Venice
March 1658

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1931

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169-181

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'Venice: March 1658', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 31: 1657-1659 (1931), pp. 169-181. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=90008 Date accessed: 28 November 2014.


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March 1658

March 1.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
145. Francesco Giavarina, Venetian Resident in England, to the Doge and Senate.
After the dissolution of parliament the Protector has been so agitated that he was unable to get any rest day or night. In the fear that this prolonged vigil might lead to some serious illness it was decided to induce sleep by remedies. Accordingly they gave him opium, but this affected him so seriously that he went off into a faint, which left him half dead for many hours, and when he came to he was exceedingly weak with some rise of temperature. This compels him to keep his room, withdrawn from all business and to try and get all the quiet that he can for his seriously troubled spirit.
The secretary of state is also in a poor state of health, confined to his bed still after a long illness, which has so affected his spirits as to leave him irresolute (essergli stati levati li spiriti in maniera che lasciatolo quasi vacilante). It seems unlikely that he will ever be well again and so it appears they will have to find some one else to take his place, unless the powerful remedies applied restore his senses and enable him to resume his duties. On this account also his Highness is not a little distressed, for he loves the minister dearly and trusts him more than anyone else, the more so because if it was necessary to find a substitute it would not be easy to come across one possessing his qualifications, who is equally devoted to his Highness.
Besides all these circumstances to trouble Cromwell's spirit another has occurred this week which has thrown the Court into mourning. His Highness's new son-in-law Rich, who married his youngest daughter last autumn, has been suffering for some time from a hectic fever, which sapped his strength and yesterday he passed away, lamented by all for his rare qualities and for the great expectations generally entertained of him.
The suspicions reported still persist and indeed increase. Thus other officers have been dismissed and some sent to the Tower for improper answers to the Protector when he sent for them and enjoined them to be peaceful and to abstain from fomenting trouble which might produce the worst consequences to the present state. All the regiments and all the companies have been purged of Anabaptists, as men who profess diabolic principles and encourage disorder, who are constantly promoting disturbances, from whom this government cannot fail to receive serious injury.
His Highness's eldest son has been appointed general in Scotland in place of Monch, who has been summoned to London. He does not seem much inclined to obey, offering many excuses to relieve himself of the duty of coming to England.
The commissioners of the king of Sweden have been engaged here a long while to settle some maritime questions outstanding between the merchants of the two countries. They have been working under the impression that the Swedes would find they were owed a considerable sum in sterling by the English. But now the accounts have been made up and all the particulars investigated it is found that they were greatly mistaken, since they are found to be indebted to the English for loss inflicted on trade and otherwise during the war between this country and the Dutch, for over 80,000l. of their money here, a sum which will never be paid, or at least only a fraction of it over a very long period.
The delayed ordinaries of Flanders arrived the day before yesterday, though with two missing. By these the Court has learned of the first audience at the Hague of the Resident Dounin, in which he expressed the desire of his master ever to preserve the best relations and neighbourliness, in spite of the stream of information which reached him from the enemies of this state that their only care is to extract advantage by fishing in troubled waters and by stirring up ill will everywhere against the present government. He reports that he had a splendid and distinguished reception, and that commissioners have been appointed to treat with him. The issue of his negotiations will appear with the passage of time.
The Most Christian ambassador has been asking for audience of the Protector for more than four weeks, but in view of present emergencies it has been postponed, with little hope that he will get it soon. Portugal is distressed to see his negotiations languish, no progress being made. Denmark is unable to obtain access to his Highness to ask permission to raise levies, which will very probably be refused him. The envoy of Queen Christina is not making any progress either. He came expecting to get done in a few days, but finds that he will have to remain months. He wants nothing but a reply to his credentials to enable him to return to his mistress, especially as it appears that Cromwell has no inclination to listen to his requests which are for ships and troops for the fanciful enterprise against Naples, conceived by that sovereign. I also am longing for an opportunity to see the Protector and fulfil my instructions, to which are added those which reached me yesterday by France with the missives of the 12th and 19th January, in accordance with which I will perform the offices directed with the Levant Company.
London, the 1st March, 1658.
[Italian.]
March 1.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
146. Giovanni Battista Ballarino, Venetian Secretary at the Porte, to the Doge and Senate.
The Vizier will do his utmost, bending all his faculties to the task. He has decided to make a protest to the ambassadors of France and England, and to the resident of Holland that they must not give the fleet of your Excellencies the benefit of their ships, but I believe that the reply is ready for him to the effect that it is impossible to prevent the owners of ships from disposing of them as they see fit.
Adrianople, the 1st March, 1658.
[Italian; deciphered.]
March 8.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
147. Francesco Giavarina, Venetian Resident in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Although the Protector has recovered from the disorders which troubled his body these last days he is not free from agitation of spirit. Every day discloses fresh signs of revolution, and as these arouse increasing suspicion and misgivings in his Highness so they force him to devote all his attention to provide the requisite remedies in time before the plots which the malcontents keep contriving against the present rule gain a firmer footing. This week by order of the secret council, a colonel named White has been sent to the Tower under suspicion of having a hand in some conspiracy. (fn. 1) Others of less importance, suspected of being accomplices in an affair of such consequence, have been arrested. All of these are being examined with the utmost severity in order to find out from their depositions the details of the plot and thus gain some definite basis to know where the remedy should be applied, so that it may be done without loss of time.
Other seditious libels have been recently distributed at night and in the dark among the troops at the Tower of London and of the companies kept for the guard of other posts in this city, full of the principles of sedition and rebellion, to try and pervert the soldiers and people and disturb the repose of this state. Express orders have been issued to all the regiments of foot and horse quartered in this city and round about to keep themselves in readiness to meet any disturbances that may arise. To this end they keep drilling the troops with frequent reviews to enable them with greater courage and vigour to defend the repose of the country which its enemies are making every effort to disturb.
Although at the dissolution of the last parliament one heard it said that the Protector would never want to have another, it seems that he is now thinking of calling another to meet in a few months. The reason may be in the objection shown by the people to pay the very heavy taxes with which they are burdened, and it is thought that they will more readily obey parliament than the Protector. In order not to irritate them more under existing circumstances he is now acting with great moderation and does not resort to the severe measures to bend them to his wishes that would have been adopted at another time.
On this subject also Cromwell finds himself very embarrassed, turning over in his mind what persons shall compose this new congress. In any case he will give seats to all those who took his side in the last one, and fill up the number with other friends who belong to his party. Many are of opinion that if a new parliament is summoned it will be very difficult to get it together, on the assumption that the constituences will not be anxious to nominate members to form that body, seeing that if they do not meet with the Protector's approval they can be rejected without difficulty, and even when they meet and try to act for the good of the country they are liable to be dismissed and sent home on shallow pretexts, with shame to themselves and to those who elected them and sent them to London as their representatives.
The news which has reached this city of the successes of the king of Sweden against the Dane delights not only the minsters of that monarch but the government here also because of their share in the interests of the Swede whose prosperity they desire in all his affairs. It is said that he has advanced so far into Denmark that in addition to capturing the island of Feonia and some small one adjoining it, he has set foot in Zealand, where Copenhagen the capital is situated. The capture of the islands is put beyond doubt by the particulars which have arrived this week confirming news received earlier; the news about Zealand is the first that has come and further confirmation is awaited.
While waiting an opportunity to see the Protector, like all the other ministers who sigh for an audience, I have not forgotten to perform the office with the members of the Turkey Company prescribed in the ducal missives of the 12th January. But their replies are merly couched in general terms, entirely devoid of substance, leaving no hope of obtaining what would be so desirable for the interests of your Serenity, which comprise those of all Christendom. Any good result is thwarted by the trade which this mart carries on with the Turks and by the merchants' hopes of gain; however, some advantage for the most serene republic may be derived from the English ships which are sailing the Mediterranean to humble the pride of the Barbary corsairs.
I told the president of the Company and the other merchant interested in the ships of this nation in the state's service what the Senate directed me to say in the letter of the 19th. They seemed satisfied with what they heard, but replied that only 4000 ducats have been paid them on account for the very large sums due to them. Such an amount was negligible and if this went on they would not be able to keep up the ships and keep them supplied with all they require. Thus I fancy now one of the ships has lost its captain, who was killed in the last fight, another will be sent out from here to take the ship and bring it back to England, as they threaten to do with the other, if payment is witheld any longer. (fn. 2) All my arguments proved quite useless, as they have received such a bad impression from their agents at Venice.
London, the 8th March, 1658.
[Italian.]
March 15.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
148. Francesco Giavarina, Venetian Resident in England, to the Doge and Senate.
With news arriving daily of the activities of King Charles beyond the sea to prepare a vigorous attack on these realms, favoured by present circumstances when all the people are showing their hatred of the government and animosity against it, the Protector's uneasiness is constantly increasing. Thus the Council of State meets without intermission and every hour of the day and many of the night are consumed in studying the remedies which can be applied to avoid the disorders which are considered imminent and inevitable involving a great upheaval. To prevent any mischief being done by those who are known to favour the king a proclamation has been issued this week by order of the Council directing all Catholics and royalists to leave this city and withdraw to their country houses within the space of 12 days and not to go more than 5 miles away from them on pain of being punished as disturbers of the public quiet. (fn. 3) Since this decree cannot be applied to those who have no country houses who have always lived in London, in their own houses, in rented houses or in lodgings, and who cannot therefore go away, another proclamation has been issued directing all those who let houses or apartments to supply a note about the character of their tenants, whether they are Catholics or Protestants, with other circumstances, to show to which party they incline. (fn. 4)
While these activities serve to show the apprehensions at present entertained by the Court, men are talking publicly everywhere of the coming of the king of Scotland, as if it is certain to happen. Many bets are being made at long odds that before May is in he will have landed in England with forces sufficient to make an invasion and strike a blow, if they are seconded by the people here, who are so nauseated with the present government, largely owing to the dissolution of the last parliament, whose members create the worst impression of the present rule among the people by the accounts they give, so that they only desire to throw off the yoke and cast themselves on the clemency of their natural prince, feeling that they have suffered enough for the faults committed, which they now realise and wish to amend. It is actually reported that a formidable squadron of Dutch vessels is stationed off the coast of Flanders waiting to embark many thousands of soldiers, horse and foot, to be brought over here for the purpose indicated. This is supported by the sudden despatch from the ports here of 22 picked ships of war, (fn. 5) fully equipped with everything requisite, to sail away towards those shores and watch the proceedings of the enemy and, if possible, to thwart their plans.
Meanwhile, in order to dissipate the impression which has taken such a strong hold of the people, that Charles will soon return, it is announced that an express courier has reached Whitehall sent by Dounin, the resident in Holland, reporting that the States, in consideration of the danger of losing the Sound, the passage into the Baltic, from which the Dutch draw all their subsistence, have decided to hasten to the defence of that passage against the Swedes, who are daily winning fresh successes in Denmark, instead of encouraging and assisting the plans of the king of Scotland. Accordingly it is announced that it will be impossible for Charles to get ready an attempt to recover what belongs to him.
A long time ago they ordered the building of thirty ships of war, but owing to lack of money they were not able to do more than start the work. They have now decided to take it up with energy, but as the same shortage still exists there is little reason to suppose that the work will be carried through with the speed they desire, and thus the vast designs they are meditating will also end in nothing.
The Protector is extremely short of money, even the customs yielding little, as owing to the war with the Catholic king the trade which brought the largest amount of gold to the exchequer is interrupted. It being necessary to raise a large sum of money, he turned to the city of London, asking them to lend him a considerable amount. This they openly refused, intimating that they would not pay the ordinary charges either. Being unable in the present crisis to have recourse to severe measures and compel them to contribute, and to avoid further cause of offence, he applied to a particular merchant, who is a supporter of his, to supply him with money, (fn. 6) assigning to him for payment the revenue from the excise or new impost and further pledging the 90,000l. which is kept apart, being the amount collected for the Protestants of Piedmont. In this way he has obtained from the merchant an advance of 200,000l. sterling, which has sufficed to make various payments to the troops dispersed about this kingdom who, having been without for more than six months, were beginning to grumble, a serious menace to the present rule. Moreover the army took very badly the cashiering of the officers, reported, and has made a vigorous remonstrance to the Protector, pointing out that officers cannot be dismissed from an army without a council of war, and so, as they do not know for what reasons he sent away many of their colleagues they ask him to restore them to their posts, and by order of his Highness, they have been reinstated in them a few days since. This shows clearly that even among the soldiers a feeling is growing against Cromwell. At present all men speak of him with contempt and scorn, without the slightest respect, for they are the ones who made him what he now is and so now they claim, with the diminution of his authority, to pull him down and destroy him. It will not be long before the fruit is ripe, and I will keep my eyes open and send full reports to your Excellencies.
London, the 15th March, 1658.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
March 19.
Senato,
Secreta,
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
149. Francesco Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
On the English ambassador representing that certain Irishmen proposed to maltreat some of his gentlemen, the king ordered the Irish to be imprisoned thus showing the importance he attaches to pleasing the ambassador. So with the honours rendered recently to his wife, the Protector's niece. When they heard that she wished to pay her respects to their Majesties the introducers and the royal coaches were sent to fetch her to the palace, where they made her be seated and she was saluted with a kiss by the king and the duke of Anjou.
The count of Clerville has been sent from here to London, (fn. 7) to concert, it is supposed, the arrangements for the approaching campaign. Many think that this may be upset by some accident which may easily occur in England since the dissolution of parliament and the violence used by Cromwell. They would be glad of this in order to escape from the engagements which the war has forced upon them.
Paris, the 19th March, 1658.
[Italian.]
March 22.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Archives.
150. Francesco Giavarina, Venetian Resident in England, to the Dog Senate.
Every one is awaiting with untold eagerness for the issue of the incessant consultations in which the Council has been busy every day for many weeks, keeping the Protector's attention engaged, without a moment's respite in which he might attend to other affairs of consequence, which also require his presence and help before they can be discussed and matured. No one can discover the object of these assiduous meetings as all their transactions are kept extraordinarily secret. Various opinions have been formed about it. Thus it has been publicly stated at the palace that before long some great decision will be seen, and from this people are busy guessing, and to judge by appearances the guess that goes nearest the truth is that the Council will issue a decree for the coronation of Cromwell with the title of king or emperor, and they say it has led to a great deal of altercation and this is what has delayed a decision so long. That the business discussed at these meetings is of this character cannot be positively affirmed by any outsider. This much may be asserted that the matter under discussion is of the greatest importance since it is known that besides his Highness and the councillors, some leaders of the army have taken part, with lawyers and experienced counsel summoned expressly from Oxford, to whose most famous University they belong, to assist with their learning the others who have devoted their attention to such exercises; so it will be necessary to wait for time to show what has been done.
Meanwhile it is stated that with the decision to elevate the Protector to this rank, which he appears to have expressed his desire to have, he is to proceed some miles outside London and placing himself at the head of the whole army, to cause himself to be acclaimed by the troops as king or emperor and get them to put the crown on his head. After this will follow the announcement in this city and other parts of the three kingdoms. The very place for this has been named and it is a very wide country (grandissima campagna) situated beyond the Thames, only 5 miles from the metropolis. (fn. 8) Sensible men do not believe that Cromwell will cross the bridge, especially as there are many places near at hand on this side where the business could be done conveniently. It would be too dangerous to go across the water under present circumstances when the citizens of London are so stirred and puzzled, and they might seize the opportunity of the Protector's absence with all the troops to take up their arms and make themselves masters of the city with little difficulty. By letting down the drawbridge they could prevent his return, which could only be effected by another way and in many weeks, after making a turn through a great part of the kingdom, for in such case there is no doubt that they would block all the passes and dispute every way in; this would be rendering no small service to King Charles, for it is asserted that he undoubtedly has an arrangement with the citizens here, who promise him not to lose any opportunity that presents itself for serving his cause.
No measures are neglected for thwarting the designs of the king of Scotland. With every day they become more certain that he contemplates some attack, and as they do not know where it will fall, they apply remedies everywhere by imposing good rule. It is further stated that the officers of two of the regiments stationed in Scotland have sent their humble representations to the Protector in writing, protesting their loyalty to him and their determination to devote themselves to his service always. They express the hope that the other regiments will follow their example adding that such declarations will prove very useful in fortifying his Highness against the designs directed against him personally by the old enemies and some pretended friends (indicating the Dutch), whom it is hoped God will destroy, for the preservation of the peace of these nations which depends chiefly on the preservation of his Highness. Such is the contents of the paper, which has been printed, but many assert that it has been composed and circulated to prevent any credit being given to the supposed reluctance of General Monch in Scotland to come to England to obey the summons of the Protector. It is asserted that he absolutely refuses to come, a very bad sign, for if Monch really determined not to obey Cromwell's orders it would cause a disturbance that would be very difficult to remedy.
Meanwhile news has come from Vice Admiral Goodson, (fn. 9) commander of the squadron of ships sent to the coast of Flanders to watch the proceedings of the enemy, as I reported last week. He states that near Ostend he encountered 5 Dutch ships which were sailing direct for that port and were nearly in. Conjecturing that they meant to go inside with some unfriendly design, seeing that they had not rendered the customary tribute by lowering their flag, he opened fire on them with his guns. After some resistance 3 of them struck and two were forced to run ashore. The current carried these into the port when they were immediately filled with troops as were others which were waiting at anchor there. This news has intensified the feeling against the Dutch, and the suspicions about King Charles especially as it is stated that men have been seen here dressed as sailors, and they assert that the earl of Ormon has been in London to make some arrangement with the people and has since returned to the king in Flanders, after circulating some prints in which his Majesty promises a general pardon to all those who have been against him if they will return to their obedience.
News comes from Lisbon that the king of Portugal has set at liberty all the Dutch ships and goods which were under arrest in the ports of that country, and that he has nominated the count of Prado to go to Holland as ambassador to treat with the States upon the differences between the two countries in the hope that everything will be decided in a manner satisfactory to both countries.
Since the news of the successes of the King of Sweden in Denmark, letters have reached the Protector from his minister with the Dane, reporting that Denmark, with his forces defeated and his plight desperate, had asked for his mediation for an adjustment. To settle this Sweden had only granted 24 hours, and it was arranged on the 27th February last, (fn. 10) greatly to the disadvantage of Denmark and much to the profit of the Swede. By virtue of this Denmark is to cede to Sweden the provinces of Halland, Bleking and Schonen, which give command of half the Sound, the town and port of Druthen, the castle of Bahouse and the island of Bornholme; pay a million thalers, maintain in his service 4000 men, horse and foot, as well as 10 ships of war, and give the Swedish army free quarters in his country until the month of May. He is also to give the duke of Holstein, brother in law of the king of Sweden, free possession of many towns and districts which were formerly ruled by his Majesty.
On the arrival of the English ships at Leghorn, of which your Excellencies will have heard, the Grand Duke of Tuscany wrote a letter to his Highness complaining that they prevent Spanish ships from entering and leaving that port. One of these proceeding from Sardinia to Catalonia with a cargo of grain, has been captured by the English. It was noticed with astonishment that this letter was presented to the secretary of state here by a private merchant, to whom it was sent from Florence, and not by the duke's minister resident here. The reason is unknown. The existing state of internal affairs here does not permit them to make a speedy reply, and in any case it will only contain generalities, since this government is determined to enter the Mediterranean and keep a squadron there to secure the passage of their goods against the Barbary pirates and to inflict upon the Spaniards all the harm they possibly can.
London, the 22nd March, 1658.
[Italian.]
March 23.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
151. To the Resident in England.
Acknowledge the receipt of his letters. The Senate considers the demands of Colonel Cuch excessive, and as they are sufficiently provided for the coming campaign he is to let the matter drop, but he must try to keep Cuch well disposed.
Ayes, 99. Noes, 0. Neutral, 1.
[Italian.]
March 29.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
152. Francesco Giavarina, Venetian Resident in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Considering the danger of invasion that hangs over this state owing to the preparations which are being made by King Charles across the water, the Protector recently summoned to Whitehall the mayor of London, the aldermen and the members of the common council, (fn. 11) numbering some 300 in all to point out to them the peril of the city and to recommend its safe keeping to their charge. He did this with his usual eloquence and vigour in order to stimulate his hearers to do as he wished, which, according to him, is to work solely for the repose and tranquillity of these nations. In addition to the common council the commanders and officers of the army were also present on this occasion. After a long disquisition upon affairs of state, to render them more sensible of what told them, his Highness pointed out that the city and nation were exposed to a most imminent peril, owing to the new designs of the old enemy, Charles Stuart, his confederates abroad and his party here at home, who for some time past have been secretly trying to upset the quiet which the country now enjoys. By the king's own letters, intercepted, by certain intelligence from abroad and by the information of persons employed by the king he knew it was all true, just as he knew that for three whole weeks the earl of Ormond had been staying in London to forward his plans. To carry these into effect the Stuart had 8000 effective soldiers in Flanders and 22 ships hired to transport them to England. To effect this they were only waiting for the opportunity of a dark night, which would enable them to cross without meeting the English squadron. Since the danger was manifest and so near, and the peace and security of the city and the whole nation was greatly interested, he desired that the mayor and aldermen should take care for the safety of the same, to prevent mischief, by putting the militia of the city in order and appointing pious and loyal officers who were devoted to the present government.
The common council was subsequently convoked to consider the Protector's speech, and after some discussion about a proposal to thank his Highness by a special deputation, it was decided to do so. Accordingly the day before yesterday some of their number went to Whitehall. After thanking the Protector for imparting the information aforesaid, they promised to be constant in their loyalty and to be ready to offer their lives and fortunes to oppose any enemy who should make any attempt against his person or against these nations. They further besought his Highness to persevere in his government in the certainty that all the people in their several ranks will serve and obey him always, as the friend of his friends and the enemy of his enemies.
These suspicions of King Charles keep them all intent and alert, the council of state meeting even on Sundays, although the day is held in extreme veneration by this people. Every effort is made to find out where the lightening will strike. They are very apprehensive about Scotland, especially as Monch appears to be wavering. To secure their party as much as possible they are showing the greatest energy in collecting troops, enrolling all who offer to serve and obliging others by force, to fill up the numbers they intend to have, to be sent with son Richard who is appointed to govern that kingdom, so that he may be strong enough to meet either Monch, if he should resist and decline to give up his present post, or the efforts of other enemies.
Besides the addresses from some of the regiments of Scotland, reported last week, others from the same army have appeared in the ordinary Gazettes, in the same terms. A perusal of these confirms the opinion of those who think they are circulated with design, and this is supported by the knowledge that Monch is playing the malcontent, either because he really is one, or because he expects to derive some advantage from doing so.
Passarelli, secretary of Queen Christina of Sweden, left here recently without seeing the Protector, since his first interview. He takes a reply to her Majesty's letter which is very succinct and couched in general terms as the internal state of England does not permit them just now to give their support to external affairs, least of all such plans as those of the queen, so confused and difficult to execute.
It is reported from Paris that the English ambassador, with the permission of the Most Christian, has had some Irishmen arrested. Here they say it was because the queen of England, who lives at the French Court, had planned with some of her household and others to seize and carry off to King Charles in Flanders two young English gentlemen now living at Paris for their pleasure, the sons of the chief justice of England and of another person of quality, (fn. 12) each with an income of 20,000l. sterling a year. It was to have been done with the help of a servant of one of these gentlemen, to whom liberal promises were made, but he, reflecting on his duty to his master or for some other reason, told his master everything. He informed the Ambassador Locart who had some of the prime movers imprisoned, and is trying to get some of the other accomplices into his hands. They say here that King Charles wanted to have these two in order to exact a large ransom, but it is more probable that his Majesty wished to hold them as hostages for the earl of Ormond, whom he had sent to London in case he should be discovered and arrested, as a pledge to preserve Ormond's life or to inflict on them any tortures inflicted on the earl, whom the king has recently created duke. Similarly General Marsin, of Liege, lieutenant of the Prince of Condé, has been made a knight of the order of St. George, to which his Majesty himself belongs. (fn. 13)
The merchants here have heard that when some English frigates of those in the Mediterranean went to Tunis to make peace with those barbarians, this was granted without the slighest difficulty. (fn. 14) As one has already been made with Algiers, there is only Tripoli left. Four of their ships have gone thither and if the Tripolitans make difficulties about giving them satisfaction they have orders to burn all the ships anchored there and to treat them with the utmost severity. The issue is eagerly awaited.
In Flanders the Spaniards have published a decree forbidding all commerce and correspondence between those states and England. It is supposed that it is to prevent recent news of the proceedings of King Charles reaching here; but they cannot stop it entirely, because so long as the Protector holds Mardich, that port can always be used by anyone who wishes to enter or leave Flanders. It appears that Antwerp, which will suffer serious injury from this measure, especially in the business of the exchanges, while neither London nor any other place here will be inconvenienced in the least, has sent to the Court at Brussels to remonstrate and ask that some means may be found of relieving them of the injury that threatens. This will interrupt the passage of letters; but if this is removed from Flanders, it will undoubtedly be transferred to Zeeland by the Dutch. I will keep on the alert and act according to circumstances to get my despatches through.
Two missives from your Excellencies, of the 13th and 23rd February, have reached me together this week, through France. The first encloses the reply to the Protector's letter to the Senate, presented by the Consul Obson, requesting permission for English ships in the Mediterranean to get supplies in your Serenity's ports; upon which I will act as instructed. The second is on the question of the levies, on which I will await the orders of the Savio alla Scrittura.
London, the 29th March, 1658.
[Italian.]
March 30.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
153. To the Resident in England.
Acknowledge receipt of his letters of the 1st and 8th inst. Approval of his action with the Turkey Company, although their reply is inconclusive. The money has already been paid out on account of their credits. The nation is highly esteemed on its own account (per il proprio valor), and he is always to express himself in this sense, as occasion arises.
Ayes, 109. Noes, 0. Neutral, 1.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 Col. John White, arrested by order of the Council on the 19th Feb., O.s., on suspicion of treason. Cal. S.P. Dom., 1657–8, page 295.
2 The two ships in question, as shown in Giavarina's despatch of 5 April (below) were the Northumberland and Paramour. The latter had been very heavily engaged in the action off Imbros on 17 July, 1657. Nani: Hist. de la Republica Veneta, Vol. ii, page 445. But it was the Northumberland that lost its commander. It seems probable that this was Thomas Trenchfield. See Vol. xxix. of this Calendar, page 247. The governor of the Levant Company was Alderman Andrew Riccard.
3 Proclamation of 3 March o.s. Mercurius Politicus, Feb. 25–Mar. 4.
4 Proclamations of 25 February o.s, Cal. S.P. Dam., 1657–8, page 303.
5 The squadron under Vice-Admiral Goodson, which sailed from the Downs on the 26th Feb. o.s. He should have had 28 ships. Cal. S.P. Dom., 1657–8, pages, 306–7, 536.
6 Probably Alderman Sir Thomas Vyner is meant. See Cal. S.P. Dom., 1657–8, page 341, especially as he was one of the treasurers of the fund for the Piedmontese Ibid., page 344.
7 Col. Bourelly implies that this mission was projected but never executed. Deux Campagnes de Turenne en Flandre, page 97.
8 Blackheath. Cal. S.P. Dom., 1657–8, page 341.
9 Received on 6 March o.s. Mercurius Politicus, March 4–11.
10 The treaty of Roeskilde.
11 On Friday 12–22 March.
12 Thurloe to Downing: Mr. St. John, Mr. Haselrig, jun., and Dr. St. John at Paris were designed upon to be carried into Flanders by some of the little queen's servants. State Papers, Vol. vi, page 873. St. John was in France for his health, Dr. St. John was his uncle, an M.D., who went to take care of him. Cal. S.P. Dom., 1657–8, page 232.
13 Ormonde was not made a duke until 1661. Marsin was elected a companion of the order of the Garter at a chapter held at Antwerp on 26 February, 1658. Nicholas: Hist. of the Orders of Knighthood, Vol. i, page 246. See Cal. S.P. Dom., 1657–8, pp. 296–7.
14 The agreement with Tunis was made by Capt. Stoakes on 8 Feb. o.s. Cal. S.P. Dom., 1657–8, pages 307–10. He did not go to Tripoli, but to Leghorn and thence to Marseilles. Corbet: England in the Mediterranean, Vol. i, page 336.