reinforcements for, 101.
-, may be employed to capture plate fleet, 89; reports capture of Jamaica, 97, 111; retired to Jamaica, 108.
-, disaster to force at S. Domingo, 91, 104; can give opinion about holding Jamaica, 110.
-, conquests of not to cause war, 99; plate fleet may escape, 102.
-, unexpected return, 109 123; return cools hopes of conquest, 113; mutual accusations between, and Venables, 116.
-, Council has arrested, 118; Cromwell hesitates about punishing, 119; Blake fears same fate, 126.
-, ill requital of Spanish favours to, 127; Cardenas deceived about expedition, 129; how plate galleons escaped, 131.

Penrose, Thomas, commander of the Bristol, 219.

pepper, cargo of, 175.

Perez de Guzman, Alonso, duke of Medina Sidonia, misfortunes with Armada remembered, 74.

Peronne [Somme, France], Hocquincourt disposed to hand over to Conde, 148n.

Perth, St. Johnstown, co. Perth, Scotland, serious fire and explosion at, 238.

Peru [S. America], threatened by English fleet, 89; proposed squadron to interfere with trade with Mexico, 288.

-, governor of. See Zuniga, Francesco Lopez de, marquis of Baydes.

Petit, M., English minister in France: recalled, may return soon, 18. warrant to pay, 18n.

Petkum, —, resident of Denmark in England, has audience, 48; exchanges visits with Paulucci, 49; jealous of Bordeaux's favour to Giavarina, 203.

Pett, Christopher, Naseby built by, 36n; Richard built by, 48n.

Phenice. See Phœnix.

Philip II., king of Spain, misfortune of Armada in time of remembered, 74.

Philip IV., king of Spain, the Catholic king, 221.
-, Cromwell might co-operate with forces in Flanders, 11; Cromwell asked for trade in Indies and freedom from Inquisition, 129.
-, claims exclusive trade beyond the line, 20; Cardenas informs of sailing of Penn's fleet, 24.
-, claims of merchants against, reprisals not granted for, 29; Cromwell wrote to demanding payment, 34, 51, 96; payment demanded of, 60.
-, attack on Indies will greatly weaken power of, 52; Lede's mission to suspend designs against, 54; Cromwell's demands for good relations with, 60; ambassadors to assure Cromwell of friendliness, 78.
-, English merchants withdrawing from dominions of, 67; Blake tells merchants not to fear reprisals by, 85.
-, English animosity against increasing, 69; orders Monte Alegre to fight to last extremity, 74; infuses energy into arming of Cadiz and Seville, 85.
-, Dutch at Cadiz offer ships to, 78; cautious reception of offers not liked, 81.
-, Peñaranda presents paper to, defending Cromwell's sincerity, 81; asks if of same opinion still, 90.
-, show of friendly relations with, 83; Blake's squadron may unite with fleet of, 84.
-, Cardenas beseeches to recall, 85; pleased at English repulse at S. Domingo, 104.
-, does not suffer from blockade of Cadiz, 92; English deny jurisdiction in Portuguese waters, 96.
-, expressions of regard for Cromwell, 94; Council advises to make war with England, 108.
-, disorder of affairs makes heretics boast, 97; attack on considered act of ingratitude, 113.
-, orders that foreign ministers be advised of measures against English, 114; Cardenas waiting for orders from, 119; orders sequestration of English goods, 152, 311.
-, merchants opposed to rupture with, 119.
-, offers of ships to, will not bargain with subjects, 120.
-, complaint of Cromwell's behaviour to, and justification of steps taken in reply, 127–8, Cardenas complains of ingratitude shown to, 129; reasons for measures against English, 140.
-, share in money brought by galleons, 131.
-, Cromwell will attack in Indies and Flanders, 146; would never yield about Indies, 149.
-, proposed Dutch embassy to, 154–5, 163; English in Flanders would force Dutch into union with, 157.
-, Lamberg informs of offer of empire for Charles, 166; Charles goes to Flanders at invitation of, 196.
-, Cromwell taxes Dutch with selling warships to, 184; Cromwell tries to get Dutch to declare against, 204.
-, unlikely to make peace with Portugal, 196; talk of adjustment with Portugal, 213, 217; Portugal will join English against, 225.
-, informed at Aranjuez of proximity of English fleet, 209; fleet may attack possessions in Africa, 223.
-, Genoese unlikely to incur wrath by concessions to English, 214, 217; merchants desire adjustment with, 245.
-, orders goods for Cadiz and Malaga to be sent overland, 229.
-, receives York at Retire, 240.
-, bulk of plate brought by fleet belongs to, 265; not dismayed by loss, 268; short of money, so cannot help Charles, 280–1; loss upsets all plans of, 283.
-, Mazarin and Cromwell united in designs on dominions of, 309.

Philip, duke of Anjou, leaves Paris with king, 223; talk of marriage with Infanta, 267.

Philip William, Count Palatine of Neuburg, duke of Brandenburg (sic), consents to Manning being executed in territory, 169.

Phœnix, Phenice, state ship, in fleet to south, 220.

Pickering, Picarin, Sir Gilbert:
-, attends Sagredo at entry, 121; chosen to go to French king, 191; but mission postponed, 195.
-, absences from Council, 195n.

Piedmont, Italy, prayers for Protestants who suffered in. 197.

-, Protestants of. See Vaudois.

Pinerolo [Prov. Torino, Italy], Swiss deputies to conference at, 73; settlement made at, 117, 135.

pirates, corsairs:
-, Blake to clear Mediterranean of, 3, 6, 11; Venice appreciates intention, 13.
-, depredations by French, 16, 19; article against in Anglo French treaty, 151.
-, Turkish, chase Genoese ship ashore, 74; Spanish fleet not to treat Turkish as enemies, unless attacked, 96; Dutch fleet sent against, 130; success of Ruyter against, 175.

Pizioni, Tomaso, secretary to the Ambassador Sagredo, services commended, 312n.

plague, particulars of in Flanders and Holland, 134.

plate, Spanish, Dutch helped transport from Indies, 289; English suspect Dutch intention to convoy, 293.

-, -, the captured:
-, weather delays arrival, 276; carts sent to Portsmouth for, 279.
-, to be coined into money, 276; cost of new fleet to be met by, 279.
-, value less than expected, much stolen by sailors, 282.

plate fleet. See under Spain,

plays, forbidden, 138, 165, 312.

plot, conspiracy:
-, rumours of reach Cromwell, 4; suspicion about, great secrecy, 8; efforts to obtain information about, 11, 27; detailed account of published, 20.
-, ships kept at home because of, 19; particulars of elicited, 22.
-, vigilance of government renders vain, 20; mismanagement causes failure of, 22; shows need of vigilance, 25; arrests on account of, 31.
-, fear of leads to destructive fire, 25; Cromwell informs city Council of, 27.
-, Cromwell believes he has destroyed seeds of, 31; Cromwell secures judgment against leaders, 14 condemned to death, 50; knights some for services against, 70.
-, trial and condemnation of offenders, 52; bold defence offered, 53, 55; Cromwell has list of those implicated, 55; death penalty remitted to many, 58, 62; some executed, 62.
-, Cromwell strengthened by failure, 62; Cromwell constantly engaged in unearthing, 69.
-, planned in England, quashed, 264; discovered in London, 294–5; and in Scotland, 295.
-, tribunal set up to keep an eye on, 276; frequent pretence of, to secure opponents and strengthen guards, 312.

Plymouth, co. Devon:
-, prizes brought into, 67n, 160n, 220n.
-, Meadowe sails from, 195.

Plymouth, state ship, in fleet to south, 220.

Poincy, Poensi, seigneur de. See Giraud, Pierre.

Pol, Monsieur. See Paul, the Chevalier.

Poland:
-, English and Scots in despoiled to provide help for Charles, 46; Schaum to plead causo of, 54.
-, Swedes mean to push good fortune against, 97; Swedish successes in impress English, 100; successes celebrated in London, 101; Swedish victories in, 130, 133; English pleased at, 141.
-, little for Sweden to gain in, 146; Bond informs Cromwell about, 157; Sweden establishing himself in, 160, 181; Sweden can attack Turk when firm in, 206.
-, Coyet to join his king in, 180–1, 214.
-, reported defeat of Swedes, 206.
-, Cromwell urges Sweden to make peace with, 232.

-, king of. See John II. Casimir.

-, queen of. See Gonzaga, Maria.

Pontoise [Seine et Oise, France], despatch dated at, 103.

pope:
-, France requires one, not unfriendly, 26; Catholics required to abjure authority of, 54; all English sects at one in hostility to, 307.
-, danger of English power being directed to subjection of, 80.

-, See also Alexander VII.; Innocent X.

popery. See Catholicism, Roman.

Pordenone [Veneto, Italy], Amalteo native of, 138.

Port Ercole [Prov. Grosseto, Italy], pope's fear of English seizing, 198.

Porto Farina, Porto Ferrino [Tunis, N. Africa], account of Blake's action in, 49; damage done to, 63; Blake not restrained by considerations of trade at, 145.

Porto Longone, island of Elba, Italy, feared English attack on, 181; consigned to England by treaty with France, 192; Dunkirker carries English prize to, 240.

Port Louis [Morbihan, France], privateer of, captured, 160n.

Porte. See Turkey.

portrait:
-, of Louis XIV. presented to Sagredo, 121.
-, of Anne of Austria presented to Sagredo, 121.
-, of Cromwell presented to Coyet, 215; presented to Bond, 260.

ports, order closing for 15 days, 231.

Portsmouth, co. Hants:
-, fleet sails from, 5; fleet to assemble at and sail, 184; fleet sails from, 191.
-, Lambert made governor of, 60. carts sent to, for Spanish plate, 279; Spanish prize at, with four frigates, 280.

Portugal and Portuguese:
-, news from, 286, 289.
-, Dutch sending fleet to, 7; Dutch sending fleet to recover Brazil from, 44.
-, peace signed with, 8; ratification brought by Rebello, 40; not fully ratified, 66.
-, envoy expected from with gifts, 66; alterations in treaty to, 83.
-, ship of merchants of, taken by English, 66–7; Dutch dominate in E. Indies, 175.
-, increases fleet, from fear of English, 81; English expect will be compelled to good understanding, 83–4; suspicions replaced by fresh confidential relations, 84; peace reported with, 114; delay in ratification, 171.
-, Blake cruising off coasts, 84, 90, 94, 96, 98, 101, 108, 114, 119, 123, 125; convenience of ports for English operations, 172.
-, Blake gets abundant supplies from, 90; importance to England of good relations with, 119; English require use of ports, 191.
-, possible Swedish rapprochement with, 107; about to ratify treaty with France, 173.
-, increasing ill feeling with Spain, 107; pope urged to detach from league against Spain, 173. threat to, if does not ratify peace, 171–2; Venice wishes particulars of alliance with, 179.
-, question of recognition by pope, 173.
-, Catholics attending mass at embassy of, arrested, 185.
-, mission of Meadowe to, 191, 195; proposed embassy, 191; Meadowe sends report from, 217.
-, talk at Vienna of arranging peace with Spain, 196; talk of adjustment with Spain, 213, 225; negotiations with Spain, 217.
-, English ships for, seized by Dutch, 198; Blake at, with body of fleet, 232.
-, English careless about ratification of peace by, 204; English fleet in, 209.
-, Castile menaced if English in union with, 209; suspicion of union confirmed, 213.
-, objection to granting Protestant church in, 217; satisfactory agreement with, 225; return of envoy to delayed, possible fresh difficulties, 227; another express sent to, 236.
-, to supply cavalry for any enterprise, 225; collecting army against Spaniards, 294.
-, peace with England reported, 230, 233; alliance with England, 232; instructions for pressing on conclusion of negotiations, 236; nothing certain known about, 238.
-, talk at Madrid of alliance with England and France, 240; France wants alliance with, 259; big transactions in winter between France and, 275.
-, treaty arranged with, 242, 244–5; reasons which induced to make treaty, 242–3; money to be paid by, under treaty, 245.
-, use of ports enables fleet to remain out during winter, 250, 252–3; frigates built for regular postal service with, 267.
-, ratification of peace with, 254; may not be announced, 255; Venice interested in, 260.
-, Maynard made consul general for, 267; Meadowe back from, 283; regret at death of king, 289.
-, lesser Spanish prisoners released in, 282.
-, nothing settled about French alliance, 290; alliance in negotiation with, 296.
-, Dutch ships captured in waters of, at beginning of war, 304.
-, English understanding with, for use of ports, 309.

-, fleet of, talk of assisting Blake against Spaniards, 117; offer of ships against England, 173; talk of using against England, 196.

-, -, from Indies, talk of English going against, 204, 213; reported order to take, 207; fears for, an inducement to make treaty, 243; English not to molest, 244.

-, king of. See Alfonso; John IV.

-, merchants of. See merchants, Portuguese.

-, prince of. See Alfonso.

-, ships. See ships, Portuguese.

posts:
-, new regulations for control of, 106. frigates built for regular service to Portugal, 167.
-, posts, master of the, not to give horses without certificate, 267.

Potter, Richard, commander of the Constant Warwick, 220n.

Poznan, Losnania, Poland, surrendered to Sweden, 97.

preachers, ministers:
-, make much of sufferings of Vaudois, 72; prayers for harvest and the fleets, 105.
-, one at Hampton Court denounces Cromwell and imprisoned, 109.
-, object to Catholics attending Venetian embassy, 167, 310.
-, on both sides, denounce Anglo Dutch war, 305.

Presbyterians, Cromwell supports and joins, 114; Vane leader of, 264.

President of the Council. See Lawrence, Henry.

prices:
-, halved in Andalusia by English action, 120.
-, excessive in England, 145; outcry at rise in coal, 194; increased by activities of Dunkirkers, 222.

priests, religious:
-, proclamation for enforcing laws against, 54; to be expelled, 129.
-, execution of Irish, 69; severity with checks spread of Catholicism, 114.
-, from Spanish embassy seek asylum with Sagredo, 128.
-, profit drawn from, otherwise persecuted, 143.
-, an Irish, arrested, accused by two Catholic women, 284.

Primolano [Prov. Vicenza], Sagredo stopped at, 212.

Principe di Toscana, Gran Principe, English ship:
-, captured fighting for Turks, 70; offered vigorous resistance, so lawful prize, 74; merchant appeals for release, 162; given up by Venice, 237, 239.
-, letter upon, 249; Giavarina's office in presenting, 258.

Principessa, in Venetian squadron of ships, 41.

prisoners, Cromwell holds secret conference about great numbers of, 100; some released, most detained, 107.

-, Spanish, do not appear, quarters preparing for, 274, 276; in England, 280; arrive in London, 282.

privateering, securities to prevent, 150.

privy seals. See benevolence,

proclamations:
-, forbidding public market for horses, 31.
-, for executing laws against priests and recusants, 54.
-, banishing royalists from London, 86, 88, 138, 264.
-, suspending letters of marque, 89.
-, forbidding sale of wool to foreigners, 294.

Profeta Sansone, in Venetian squadron of ships, 41.

Protector, the Lord. See Cromwell, Oliver.

“Protector Unmasked”, book denouncing Cromwell, 160.

Protectorate, government:
-, 1655:
-,-, likely to remain unstable, 5, 22; becoming daily more firmly established, 35.
-,-, Venice should send quickly to, 22; little understanding of foreign affairs, 26.
-,-, Charles informed of universal detestation for, 30; report of Fairfax moving against, 43.
-,-, fears that new pope may bring about peace, 53; affairs conducted with great secrecy, 122, 142.
-,-, reverse in S. Domingo may check vast designs of, 94; proposed enquiry into reverse, 116.
-,-, opponents of reduced to impotence in Scotland and Ireland, 95; keeps down nobles and royalists by heavy taxes, 141.
-,-, self interest sole guide to actions of, 103; more feared than loved, 112; severe penalties for slandering, 115.
-,-, chief preoccupation to find money, 115; change of title would increase unpopularity, 132.
-,-, determined to prosecute attempt in Indies, 119.
-,-, takes goods of Catholics but allows them to hear masses, 129.
-,-, proposal to convert to empire of the three kingdoms, 132; no likelihood of immediate change, but better organisation needed, 132.
-,-, believes that existence depends largely on war between Catholic princes, 141; recognition by powers of Europe, 171.
-,-, methods of obtaining information, 143.
-,-, policy to drain Scotland and Ireland of men, 143.
-,-, strict precautions adopted by, 148, 157–8.
-, 1656:
-,-, displeased at return of fleet, 197; regrets delay of fleet and damage to ships, 201.
-,-, not pleased at safe arrival of plate fleet, 198; not pleased about Swiss peace, 200.
-,-, designs of need watching but great secrecy observed, 198; enemies numerous in London, 217.
-,-, severity with royalists, 20, disturbed by proximity of Charles in Flanders, 198, 200, 204, 207, 211.
-,-, rising against in Ireland, 201; quelled, 207.
-,-, attitude to news reports, 207–8; always ready to send money to Swiss Protestants, 223.
-,-, reported quarrel of Blake and Montague spread by enemies of, 217.
-,-, Cromwell can always bring to heel those who try to overthrow, 222; disturbed by fire at Perth, 238.
-,-, extreme need of money, 230.
-,-, Charles doing utmost to embarrass, 232, 253.
-,-, means to keep fleet out till parliament meets, 241; pleased over attack on Malaga, 256.
-,-, concerned at attack on Meadowe, 242; Vane mortal enemy of, 264.
-,-, tiresome slowness in all matters of importance, 250; indications of change in, 259.
-,-, enemies of suggested as members of parliament, 252; enemies of try to make trouble over parliament, 253.
-,-, cautious reserve in negotiations, 259; affair's go on for ever and never receive finishing touches, 291; habitual dilatoriness, 294.
-,-, letters intercepted disclosing king's designs against, 261.
-,-, takes credit for Dutch adjustment with Sweden, 269.
-,-, enemies of say success of fleet fabricated, 274.
-,-, unlikely to discover Catholics method of evading requisitions, 282.
-,-, proposal to make hereditary in Cromwell's family, 282–3; Cromwell declines, 283–4.
-,-, nothing can be known with certainty about, and guesses usually turn out wrong, 293.
-,-, nothing to be obtained from except by importunity, 296; does not respond to embassies, 308.

Protestant faith:
-, parliament decides religion must be, 1; Sweden desires to concert measures for defence of, 93.
-, Sweden desires help for faith, 98, 100; Sweden declares himself champion of, 100.
-, desire of English to exalt, 141; Cromwell's general superintendence of, 157; he poses as chief protector of, 187.
-, facilities for worship in certain French ports, 176.

Protestant powers, appeal to, for Vaudois, 63; desire to help Swiss Evangelical Cantons, 172.

Provence, France:
-, return of French fleet to, 5; talk of Blake going to, 14.
-, Duke of Mercoeur arrives in, to fit out fleet, 21; force preparing in, 59.

Providence, state ship, in fleet to south, 220.

Prussia [German Empire], levies of Scots sent to, 194.

Puntales, Puntal, Cadiz, Spain, fort of, Blake asks for, and refused, 71.



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