Index
S

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1930

Pages

394-408

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'Index: S', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 30: 1655-1656 (1930), pp. 394-408. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=89844 Date accessed: 01 October 2014.


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Sa e Menezes, Joao Rodriquez de, count of Peneguiao, Portuguese ambassador in England, 242.
-, signed peace with England, 171; Rebello went back with, 83; departed leaving a resident, 153, 159.

-, Pantaleone, ambassador's brother, attack on Meadowe in revenge for, 242.

Sacchi, Giacomo, owner of French ship in Turkish fleet, 71.

Sagredo, Giovanni, Venetian Ambassador in France:
-, despatches to the Senate, 6, 9, 16, 21, 23, 26, 30, 33, 36, 38, 41–2, 44, 46, 52, 56, 59, 61, 67, 70, 76–8, 80, 89.
-, despatches of Paulucci to, 1, 4, 7, 11, 14, 17, 19, 21, 24, 27, 31, 34, 36, 38, 42, 45, 47, 50, 52, 54, 57, 59, 62, 65, 68, 71, 75, 79, 82, 85, 88, 91.
-, letters to Paulucci, 68, 73.
-, Paulucci asks for support in obtaining recall, 41; Paulucci asks for help from, 61, 67.
-, chosen to go as ambassador extraordinary to England, 61; promise of money to, 64, 87–8; need to make good appearance, 77.
-, letters of credence for, 64–5; demands payment of arrears or release from burden, 77, 80–1, 89.
-, Paulucci to announce coming, 78, 80; Paulucci asks to go before arrival, 79.
-, Thurloe and Fleming told of appointment, 82; Fleming might go to Venice when arrives, 84; Paulucci informs Cromwell about, 85–6; presents on leaving, 121.
-, tried to mollify Cromwell on point of recognition, 310.

-, -, Venetian ambassador extraordinary in England, 135.

despatches to the Senate, 103, 107, 111–2, 114, 116, 118–9, 121–2, 124, 128–9, 132–5, 137, 139, 141–4, 146–7, 150–2, 154–7, 159–60, 162, 164, 166, 168, 171, 174, 176, 212.

communication with Quirini, 169.

letters acknowledged, 179.

relation of England, 299–312.

expected in London, 89, 103; Paulucci awaiting arrival, 95; report on what is due to Paulucci, 107; Paulucci asks for advance, 112.

need to make a splendid appearance, 89; solatium granted to, 98; starts, nobles with, 103.

to find out meaning of English withdrawal from Naples, 92; money voted for, 107.

Cardenas enquires after, 103; Fleming says coming will serve Venice, 110; ship sent for, 310.

passage of, 111; impressed by ship, 112; proceeds to London, 112; preparing for entry, 120.

tries to remove resentment over delay, 112; to encourage disposition about helping Venice, 120, 131.

Senate promises to consider interests, 113; may be asked to speak for peace with Spain, 126.

public entry of, 121; courtesies shown to, 121–2; first public audience, 124.

Cardenas asks to see, 125; calls, talk with, 129–30; Cardenas left soon after arrival, 309.

priests from Spanish embassy seek protection, 128; to avoid offending Cromwell over, 142.

Bond calls on, 130; also Bordeaux and Nieuport, 130; Haro enquires about, 149.

audience of Cromwell, asks for help against Turk, 136; might have succeeded six months earlier, 137; to try and get ships, 145.

instructions about help, mediation and relations with Sweden, 138–9; and re-establishment of currant trade, 139.

took mission with resignation, 144; considers hopeless and longer stay useless, 145, 152, 159.

Cromwell sends to inform of reasons for war with Spain, 147; Nieuport informs of embassies from Hague, 154.

informs Galilee of promise to pay, 147.

difference with Nieuport over title, 151–2, 154, 181; Giustinian not informed by about Bordeaux, 158.

asks leave to return home, 153, 159; permission granted, 163, 170; received letters of recall, 176.

Schlezer calls on, 160; Bond informs of birth of prince, 166.

merchant applies to for return of Principe di Toscana, sharp reply, 162–3; Cromwell assured English should not serve Turks, 163.

to instruct Giavarina, 163, 168; to inform Cromwell of his appointment, 168.

Cromwell's attitude about Catholics frequenting chapel, 167, 310; Senate's instructions upon, 176.

French enquire about business in London, 171; supposed to have left, 173; returning at once, 176.

leave taking of Cromwell, 177, 181; Nieuport's farewell visit to, 181; unable to attend Bond's banquet, 185.

manner of departure, 177n; satisfaction at courtesy shown to, 187.

stoppage of chapel sends Catholics to Portuguese embassy, 185; efforts to move Sweden against Turks, 192.

starts for Dover, 187; sends to Flanders for passport, 191–2; sails from Dover, 195.

Bond's promise to about diversion, 206.

account of journey, 212; first Venetian ambassador to London since abolition of royal authority, 299.

Irish priest accused of celebrating in house of, 284; praises Pizioni, 312n.

might have succeeded if arrived at more propitious moment, 310–1; present at departure, asks leave to keep, 312n.

-, -, secretary to. See Pizioni, Tomaso. Sagrificio d' Abraham, in Venetian squadron of ships, 41.

sailors, mariners:
-, taken from merchantmen to man fleet, 35–6, 164, 175, 179; Penn engaged at St. Kitts, 65; war in Indies not popular with, 147.
-, impressment of, 147, 155, 175.
-, Cromwell's bravery in dealing with mutiny of, 311.

St. Chrisopher, St. Kitts, West Indies:
-, impossible to defend against English attack, 38; ship from, reports seizure of Dutch ships, 61.
-, Penn engaged sailors at, 65; Spaniards drove English out of, 99.

-, governor of. See Giraud, Pierre, seigneur de Poincy.

St. Denis [Seine, France], Lockhart arrives at, 215, 229.

St. Erth, co. Cornwall, 236n.

St. John, St. Jean [New Brunswick, Dominion of Canada], Hamburg appointed arbitrator upon, 151.

St. Johnstown. See Perth.

St. Kitts. See St. Christopher.

St. Leonard, S. Lonar [Oise, France], despatch dated at, 56.

St. Malo [Ille et Vilaine, France], English ships seized at, 42.

St. Martin [Lesser Antilles, W. Indies], Spaniards drove English out of, 99.

St. Vincent [Algarve, Portugal], Cape:
-, English fleet off, 74, 81, 92, 108; fleet sails from, 78, 94; fleet doubles, 213.
-, Spanish fleet sails for, 104; Spanish fleet off, 114, 117.

Sale [Morocco, N. Africa], Blake to give lesson to pirates of, 71.

Salisbury, co. Wilts, judges attacked at, 37; troops sent to, 38; revolt at put down promptly, 39, 42; commissioners at condemn 14 to death, 50, 53.

Salvetti, Amerigo, resident of Tuscany (Florence) in England, Fiesco never met, 40; receives present of wine from Cromwell, 67; Paulucci borrows from, 103; confirms offer of port to English, 217.

Salway, Richard, major, excused from going as ambassador to Porte, 47 n.

San Diego della Vogga, Jamaica, W. Indies, English take possession of, 97.

San Domingo, Hispaniola, island of, W. Indies:
-, Spanish troops to be landed at, 16; plate fleet warned to take refuge in, 34.
-, Penn intends to seize, 22; Penn supplied for capture of, 51; fleet reported in good order near, 75.
-, capture reported, 80; report confirmed, 83; 86; reported reverse at, 86; report confirmed, 91, 94, 97, 104. 309.
-, fleet said to have left, 89; losses at concealed, 102; governor's report of attack on, 108.
-, Jamaica equal in importance to, 97; Jamaica better than, 111.
-, ingratitude of attack on, 127; Cardenas deceived about, 129; peace broken by invasion of, 140.
-, expected renewal of attack on, 168.

-, governor of. See Meneses, Bernardo de, conde de Peñalva.

San Lonar. See St. Leonard.

San Lucar [Prov. Cadiz, Spain], English abandoning, 71; English ship enters under Dutch flag, 84; English ship from Terra Nova seized at, 123; measures for defence, 168.

San Sebastian [Guipuscoa, Spain], despatches sent to, 24; English traders withdraw from, 71; frigate of captured, 222.

San Stefano, marquis of, envoy of Condé to England, leaves Brussels for England, 56; mission of, 64.

sanitary regulations, at Leghorn, Blake disregards, 9, 10.

Sanson, merchantman, stopped by English off Cadiz, 245.

Sta. Catalina, Sta. Caterina [Prov. Cadiz, Spain], fort of. Blake hangs about, 71; frigate sent to reconnoitre, 92.

Santa Maria, Sta. Marcia [Algarve, Portugal]:
-, English fleet off, 81–2, 92, 108: measures for defence, 168.
-, Spanish fleet sails for, 104. Spanish fleet off, 114, 117.

Sta. Marta [Columbia, S. America], English from Jamaica capture, 174.

Sardinia, island of, 5.

Sarotti, Giovanni Ambrosio, Venetian Resident at Florence:
-, despatches to the Senate, 4, 5, 9. 10, 14, 16, 19, 24.
-, to visit and compliment Blake, 13; prevented by illness, 16; still unwell, 19.

-, Paolo, Venetian Resident at Zurich:

despatch to Senate, 278.

Pell's complimentary visit to, 278.

Satisfaction, state ship, Henry Cromwell crossed to Ireland in, 83.

Savona [Prov. Genova, Italy], fears for, because of Blake's fleet, 6.

Savoy:
-, Blake might go against ports of, 63, 68.
-, operations against Vaudois strongly condemned, 69; Mazarin afraid of offending, 70.
-, money collected for Vaudois may be used against, 69.
-, proposal to send envoy to, 92: envoy sent (Downing), 93; settlement made in, with French help, 117.
-, treatment of ambassador in France, 152.

-, duchess dowager of. See Christina of Bourbon.

-, duke of. See Charles Emanuel II.

-, Protestants in. See Vaudois.

Saxony, German Empire, princes of, at Frankfort, to see ex-queen of Sweden, 123.

Schaum, Constantine, envoy from Transylvania to England, arrival, 54; pays respects, receives despatches to take back, 70.

Scheveningen, Schevening [Prov. S. Holland, Netherlands], Coyet landed at, 215.

Schlezer, Johann Friedrick, agent, of Brandenburg in England:
-, public audience, 157; business to observe Bond, 160,
-, calls on Sagredo, 160; stays on, awaiting instructions, 187; kept waiting for audience, 213.
-, offended by Bordeaux's partiality to Giavarina, 203–4.

Schweitz [Switzerland], canton of, peace made by, 190.

Scioni. See Chauny.

Scios, island of, despatch dated off, 41.

Scotland:
-, vote to Protector for government of, 2; negotiations with rebels broken off in, 29.
-, question of relation of officers in, with London, 15; loyalty of troops in suspect, 18.
-, troops from Ireland landed in, 18; arrests of disaffected continue in, 35.
-, Charles sends confidential agents to, 30; he proposes to go to Hull to be in touch with, 33; Charles said to have gone to, 38.
-, Spaniards preparing trouble for Cromwell in, 75, 153; opponents of government reduced to impotence in, 95.
-, proposed union with England, 99; attached to king, kept down by force, 143.
-, troops from ordered to W. Indies, 102; policy to drain of men, 143; Sweden allowed to raise levies in, 309.
-, free trade with France by treaty, 150.
-, precautions about entering or leaving, 160; breach with Spain causes rising in, 167; rising quashed in, 172; royalists no longer have party or intelligence in, 196.
-, colliers from captured, 194; escort for colliers from, 195.
-, gunpowder sent to, for Charles, 239; conspiracy fomented in, leading lords arrested, 295.
-, whole army of brought to London, 263.
-, parliament proposes to incorporate with England, 284.
-, Fairfax refused to advance with army into, 302; complete victory of Cromwell in, 303.

-, king of. See Charles II.

-, See also Highlands.

Scots:
-, in Poland, despoiled to provide help for Charles, 46.
-, levy of, for Sweden, 101, 143, 150, 156–7, 170, 194, 210, 214.
-, cross to serve France, 231.
-, sent to Jamaica under Bramston, serious affray among, 238.
-, Charles raising regiment of, in Flanders, 263.
-, servants of Charles I., bribed and betrayed him, 299.
-, Charles I. put himself in hands of, sold by, 300.
-, complete defeat by Cromwell, 303.

-, See also Highlanders.

Seaforth, earl of. See Mackenzie, Kenneth.

search, right of:
-, Nieuport wants regulations to avoid trouble over, 155; Dutch fear exercise of, 167; English claim to likely to lead to trouble with Dutch, 195, 225, 246; Cromwell insists on, 232; English claim by virtue of sovereignty at sea, 310.
-, attempt to subject Ruyter to, 210; remonstrance about, 223.

Searle, Daniel, governor of Barbados, reports disaster at S. Domingo, 91; reports fleet has left the island, 94.

secretaries. See under ambassadors.

Secretary of State. See Thurloe, John.

-, France. See Lomenie, Henri Auguste de, comte de Brienne.

sects, number of, in England, 115; 246 religions professed in London, 308; extravagances of, 307–8.

Serra, Sera, Paolo del, and Co., merchants, Galilee's money to be paid to, 147.

Servien, Servient, Abel, French ambassador to Savoy, settlement about Vaudois made with help of, 117.

Sesy. See Harlay, Philippe de, count of Cesy.

Setubal, Tetuval [Estremadura, Portugal], English fleet at, 209; fleet sails from, 213.

Soville [Andalusia, Spain]:
-, English families abandoning, 71; very short of ready money and business, 117.
-, merchants of offer ships and troops to king, 74; merchants dislike king's reserve in receiving offer, 81.
-, king infuses energy into arming of, 85.

Sewster, Robina, daughter of John, Cromwell's niece, married to Colonel Lockhart, 33, 215.

Sherre, —, commander of the Guinea 220.

ships, merchantmen:
-, few enter port of Cadiz, 84; at Amsterdam with news of China, 154.
-, provisions of Navigation Act effecting, 157; Sweden imposes toll on, in Baltic, 175.
-, forbidden to leave English ports for 20 days, 175, 187.
-, from E. Indies, news brought by, 175.
-, with goods for London, carried into Dunkirk, 193.
-, against English can shelter in Spanish ports, 200; cruising in Baltic with Swedish patents, 202.
-, ports closed to prevent sailing of any, 231.
-, with quicksilver from Spain, captured, 286.
-, growth in size and power of, 303; large numbers frequenting Thames, 308; English claim right of searching, 310.
-, caique, 245.
-, feluccas, 255.
-, Barbary, Blake means to seize, 8.
-, Curland, mission to recover, and to offer to Cromwell, 270.
-, Dunkirk:
-,-, one taken, 187; take five English colliers, 191; and three more, 194.
-,-, infesting English coasts, 211; audacity of, many captures, 222; depredations of, 228, 232, 234, 240, 243, 245, 249.
-,-, large warships useless against, 222; so agile slip through blockade, 225.
-,-, some captured, 222; defeated in engagement with English squadron, 234; will recover easily, 235.
-,-, Cromwell indifferent about depredations, 232; trouble London mart greatly, 239.
-,-, squadron caught by English and Admiral sunk, 234; fight and destroy Greyhound, 239.
-,-, raid in Cornwall, 236–7; claim against Dutch for losses to, 260, 262.
-,-, capture English ship near Leghorn, 240.
-,-, Dutch privateer in guise of, 244.
-,-, depredations of stopped by blockade, 255, 262; winter may enable to resume operations, 262.
-, Dutch:
-,-, Charles takes one, for England, 30; French seize for carrying contraband, 45.
-,-, Penn seizes all he meets, outcry about, 56; accused of infringing rights of London merchants, 61; have all transport of goods from Spanish dominions, 167.
-,-, capture of, sailing from Britanny, 66.
-,-, at Cadiz offered to Philip, 78; report of English fleet from, 104.
-,-, bought by English and armed, 101; Spaniards arming some, 168; Cromwell complains of sale to Spain, 184.
-,-, will use Spanish flag for privateering, 138; fears of English claim to search, 155; Cromwell threatens to confiscate, 156.
-,-, fear of Sweden imposing tolls on, 155; fleet to protect rights in Baltic, 178.
-,-, forfeited under Navigation Act Nieuport demands restitution, 157; Nieuport always complaining of molestation of, 163.
-,-, feared molestation by English if war with Spain, 167; Spaniards sent to Holland to buy, 195.
-,-, brings news of plate fleet, 167; Ruyter stopped with convoy of, 210.
-,-, much molested by Turkish corsairs, 175; Turks forcing to serve, 278; representations against serving, 285; assurances upon, 292.
-,-, many obtain patents to privateer under Spanish flag, 199; will not pass through Strait to Cadiz, 233.
-,-, some captured by Swedish privateers in Baltic, 202.
-,-, one wrecked in Tyne with munitions of war, 218; one with plate taken by Blake, 224; one taken in Strait, 230.
-,-, remonstrance against English claim to search, 223; search of resented, 225.
-,-, prey on English in guise of Dunkirkers, 244.
-,-, Blake stops six with Spanish plate, 245; sends them to England under escort, 247.
-,-, Nieuport complains of capture of four and gets restitution, 247.
-,-, English arranged to capture at opening of war, 304; over 1,200 lost in the war, id.
-, English:
-,-, Blake to avenge French depredations on, 6; French seize at Havre and St. Malo, 42; reported seizure in French ports, 43, 46.
-,-, Neuchese releases one, 6; French letters of marque against suspended, 9.
-,-, French take five off Brest, 16; French corsairs take two, 19.
-,-, Spaniards take beyond the line, 20; Spaniards hiring, 27.
-,-, talk of Chiaus from Turkey for, 26, 29, 34; decision to serve Turks greatly reprobated, 29; Turks complain of helping Venice, 35.
-,-, sailors taken from, to man fleet, 35–6.
-,-, Barbary pirates capture one, 39; use of Dutch flag by at San Lucar, 84.
-,-, those leaving Thames stopped, 43; French release those taken, 45; those in Thames allowed to sail, 46.
-,-, proposed relays of, for Eastern trade, 57; number over 4,000, 152; complaint of Dutch outrages on in E. Indies, 260.
-,-, complaint that forced to serve Venice and dismissed unpaid, 64.
-,-, representations against use by Turks, 68, 237, 285; forbidden to serve Turks, 163.
-,-, at Naples, with cloth, 98; one from Terra Nova seized at S. Lucar, 123.
-,-, Spaniards seize in Canaries, 134; Spanish war will expose to great losses, 138; fleet for Canaries, for wine, has to turn back empty, 143.
-,-, will be easy prey for privateers, 138; Spain orders reprisals on, 140; some allowed to leave Spanish ports with full cargo, 144.
-,-, need not unlade guns on entering Garonne, 150.
-,-, sailors taken from, to man fleet, 164, 180.
-,-, Cromwell writes' to France about those seized, 183n.
-,-, Dunkirkers capture five colliers, 191; and three more, 194; Dunkirkers and Ostenders busily arming ships against, 201; heavy losses to, 222, 228, 239–40, 243, 245.
-,-, escort sent out for, 194; squadron to protect against Dunkirkers, 211.
-,-, for Portugal, seized by Dutch, 198; Turks capture two. 228.
-,-, 300 colliers detained at Newcastle by demands of hostmen, 211.
-,-, one from Jamaica brings news, 224.
-,-, anxiety about squadron of, 227, 228.2
-,-, taken by Dunkirkers when under Dutch convoy, 234; burned by Dunkirkers in Cornish port, 236; one from Indies taken, 239; claim against Dutch for. 260, 262.2
-,-, taken by Dunkirkers near Leghorn, 240; Dunkirkers successes against stopped by blockade, 255, 262.
-,-, Charles hopes to form a fleet of those captured, 263.
-,-, representations against serving Turks, 278, 290–1.
-, Flemish, captured fighting for Turks, 70; other nations will go freebooting in guise of, 138.
-, French:
-,-, English claim recognition from, 2.
-,-, Blake means to take all he meets, 3, 6, 8; he takes all that come to Leghorn, 9, 10, 13.
-,-, numerous captures by English of, 6, 27; English fleet takes two, 21; Blake takes on way to Tunis, 39.
-,-, take English prizes into Brest, 16; take two English ships, 19.
-,-, Penn seizes all he meets, 56; reprisals continue against, 76, 83.
-,-, one captured fighting for Turks, 71.
-,-, Spanish reference to patience over seizure of, 128.
-,-, will use Spanish flag for privateering, 138.
-, Genoese, Turkish pirates chase ashore, 74; Blake turns back, 99.
-, Hamburg, Blake has searched, and then asks to join him, 88; Dutch try to pass as, 230.
-, Portuguese:
-,-, English threaten to treat as enemies, 171, 191; inducement for English to capture, 213.
-,-, prize taken by Spaniards, gets away when galleons taken, 271.
-, Spanish:
-,-, Blake means to seize, 8; Blake takes all he meets, 13, 92.
-,-, three sailing for Mexico have troops for San Domingo, 16.
-,-, from N. and E. allowed to enter Cadiz, 99.
-,-, English seize in Downs, 134; English contemplate reprisals on, 155; fleet's orders to stop and capture, 210; danger of, from fleet, 213.
-,-, galley from Cartagena gets into Cadiz with gunpowder, 216.
-,-, (Biscay) captures supply ship for Blake, 248; hope to use captures of, to form fleet for Charles, 263.
-, Turkish, Blake means to seize, 8; brigantine captured by Medina Celi, 85.
-, Venetian, may not bring goods from Turkey to London, 157.

-, the state. See navy.

-, names of:

Advice; Almirante de Cartagena; Amity; Andrew; Anne Bonaventura; Aquila Coronata, Assurance, Basing, Bridgewater; Bristol; Campo d'Occhi; Centurion; City of Amsterdam; Colchester; Concepcion; Concord; Constant Warwick; Contarina; Croce d'Oro; Cullen; Diamond, Don Giovanni dell' Oglio; Dragon; Drake; Elizabeth Maria; Endymion; Ercole; Fairfax; Fame; Foresight; Gainsborough; George; Great President; Greyhound; Guinea; Hampshire; Hannibal; Happy Entrance; Harp; Hope; Jersey; Jesus Marie of Ostend; Joseph, of Ostend; Kentish; Langport; Lyme; Madlen galley; Maidstone; Maria of Ostend; Merchant Delight; Mermaid; Nantwich; Naseby; Newbury; Newcastle; Nightingale; Norwich, Nostra Senora del Socorro of San Sebastian; Patience of Amsterdam; Pearl; Pelican; Phœnix; Plymouth; Principe di Toscana; Principessa; Profeta Sansone; Providence; Rainbow; Re David; Relief; Reserve; Resolution; Richard; Ruby; Sagrificio d'Abraham; Sanson; Satisfaction; Sovereign of the Seas; Speaker; Success; Sultana; Swiftsure; Taunton: Tredagh; Unicorn; Winsby; Worcester.

Shrove Tuesday, measures to keep order on, 32.

Sicily, island of:
-, Blake denied entrance to port of, 33; Blake received supplies and entertainment in, 129.
-, armed brigantine in, 62.

silk:
-, exported from Naples for England, 67; proposal to exchange cloth for, at Naples, 98.
-, may be sold in France, by treaty, 150; Fleming's order at Naples for England, 162.

silver:
-, mines of, at Jamaica, not worked by Spaniards, 97.
-, brought by galleons to Cadiz, 131.

Simonds, John, commander of the Jersey, 220.

-, Symonds, Simens, Thomas, English consul at Zante, currants bought by contrary to order, 105.

Skinner, John, gunsmith, disclosures about plot, 12n.

-, Thomas, gunsmith, examined about plot, 12n.

Skippon, Philip, major general:
-, in chief command of new London militia, 28n, 32.
-, one of the most confidential and accredited members of the Council, 32.

slaves, English:
-, reported release by Barbary pirates, 5; Blake to arrange for release, 7, 31; Blake referred to Constantinople about, 50; Blake to insist on release, 58; he releases many, 66.
-, squadron of fleet sails for release of, 252, 256.
-, Venice asked to obtain exchange of, 291–2.

Smith, —, commander of the Lyme, 219.

Smyrna, Asia Minor:
-, Merchant Delight sailed for, 50. news from, 178.

Sobota [Warsza, Poland] Charles X. wins battle of, 101n.

Soccorso. See Relief.

Socin, Benedict, deputy for Basel to Pinerolo, 73.

soldiers. See army.

Sot. See Tot, Count.

Sound, the, Dutch ships captured in, at beginning of the war, 304.

Southworth, John, Catholic priest, death causes many converts, 129.

Sovereign of the Seas, Naseby larger than, 36.

Spachter (?), commander of the Centurion, 219.

Spain:
-, English free to trade in, 18; Cardenas sent furnishings of Charles to, 125.
-, Cardenas put forward Cromwell's pretensions in, 149; bid against Fiance for Cromwell's favour, 308.
-, murder of Ascham in, 254.
-, Dutch accustomed to mix wool of, with English, 293.
-, war with England more costly to Dutch than that with, 303.
-, dependence on plate fleet, 309.
-, 1655:
-,-, news from, 84, 127.
-,-, talk of attacking comes to nothing, 8; delighted at reprisals between England and France, 16.
-,-, French breach with England would be very advantageous to, 10; England could not hurt France seriously without help of, 11.
-,-, Cromwell's friendliness to will lead to embassy from, 10; English claim to be courted by, 20.
-,-, refuses compensation for English ships taken, 20; Cromwell demands freedom to trade in, 60.
-,-, quarrel with Genoa, 23; adjustment with Genoa, 40; desire to help Venice against Turks, 59.
-,-, reported arrangement with Blake for squadron of sliips, 24.
-,-, fear in, for plate fleet, 24, 30, 46.
-,-, Mazarin more free to attack if free from fear of England, 45; war with France leaves French ports at England's mercy, 56.
-,-, French believe English attack on will weaken greatly, 52, 61; alarm at Blake's return to, 71.
-,-, Cromwell's aim to fan flame between France and, 56; de Haro's explanation of Cromwell's attitude to, 78.
-,-, Cromwell courted by, 56; proposed payment to divert fleet from W. Indies, 66.
-,-, English merchants leaving, 71; plate fleet awaiting orders from, 108.
-,-, efforts to calm excitement in, 74; but intend to arm, 75; and to use Charles, 75, 78.
-,-, unequal to burden of war with England, 79; consternation and perplexity in, 81; whole country watching crisis, 82; indications of rupture with, 84–5.
-,-, Blake refused offer from to careen ships, 84.
-,-, everyone slandering, in London, 85; Peñaranda abandons opinion that Cromwell will not attack, 90; desire to break with English, 108; sequestration of English goods in, 111, 114, 116, 123, 127, 135, 139, 143, 310.
-,-, trying to remedy old mistakes with Dutch, propose alliance, 88, 104.
-,-, operations in Indies not intended to make war with, 99; satisfaction in, at repulse at S. Domingo, 104.
-,-, relations with affect those with France, 107; active negotiations with Charles, 111.
-,-, relations with Portugal worsen, 107; Bordeaux eggs on English against, 122; he profits by rupture with, 134, 138, 141.
-,-, loss of supremacy in own waters, 108: consequent loss of prestige, 111; Blake reinforced to approach ports, 119.
-,-, plate fleets life blood of, 113.
-,-, does not mean war by sequestration of English, 116; if war England will employ all forces against, 117.
-,-, England combined with France would give formidable shock to, 117; matters moving to definite rupture with, 125; failure and discontent at home may force accommodation with, 125.
-,-, Sagredo suggests mediation with, 126; English playing for time with, 128; mediation left to Sagredo's discretion, 139.
-,-, breach with wall make England more friendly with Sweden, 130, enmity with stands in way of help for Venice, 133; war with destroys hope of help, 145.
-,-, merchants suffer severely from rupture with, 133; Cardenas gets petition presented upon, 137.
-,-, English will prosecute hostilities against in every quarter, 134; and mean to make repent of hostile acts, 137.
-,-, impression that war with will bring great harm to England, 138.
-,-, statements on both sides justifying war with, 140; claim that England began, 144.
-,-, fleet preparing to cruise off coast of, 140; war plans against, 144.
-,-, France not to make peace with without consent of England, 141; pope's efforts for peace with France, 141.
-,-, tried hard to make Cromwell break with France, 142; reported advances to Dutch to unite against England, 146.
-,-, English government keeps inconspicuous agent in, 143; communication of Giustinian and nuncio with, 145.
-,-, Dutch not pleased at idea of English war with, 146, 156, 167; Cromwell's reasons for attacking, rather than France, 146–7.
-,-, English preparations to ravage coasts, 152; making trouble in England sole means of defence, 153; envoy from for adjustment, 169.
-,-, Dutch embassy to, reasons for, 155, 166; Cromwell warns Holland to leave off treating with, 156.
-,-, France not to make peace separately with, 156; Bordeaux in Paris to arrange about war with, 158; England determined to prosecute war with, 159.
-,-, propose to send usual fleet to Indies, 159; declared war because of attack on Indies, 309.
-,-, merchants suffer from breach with, 159; Sagredo arrived at moment relations broken off with, 309, 311.
-,-, supposed designs of France and England against, 162.
-, 1656:
-,-, ships completed to sail for, 163; stirred by report of fresh attack on Indies, 168.
-,-, reported arrival of plate fleet in, 167, 169, 196, 198, 200.
-,-, breach with stirs up Highlanders, 167; English offered freedom of worship in ports of, 173.
-,-, measures for repairing coast defences, 168; peace with France means war with, 169.
-,-, Venice wishes to be kept informed of relations with England, 170; English expected to attack dominions in Mediterranean, 181; likely to strike at coast of, 184.
-,-, pope urged to detach Portugal from league against, 173; believe Anglo French treaty cannot be carried out, 189.
-,-, Spanish merchant goes to from London to sound ministers about peace, 178; relaxed severity to English trade, 185.
-,-, alarm in about English fleet, 183; fleet has orders for landings in, 190; less fear of fleet in, 229.
-,-, decide to reply to hostile preparations by privateering, 187; bitter denunciation of Cromwell in, 189; laughs at Cromwell's disappointment over plate fleet, 196–7.
-,-, French to co-operate with English fleet against Ocean seaboard of, 193; English fleet should soon be off coasts, 204.
-,-, talk at Vienna of making peace between and Portugal, 196; adjustment would bring Portuguese to aid of, 217.
-,-, Charles confers with ministers of at Brussels, 202, 204–5, 207; will give support and pension but no alliance, 202; demands of Charles referred to, 205, 211; Charles waiting to hear from, 232, 242.
-,-, belated preparations against English attack, 203; English fleet off, defenceless state, 209.
-,-, English determination to injure as much as possible, 209; English fleet to cruise about coasts of, 210; capture of Iviza would ruin trade in Mediterranean, 216.
-,-, troops for Italy kept at Madrid, 213; invariable tardiness of decisions, 229; criticism of government over disaster to galleons, 268, 271.
-,-, France wishes to keep York to fight against, 214; hopes of winning over Blake, 253.
-,-, Dutch action might dissipate fear of joining against England, 218; heavy captures by Dunkirkers since war with, 228, 245.
-,-, rumour of adjustment with Portugal dissipated, 225; vigorous resistance shown whenever English approach, 241.
-,-, Cromwell asks Dutch to declare between him and, 234; Dutch will remain neutral in war with, 244.
-,-, four squadrons blockade chief ports, 241; English fleet to remain in waters of during winter, 249.
-,-, talk of parliament approaching peace with 244; English people long for peace with, 252.
-,-, heavy English losses of ships and men in war with, 249; Cromwell urges parliament to support war with, 266.
-,-, ratification of treaty with Charles sent from, 251; Charles wants to make attempt with help of, 263, 275.
-,-, people on coasts fear Barbary corsairs more than English, 257; fleet to watch coasts and harass shipping, 277, 280.
-,-, facilities given in ports of, to troops of Charles, 263; Charles able to equip troops by adjustment with, 273.
-,-, peace negotiations with France, 265; Lockhart perplexed by, 267.
-,-, parliament to discuss affair of, war likely to continue, 269; parliament approves war with, 271, 287; discussing means of waging, 273, 275, 279, 281.
-,-, capture of galleons one of most serious blows ever received by, 273; Blake to prevent second fleet reaching, 283.
-,-, ministers of seeking money to set in motion projects of Charles, 278; can contribute little, so projects lanquish, 287; unable alone to ensure their success, 297.
-,-, blockade of prevents sending escort for plate fleet, 280; ship with quicksilver from captured, 286.
-,-, no happy position, blows threatened against, 288; Dutch can no longer serve, defenceless through lack of money, 289; suspicion that Dutch squadron intended to assist, 293; Ruyter's fleet sailing for, 296.
-,-, breach between English and Dutch would suit exactly, 293.

-, clergy of, offer 70 warships to king, 120.

-, Council of State:

decides to send money to pay claims of Ricaut, 34; frequent deliberations about English intentions, 74.

advises king to fight English, 108; all attention devoted to repairing disasters in Flanders, 120.

-, fleet:

talk of Blake uniting with, 68, 84; merchants of Seville and Cadiz offer ships and men for, 74.

English bargain with Turks to attack, 85; not to attack Turkish corsairs, 96.

Blake sends ship to reconnoitre, in Cadiz, he speaks derisively of, 96.

if provoked by English, will fight, 96; sails out of Cadiz, 99, 104; English know of arming, 106, 110.

most of Blake's ships more powerful than, 108; Blake reinforced to face, 110; Blake to attack, 117.

mingled with English fleet, 108; weather will force to leave station, 110.

not to attack English, 116; ships armed to resist English, 127; talk of equipment of great fleet, 129.

inaction causes sickness in, 117; suffers from lack of food, 123.

ships of war to accompany fleet to Indies, 159.

none ready for defence, 183; attempt to buy Dutch ships for, 195; decision to buy 10 war ships, 229.

Charles may bring ships to reinforce, 199.

galleons go out to attack English, saved by calm, 238; ten galleys got together at Cadiz against English, 257; ordered out to help plate fleet, 265.

ships equipped as escort for galleons from Spanish Main, 271.

squadron sent to Coruña equal to engaging, 288.

Blake strengthened to be certain of defeating, 296.

-, Infanta of. See Maria Theresa.

-, king of. See Philip II.; Philip IV.

-, merchants of. See merchants, Spanish.

-, the plate fleet:

fears for safety, 24, 30, 46; reported safe arrival, 60; ordered to avoid Cadiz, 74.

chief object of Penn to intercept, 51; thought to have escaped Penn, 56.

Blake sailing to Cadiz to intercept, 69; precautions to protect from Blake, 71.

to fight to last extremity, 74; if English took might be necessary to pass over injury, 79.

representations in London of desire to secure, 78; English object to capture, 83; English could lie in wait for, off coast, 85.

traders of London interested in, 78; Montealegre arming galleons for, 90.

galleons will not expose themselves incautiously, 79; bargain with Turks to share booty of, 85.

Blake urges Hamburgers to join against and share plunder, 88; not venturing to risk the voyage, 90; Blake will redouble watch for, 91; Blake waiting for, 96, 113, 126–7.

orders for countermanded, 91; English hopes of capturing, 102; Blake throws away chance of taking, 104.

Jamaica hoped to facilitate capture, 97, 102; attack on suggested by French, 113.

waiting for orders from Spain, 108; Spanish Council trying to secure safe passage for, 120; expected to reach Cadiz in December, 132.

two galleons reach Cadiz with rich cargoes, 131; evades English fleet and gets to Cadiz, 144; English designs on, 171, 174, 185, 189, 207; instructions to fleet about, 180.

English find great difficulty in intercepting, 144; reported arrival in Spain, 167, 169, 197, 204.

great value, as for two years, all Europe interested in, 169–70; Dutch anxious about as deeply interested, 186.

France profits by delay in passage, 170; reported start of, 189; arrived, 196, 200; merchants rejoice at arrival, 198.

delight at Cromwell's disappointment over, 197; rumour of capture, 207; no more hope of taking, 208.

only three galleons arrived, hope of taking rest, 209. English engage and capture galleons of, 265, 271, 369; government criticised about, 268; parliament encouraged by success against, 273.

Dutch suspected of intention to protect, 293.

permanence and life of Spanish body depend on, 309.

-, -, commander of. See Montealegre.

-, plate fleet, the second, Blake to lie in wait for, 280, 283; Dutch may be induced to convey to Spain gold of, 293, 297; Blake to attack Ruyter if attempts to convoy, 296.

-, ships of. See ships, Spanish.

-, Venetian instructions to ministers in, 170, 255.

-, New:
-, Penn's fleet threatens, 89; fears for fleet from, 268; escort for, 271.
-, ships from, reach Cadiz safely, 131; Monte Alegre sails for, 132.

Spaniards:
-, money supplied by for Blake's fleet, 3, 11; Blake's acts show confidential relations with, 6; reported understanding of Blake with, 21.
-, troops sent to San Domingo, 16; grave anxiety about West Indies, 24; confounded by attack, 30.
-, forbid foreign trade in W. Indies, 18; take English ships beyond the line, 20.
-, peace with England will enable France to attack, 23; losing hope of war between England and France, 24.
-, ministers of becoming uneasy about Blake's intentions, 29, 71; uneasy about Cromwell's intentions, 68.
-, Ricaut asks for letters of marque against, 34.
-, French preparing squadron capable of dealing with, 42; Blake to act in concert with against French, 59.
-, fears for Cuba, but if ports not attacked will pretend there is no formal war, 65; W. Indies expedition expected to force to advantageous composition, 69.
-, affecting friendly relations with Cromwell, 84; Blake disgusted at treatment received from, 94.
-, Penn's force defeated by, at S. Domingo, 91, 94, 118, 116; can expel English if attack while weak, 122, 125.
-, never worked mines of Jamaica, 97; difficult to dislodge from Indies, 117.
-, operations in colonies have never meant war, 99; indebted to Providence for success over English, 116; have no information about Jamaica, 123.
-, Cromwell no enemy to, 117; English say will repent of sequestration, 119; proposed retaliation against goods of, 134.
-, talk of having Charles with forces, 119; seem much incensed, 126. could allow war in Indies and keep peace at home, 125; seize English ships in Canaries, 134; allow English ships to sail with entire cargo, 144.
-, hope to bring English and Genoese to terms by violence, 135; no warlike preparations in. Flanders, 149.
-, perpetual war between English and, in Indies, 140; considerations of trade with did not prevent expedition to Indies, 145.
-, English claim must sue for peace, 144; not in position to do much harm to English, 149.
-, threatened with ruin by union of France with Cromwell, 146; offer Charles help and asylum in Flanders, 153.
-, signs of close relations with Dutch, 156; propose union with Dutch and Denmark, 165, 182.
-, declare attack on Indies breach of peace, 159; Scots rebels expect help from, 167.
-, attack on Italy would drive pope into arms of, 164, 172; pope fears complications from interest with Swiss, 166.
-, money advanced to, on strength of fleet, 170.
-, French fear intrigues with Cromwell for peace, 171; pope told of negotiations for peace, 173.
-, Portugal wishes to profit by rupture with, 171; insurrection in Ireland plotted by, 201.
-, arming of will light lire in Italy, 172; hope attack in Italy will relieve them in Flanders, 186.
-, realise consequences of war, make things easy for English, 174, 185; doubtful what advantages can get from Charles, 196.
-, hopeful of breach between English and Dutch, 186; rely on internal troubles of England, 192.
-, give Charles authority to issue letters of marque, 191; do not allow him to go to Dunkirk, 192; reprisals to advantage of, 193.
-, Grand Duke says union with Dutch only antidote against Cromwell, 193; Ruyter convoyed plate to Flanders for, 217.
-, send to Holland for war ships, 195; support House of Orange against English alliance, 202.
-, Charles invited to Flanders by, 200; negotiations of Charles with expected to keep Cromwell busy, 219.
-, parties of cavalry make Flanders unsafe, 212.
-, Dutch ship wrecked with munitions of war for, 218; Dutch ship wrecked with plate of, 224.
-, English want to bridle by having port near Strait, 223; laugh at inaction of English fleet, 230.
-, Dutch joined with might trouble England, 228; Dutch ships caught taking quantity of plate for, 245–7.
-, do not believe in Anglo Portuguese peace, 230; defensive alliance made with Portugal against, 232.
-, intention to do every possible injury to, 241, 277; injury done to, at Malaga, 256.
-, victory over French at Valenciennes, 246. sure to put Dunkirk in good state of defence, 249; wish to consign Dunkirk to Dutch, 297.
-, Dutch accused of being bribed by, to abandon English ships, 260.
-, capture of galleons seriously reduces strength, 272; prisoners disclose plans of, 282.
-, blow inflicted on upsets Charles's plan of invasion, 280; loss amounted to 10 million pieces of eight, 283.
-, Portuguese assembling army against, 293.
-, Lockhart consults with Cromwell on best means of harassing, 296.

Spartel Cape [Tangier, N. Africa], Blake withdraws to, 104.

Speaker. See Lenthall, William; Widdrington, Sir Thomas.

Speaker, state ship, in fleet to south, 220.

spies:
-, use of by Cromwell's government, 143, 158, 261–3, 307.
-, Cromwell has about the king, at Bruges, 263.

Spinola, —, Genoese ambassador, large train of, 77.

Spithead, Penn arrives back at, 109n.

Stainer, Stanner, Richard, commander of the Speaker, 220.

Stalimene. See Lemnos.

Stamford, Stanford, earl of. See Gray, Henry.

States. See Netherlands.

Stoakes, Stokes, John, commander of the Rainbow, 220.

Stockar, John Jacob, deputy for Schaffhausen, to Pinerolo, 73, informs English and Dutch ambassadors of settlement made at Pinerolo, 118.

Stockholm, Sweden, envoy leaves for England, 20.

Stokes Bay, co. Hants, Pelican destroyed by fire in, 184n.

Storey, Story, Edward, commander of the Hampshire, 220.

storms. See weather.

Stoupe, Jean Baptiste, in England from Vaudois, 76.

Strait, the. See Gibraltar, Strait of.

Strickland, Walter, attends Sagredo at entry, 121.

Struch, Rudolph van, envoy from Curland, arrival, uncertain character, 270; expecting audience, 275, 277; has audience, on sea affairs and trade, 286.

Stuart, house of:
-, desire for restoration, 22.
-, expulsion from France, condition of treaty, 23, 46, 148, 180; demand delays treaty, 28.
-, Dutch bound not to give asylum to, 59.
-, jealousy caused by connection with Orange, 100; severe penalties for speaking well of, 115; parliament passes bill against, and supporters, 269, 276.
-, Cromwell fears France because of, 146.
-, chagrin of supporters, at failure of plot in Ireland, 261.
-, supporters of. See royalists.

Stuart, James, first duke of Richmond, burial of, 51; broken by king's death, 52.

Success, bringing silk and horses from Naples, 67n; arrives in Thames, 98; sent back by Blake, 101.

sugar:
-, brought to Portugal, 172, 243; brought to London, 175.
-, fondness of English for, 243; increased production at Barbados will reduce price, 309.

Sultana, captured at Dardanelles fight, 70.

Supino, Rafaello, Jew of Leghorn, prime mover for admission of Jews to England, 160n.

Susa, Suza [Tunisia, N. Africa], Blake said to have gone to attack, 66.

Sweden:
-, proposed embassy to ratify peace with, 73; agent sent to, 94; to get information about naval and military forces, 95.
-, Cromwell's supicion of forces for, 91. better understanding with, 91; formidable with strong forces and alliance with England, 97; Dutch nervous of sea power, 100.
-, army successes in Poland, 97, 100; hoped to be shield and promoter of Protestant faith, 100.
-, English and Scottish levies for, 101; difficulties over, 106, 210; royalists enlist gladly for, 187.
-, proposed advances to Portugal, 107; reported alliance against House of Austria, 122; cooperating with England against Austria, 186.
-, peace reported with, 114, 122; alliance in negotiation with, 178.
-, relations with England likely to grow closer, 130, 156; Venice desires information upon relations with, 139; victories regarded as mutual conquest, 141; English hope by union with to make Catholicism tremble, 143; ambitions likely to bring suffering and ruin on Christendom, 146.
-, England's dose relations with, but no ambassador, 152; Bordeaux to tighten relations with, 156.
-, Dutch embassy to, 154–5, 171; objects of, 155; Dutch fear predominance in Baltic, 155–6, 170–1.
-, emperor bound to break with, 166; relations with England occupy all northern powers, 170; Dutch uneasy about, 184.
-, Cromwell offering ships to, 170, 176; Lisola reports objects of union with England, 182.
-, Sultan impressed by successes of, 179.
-, Cromwell sending embassy extraordinary to, 186, 191; alliance with arranged, 231; Venice interested in, 260.
-, news of traty with expected, 192; treaties with kept secret, 250; apparently a close alliance, 251.
-, reported rout by Poles, 206; Bond's display to show report false, 218; Dutch belief in defeat resented, 231.
-, Dutch involved in war with over Danzig, 248; talk of ships going to Baltic to help, 249; warning to Dutch not to oppose, 262.
-, Cromwell wishes to alter some articles and tighten alliance with, 254; neglect despite intimate relations with, 270.
-, France wants alliance with, against emperor, 259; big transactions with, in winter, 275.
-, Cromwell selects regiment to go to and allows levy of three regiments for, 274.
-, Curland wishes to be included in treaty with, 286; alliance in negotiation with, 295.
-, Fleetwood receives instructions and acts for, 286–7.
-, nothing settled about French alliance with, 290; closest relations cultivated with, 310.

-, fleet of, Cromwell asked for ships to reinforce, 186, 190; ships granted to, terms, 190; precursors of, plundering indiscriminately in Baltic, 202; Dutch sending squadron to Baltic to face, 231.

-, king of. See Charles X.; Gustavus Adolphus.

-, prince of. See Charles, prince of Sweden.

-, queen of. See Christina.

-, queen mother of. See Maria Eleanor of Brandenburg.

Swiftsure, state ship, in fleet to south, 220.

Swiss:
-, pope apprehensive about movements among, 166; Cromwell has perfect correspondence with, 172.
-, much discussion over troubles, 178; fears of descent upon Italy, 188; reported adjustment between, 190.

Switzerland, Helvetian Cantons:
-, rupture among, dangerous, 172; pope expects no advantage from peace efforts in, 183; peace in assured, 199; peace confirmed, 200; affairs tending to rupture, 223.
-, French mission to, 178; prayers for Protestants who died in war of, 197.

-, Catholic Cantons:

pope sends money to, 182; England suspects Savoy of helping, 188.

defending themselves with courage, 190.

-, Protestant Cantons, Evangelical Cantons:

possible arrangement with, against Savoy, 69; ambassadors from for Piedmont, 73; ambassadors at Turin, 90; ambassadors make settlement, 117, 135.

support may win clemency for Vaudois, 77.

Cromwell will help Vaudois if matter not settled according to example of, 93.

Dutch ambassador advocates diet of, 118; hold congress at Payerne, 120.

English cherish relations with, 141; Bond says Cromwell must not leave without support, 166; Cromwell avoids ostentatious support of, 178.

ask help of Cromwell and Dutch, 173; which granted, 174; Venice anxious to know of England's relations with, 176, 179.

likely to turn scales in Italy in favour of Lutheranism, 178; Cromwell's relations with distasteful to pope, 182.

write to emperor to justify action, 182.

Cromwell's help promised to, 188–9; money sent to, 190; Pell tried to spread poison among, against peace, 199; England ready to supply money to, 223; good understanding with, 310.

Symonds, Simens. See Simonds.

Syria, 95.
-, proposed depot in Barbary for trade with, 57.



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