Venice
August 1658

Sponsor

Institute of Historical Research

Publication

Author

Allen B. Hinds (editor)

Year published

1931

Pages

228-238

Annotate

Comment on this article
Double click anywhere on the text to add an annotation in-line

Citation Show another format:

'Venice: August 1658', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 31: 1657-1659 (1931), pp. 228-238. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=90013 Date accessed: 20 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


Highlight

(Min 3 characters)

August 1658

Aug. 2.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
203. Francesco Giavarina, Venetian Resident in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The Court is still at Hampton Court where the Council meets same frequency as in this city. Away from the noise they attend there to public affairs though they do not admit a single private one. They are making the necessary arrangements for the opening of the new parliament, and in a few days the writs are expected for the nomination of those who are to compose it. To judge by appearances and in the general opinion there seems to be no doubt that the Protector will be crowned king, especially now that the troops who seemed to have the strongest objection to the royal title have been sent to Flanders, and one can say that the army is completely purged of ill humours and composed solely of persons devoted to the Protector, so that it will never enter their heads to resist anything that he desires. The Anabaptists, who have always been averse from the name of king, might try to throw obstacles in the way, but for some time past their party has become very feeble, and it is difficult to imagine what can prevent it happening, unless some unexpected disturbance should upset it.
After waiting impatiently for news of some fresh undertaking by the forces in Flanders the people here had the satisfaction of hearing on Tuesday that siege had been laid to Gravelines, the news being confirmed by Locart by a gentleman sent express from Dunkirk, who passed through here yesterday for Hampton Court. He adds that the victorious armies had also invested the fort of Linch, not far from Gravelines, and holds out hopes that both these places will soon fall. The first is very strong, but one must foresee its surrender within a brief space because succour cannot be introduced, seeing that the English and French occupy the neighbourhood and can easily prevent any relief, while they cannot use the sluices to flood the country because the aggressors have captured forts near by which command them.
At Dunkirk General Locart has issued a proclamation fixing the value of all kinds of money, whether native or foreign, establishing the prices of commodities of every sort, eatables and the rest, imposing certain obligations on the people, promising exemplary punishment for outrages by the soldiers and assuring everyone of upright government with the scrupulous observance of the terms of the capitulation. Meanwhile, by order of his Highness's Council, they have published a form of oath to be imposed on the people of Dunkirk, which has been forwarded to Locart. It consists of a promise of loyalty to the Protector and his successors; an undertaking not to attempt anything against the security and defence of Dunkirk with other matter related to those points.
To render thanks to God for the successes of the present year and to implore assistance for future enterprises, last Wednesday was set apart throughout England for sermons and prayers, according to the custom of the country. Orders were sent to Scotland and Ireland to do the same.
The Minister extraordinary expected from Denmark has not yet appeared, and it seems most likely that some accident has delayed his coming. The Dutch ambassador Niuport also has not yet got back to London. The delay is said to be due to the English occupation of Dunkirk, which obliges the States to alter the instructions they intended to give him. An envoy from Muscovy is also expected, but the motive for his mission is not known.
The letters from France, missing last week, have arrived this week with those written later. Only one from your Serenity has come with them. The rest are missing, due, I suppose, to the robbing of the courier in the state of the most serene republic. I find enclosed the letter for his Highness, which I will present at the first opportunity, with remarks adapted to their contents, showing the willingness of your Excellencies to oblige the consul of this nation sent to the Morea.
London, the 2nd August, 1658.
[Italian.]
Aug. 6.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia,
Venetian
Archives.
204. Francesco Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
Account of an interview with Servient, one of the leading ministers. He told me that he was recently charged by the Cardinal to have printed the treaty which the Spaniards made with the Protector, the original of which was in Cromwell's hands. Dunkirk was consigned to the English from motives of necessary prudence in the war which the king was forced to make because of the obstinacy of his enemies and their aversion for peace. Nothing would be done to the prejudice of religion, as everything had been foreseen and provided for, and Cromwell himself could inflict no greater injury on the Spaniards than by treating the Catholics well. He praised the policy of Locart, governor of the town, who exercised the utmost severity for the benefit of the Catholics in the matter of religion, and ended by saying that the English did not command beyond 2000 paces outside Dunkirk, France being mistress of all the other places round about.
Paris, the 6th August, 1658.
[Italian.]
Aug. 9.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
205. Francesco Giavarina, Venetian Resident in England, to the Doge and Senate.
When the secretary of state came to London the day before yesterday, all the foreign ministers who had business communicated it to him, as they had lost hope of seeing the Protector during his stay at Hampton Court. The only exception was the resident of Curlandia, for as he has not yet been presented to his Highness or handed in his letters of credence, he can only approach the Protector personally, because first audiences require many formalities which are not practised elsewhere; so it is necessary to practise patience and await Cromwell's good pleasure.
I succeeded in seeing the secretary and gave him the letter of your Serenity for his Highness in reply to the communication about the English consul for the Morea, speaking as directed. I also thought it meet to offer the congratulations of your Excellencies on the success of his Highness in discovering the late conspiracies and on the success of his arms in the present campaign, because I know that many of the foreign ministers did so and that it pleased the Protector greatly. As it was such a long time since I had seen his Highness to remind him about giving succour to the most serene republic in the present distressing circumstances, although the present moment is not a favourable one for preferring such requests because of the great shortage of money which is the chief reason that forces them to call a new parliament, and that it is hopeless to expect assistance in ships from what the Protector himself told me, as I reported at the time, I thought it might not be amiss to give the secretary an account of the present state of affairs, the formidable power of the Turk, the danger to the states of the republic, and the need of assisting the common cause of all Christendom, which your Excellencies have defended alone for so many years, so that the fall of Candia, which God forfend, and of other places menaced by these inhuman barbarians, may not open the way for the fall of other places in Europe and the total destruction of Christendom. With these and other considerations I showed what glory and applause his Highness might win, if he considered these matters, which should arouse the piety of every good Christian, and decide to succour the republic in its distress.
The secretary appreciated highly the welcome afforded by your Serenity to the consul and the letters of recommendation sent to the Proveditori of Zante and Cephalonia. He promised to impart everything to his Highness when presenting the state letters. He was also much pleased at the congratulations on their successes in war and against conspiracy. On the third point he said that the Protector would be only too glad to see the republic relieved of the most just war which she wages alone with such lustre against an overwhelming foe. If his hands were not full of other enterprises he would certainly show his regard for your Excellencies by his deeds and do his duty to Christendom. His wish to serve the republic was very great, but he could not give it effect because of commitments at home and abroad which absorbed all the money and which demanded all his diligence and attention. He added much more, expressing the utmost goodwill and their powerlessness to do anything. It only shows the hopelessness of expecting help from this quarter at any time and particularly at present, when they are utterly destitute of money. Whenever a favourable opportunity occurs I will not fail to seize it. But I thought it right to say this much to the secretary to learn their sentiments without approaching the Protector, to avoid the possibility of a refusal which would be final. In any case, such assistance as they might send, by God's grace, would always be opportune and admirable.
As the secretary said nothing to me about the affair in the Archipelago, between the Venetian fleet under Sig. Priuli and ships of this nation, I did not think it worth while to mention the subject either, as they did not seem pleased about it from the first, and in a country like this it is better to allow it to be forgotten.
London, the 9th August, 1658.
[Italian.]
Aug. 9.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
206. Francesco Giavarina, Venetian Resident in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The absence of the Court prevents one learning any news of consequence, and with only unimportant news from abroad there is not much to write about this week. At Hampton Court they are still busy over the opening of the new parliament, which is to meet next September. Although the Protector went there to enjoy quiet and rest he has been unable to escape anxiety owing to the illness of his second daughter, married to Mr. Cleipul, who is dying, without the slightest hope of recovery.
There is no news of the sieges of Gravelines and Linch except that they are being prosecuted, and it seems that yesterday or to-day they will open a breach under the first, while the second is said to be in desperate straits. The companies of cavalry sent are arriving at Dunkirk, and infantry also should soon be there as they neglect nothing for the maintenance and preservation of the place.
The Dutch ambassador Niuport has recently arrived. He asked to make his entry privately without ceremony, and this was granted, especially as he is merely continuing his embassy with the change from extraordinary to ordinary. He saw the secretary of state the day before yesterday, but not the Protector, and it is not known when he will have audience. They say that his Highness sent the secretary to London on purpose to find out the business on which the Dutch minister has been sent again to this Court. I will keep a look-out and report what comes to my knowledge.
The minister here for Hamburg and the Hanse Towns passed away latterly, (fn. 1) and another arrived in London this week to take his place. His business is more about trade than anything else, and he treats with merchants only, neither receiving nor visiting the foreign ministers.
The Portuguese ambassador, so long expected, has arrived in Holland. (fn. 2) He had audience of the States, but as his business is concerned with the differences between the Dutch and the Portuguese over the Indies, one cannot yet learn what he has been proposing and doing.
They are sorry here to learn of the election of the king of Hungary as emperor (fn. 3) because of their dislike for the house of Austria and for other reasons previously reported, so, although the fact is established, these people deny it and try to make out that the Spaniards have circulated the report with design.
A manuscript sheet has appeared in London with a detailed account of all the benefits which the king of Sweden claims to have conferred on the elector of Brandenburg, and asking if Sweden is not justified in attacking the elector for whom he has done so much. It has undoubtedly been circulated by General Flitud and the ministers of Sweden to discredit the elector and strengthen the Swedish party. Although it abounds in biting though not very adequate phrases, the minister of Brandenburg here does not seem disturbed, for unmindful of his duty he has always shown more effection for the Swedes than for his master, especially now the elector has thrown himself on the side of Poland. This minister is now abandoned by his master and no longer enjoys the esteem or respect of anyone. He offered his services to the king of Sweden, but that monarch does not seem to think anything of him. So just now he is very embarrassed through his lack of judgment and in danger of being arrested for debt, as he was last winter, in the public street, to the detriment of his own honour and to the prestige of his master.
London, the 9th August, 1658.
[Italian.]
Aug. 16.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
207. Francesco Giavarina, Venetian Resident in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The secretary of state communicated to the Protector his interview with the Ambassador Niuport, reported last week, and having possibly learned some particulars which excited his curiosity, his Highness unexpectedly sent orders last Friday night from Hampton Court to Fleming, the master of the ceremonies, directing him to bring Niuport to audience on the following day. Accordingly, his Excellency proceeded to Hampton Court in some palace coaches sent on purpose to fetch him and which brought him back to London, always accompanied by the master of the ceremonies. At his audience he expressed to Cromwell the regard felt for him by the States and their desire to cherish and strengthen friendly relations. After these public offices Niuport had a short private conference with Cromwell, the motive of which cannot be discovered, as they alone were present. It is supposed to have been about the proposals made at the Hague by the Portuguese ambassador who arrived there recently, and an adjustment between his king and the States, as well as to ask the assistance of this government for preserving safe and open trading in the Baltic Sea, which may be much harassed and interrupted by the Swedes, for as they now hold a part of the Sound it is not possible to shut them out of the Baltic or from cruising about there where they will. A deputy of the town of Danzig is coming to London to prefer similar requests. (fn. 4) Some say he has already arrived and is living incognito, awaiting additional instructions from his superiors. They say that the Dutch inspired this mission to secure a backing for Niuport about the Baltic, the trade of which is vital to them, for without it they would be ruined.
The Swedish ministers here are trying to secure Sir [George] Aschiu to command their king's fleet. He is an Englishman of great skill and experience, of which he has afforded the government ample proof on several occasions. It is expected that he will be granted with the same facility as the same ministers received permission from the Protector to hire as many ships as they wished in this river for the service of their master next summer.
At the Hague the Portuguese ambassador has had his first audience, since when he has been treating with the commissioners deputed for him. So far as I can gather from the Ambassador Niuport he evinces a strong disposition towards an adjustment, but at the same time protests that it is impossible to restore to the Dutch the places occupied in Brazil. Without these the States say it is impossible to treat or arrange anything, so the business is held up at the outset and there seems little hope of a happy issue, unless the mediators, i.e. France and England, in whom Portugal reposes great confidence, find some satisfactory means to effect a settlement, which the Spaniards will do their best to thwart and delay.
Being very anxious here to know when the silver fleet leaves the Indies, which will be expected in Spain in a few months, the government has sent orders to the governor of Jamaica to station feluccas off Cuba, Havana, and other ports, so that they may not lose sight of the sailing of the galleons, to get intelligence and forward it here with the utmost speed, so that they be able to do everything possible to capture that fleet, or at least to prevent it reaching Spain. At the first news of its sailing they intend to despatch a suitable number of ships to the Spanish coast in order to intercept the fleet and realise their designs.
Nothing has come about the siege of Gravelines, except that it is progressing satisfactorily and the hope that the feebleness of the garrison within may facilitate its capture.
In his last letters from Paris the Ambassador Giustinian commissioned me to have some credits seized in the republic's name which he understands the banker Arson, who has failed in Paris, had with some merchants of this mart, to whom he had paid a considerable sum in crowns to be changed at Venice. I at once acted as he desired, and the seizure has been made; so it remains to prove that Arson had credits in this city. I am writing to his Excellency about it, and with the permission of your Serenity I will enter the expenses in my accounts.
Just as I was sealing this, old Galileo came to see me, father of the one taken by the Turks in your Serenity's service, and with him someone from the secretary of state in whose name they asked me to beg the Senate to consider the wretched state of the captive and arrange his exchange as promised in the letter to the Protector, against some of the numerous Turkish slaves which he says recently reached Venice, taken on the English ship Angelo. He says that difficulties have arisen in the orders sent to the Captain-General at Sea for the ransom of his son, which deny him the satisfaction of seeing him again before the end of his days, and he begs for the liberality of the republic. He also asks for what is due to him for the hire etc. of the ship Soccorso, burned in the state's service. He says that the public books show that 10,782 ducats 14 lire are due to him, and if this cannot be discharged in one sum he asks for the 3000 ducats voted for him a long while ago, but never paid, and that payment for the rest may be assigned to him by some public magistrate, monthly, quarterly, or half yearly, until all is paid. I promised Galileo and the secretary's messenger to report everything to the Senate, while I assured them of the predilection of your Excellencies for their nation and the intention of the state to pay this debt, sending them away quite satisfied and lauding the name of the republic.
London, the 16th August, 1658.
[Italian.]
Aug. 23.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
208. Francesco Giavarina, Venetian Resident in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Two packets from your Serenity have reached me this week by way of France, of the 20th and 27th July, the first by the ordinary of Monday and the second by that of yesterday, some days in advance owing to the arrival at Paris of an express courier who brought them. Your Excellencies inform me of the uneasiness at Rome over the progress of the English in Flanders and an arrangement with the French, after the capture of Gravelines, to attack Portolongone in Italy. There can be no positive proof of any such agreement. I can assure your Serenity that the designs of the government are so vast that they aim at taking possession of any part of the world, as I have frequently reported, and to damage the enemy as much as possible, while in the matter of religion they aim at nothing less than one day infecting the whole Catholic world with Lutheranism. They will make great efforts to set foot in Italy. The will is there; the power is not lacking, and they are only waiting for an opportunity to put their plans into operation. In any case the blow will be directed against that part of the dominions of the Catholic in that province which seems most feeble and easy to conquer. The squadron in the Mediterranean is not there for nothing. The orders recently issued by the secret council for reinforcing it with more ships and supplying it with all that it requires to maintain it at strength are certainly not without an object. The announcement made last winter about proceeding to Naples was unquestionably a device to oblige the Spaniards to look after that part alone and then for the allies to throw themselves on some other place where success would be easy, as they know that the conquest of Naples would always prove more arduous than might be presupposed. If a good opportunity arises for some enterprise in Italy it certainly will not be neglected, as I remarked when they talked of sending the present squadron to the Mediterranean, since between the allies there exists the understanding, the will and sufficient strength for the successful realisation of their aspirations. But it might happen that just when they are about to carry out their designs God will create some diversion which will oblige them to recall the ships sent through the Strait, to employ them for some more pressing need nearer home.
If it should come to a rupture with the Dutch, as seems very likely, all their attention would be wanted for that quarter and they would have no leisure to look elsewhere. They speak of this here as openly as if it had already taken place. The Spaniards egg the Dutch on but they temporise and flatter this government from fear of the serious harm it can do them. Here the merchants cry out against the Dutch who have captured in the Indies some ships belonging to this mart. A demand sent to the States for restitution does not seem to have led to the favourable reply which they look for here. We hear that the English intend to impose a tax at Dunkirk on all ships that pass through the Channel, with the idea of smashing Dutch trade by taking away all that they have on this side. From this it may be conjectured that it will not be long before these two nations are at loggerheads again, as it is not possible for them to live at peace, since what the one wants the other wants also. Feeling here is very embittered through the influence of the merchants, and it may happen that the incitement of the Spaniards and the harshness of the English may affect the Dutch similarly and force them to an action which they might not wish to take in their own best interests.

Since his first complimentary audience the Ambassador Niuport has tried to see his Highness again, or at least the secretary, but they have not obliged him, the former being in bed with gout and the latter making other excuses. One may gather from this how little desire they have to hear him and consequently how likely it is that the peace between the two nations will be broken.
If the gentleman arrives here whom the Grand Duke of Tuscany proposes to send to the Protector to increase as far as possible the intimacy between their two Highnesses, as your Excellencies inform me, I will keep on the watch, but so far nothing has been heard of this mission. It is quite possible if only for the removal of the duke's resident here, who does not seem to give complete satisfaction either to his own master or to the prince to whom he is accredited. He does not converse with or visit anyone here, nor is he visited. It is the same with the resident of Genoa, and there might as well not be one, for he is always away in the country.
The Court is sad and sorrowful this week owing to the Protector's gout and to the death of his second daughter, which occurred these last days (fn. 5) to the grief of her parents, relations, and the whole Court. The funeral took place the day before yesterday in the evening, but with nothing beyond the ordinary as the Protector did not wish there to be any pomp. It is believed that this sad event will bring back the Court to London, but nothing has been said yet about moving from Hampton Court.
The siege of Gravelines goes on, and the besiegers are hopeful of taking it soon seeing that the Spaniards cannot throw succour into the place from any side. Yet the French have suffered a considerable defeat from the defenders. It is said that the Scots of the regiment of Douglas and the French of la Ferte have lost between them some 7 to 800 slain, including three lieutenant-generals, viz.: the Count of Moret, the marquis of Varenne and the marquis of Uxelles, as well as many other officers of courage and reputation. They do not speak of any English slain, but many were wounded. At Dunkirk sickness is rife among the English troops, caused by the change of air, from which the soldiers perish miserably, causing the government no little disquiet. They are replacing the dead by sending out others and reinforcing the garrison.
London, the 23rd August, 1658.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Aug. 27.
Cinque Savii
alla
Mercanzia
Risposte.
Venetian
Archives.
209. In letters of the 2nd inst. the Consul Armeno at Leghorn represents that divers English ships would proceed from that Port to Zante to lade currants if they had the same facilities as those which take their cargoes to Venice. We have to say that the Westerners pay two duties for exporting currants, one, the great duty of 10 per miera, imposed in 1580 as a counterpoise to the impositions which the queen of England laid upon Venetian ships which arrived in that kingdom; the other, the little duty of 5 ducats per miera, paid by those ships which do not take their entire cargo to Venice. Your Serenity observing, in 1626, that the majority of Western ships went to Leghorn to unlade their goods, proceeding thence to the islands with cash, to buy currants, and they only took to Venice the goods which they could not sell at Leghorn, it was decided to impose this charge. In 1630 the islanders petitioned for the removal of this duty. This was not conceded, but it was decided to reduce the great duty from 10 to 8 ducats per miera. It would be disadvantageous to the state to remove the small duty, there being no danger of the currants remaining unsold, for there will be no lack of vessels resorting to those lands to take them away.
Given at the office, the 27th August, 1658.
Francesco Zustignan
Bartolomeo Erizzo
Geronemo Bragorin Savii.
[Italian.]
Aug. 28.
Senato,
Secreta,
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
210. Domenico Zane, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
They are fearful here that Catalonia may be attacked by the English from the sea, and it appears that they live in great apprehension at Barcelona. Yet no English ships have been seen cruising in those waters this year, although Dutch vessels, to the number of 38 remain stationed off the port of Lisbon and prevent ships of every kind from entering or leaving that port.
Madrid, the 28th August, 1658.
[Italian.]
Aug. 30.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
211. Francesco Giavarina, Venetian Resident in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The Dutch ambassador, meeting with difficulties and delays about his audience of his Highness, and being very anxious to have it as soon as possible, decided to make an unexpected journey to Hampton Court, supposing that when there he could not be refused or put off. But he had to put up with his trouble and return to London without seeing the Protector, who was not too well pleased at his going there in that way without informing any of the ministers of his wishes. In spite of this, Niuport saw the secretary of state, with whom he conferred a while, telling him why he had gone to the Court, namely, to defend the action of his masters, against whom the East India Company had presented on the preceding day a complaint concerning the capture by the Dutch of three other ships belonging to this mart, coming from Bantam with very rich cargoes. (fn. 6) It is impossible to say for what reason the Dutch are induced to excuse their action and defend themselves against the accusations brought by the Company. This much is certain, that the ill-will between the two nations daily grows worse and the likelihood before very long of a breach of the peace made between them a few years ago becomes more and more apparent. If this happens it will discommode both nations and cause no little injury to each of them.
Meanwhile the arming of the ships, already ordered, has been suspended owing to the lack of money, which is extremely scarce. They decided recently that it should be done, but for a much smaller number, restricting this at present to 15 for the reason aforesaid, and so that it may be done more speedily. They are hastening the building with the utmost energy so that they may be ready to proceed at the earliest moment to the Spanish coast to watch for the plate fleet which the Spaniards expect from the Indies in a few months.
The Protector is still a victim to the gout, and this has recently been aggravated by the stone, from which at times he suffers extremely. He is now beginning to improve, and it is hoped that in a little while he will have entirely recovered his health.
Three ministers representing this government at foreign Courts have recently returned to London, Jepson, from Sweden and Brandenburg; Brascio, long the resident at Hamburg, and Pel, who has been resident at Zurich with the Swiss.
The siege of Gravelines continues, and the besiegers still hope to have it soon, as it cannot receive succour from any quarter, all the approaches being occupied by the French and English. The works being well advanced, General Locart sent reinforcements to the camp from Dunkirk, to press the town harder and bring about its earlier fall, of which they expect the news here at any moment. It is said that the garrison have sent to parley and arrange a surrender.
London, the 30th August, 1658.
[Italian.]
Aug. 31.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni.
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
212. To the Cavalier Armeno at Leghorn.
Acknowledge his letters of the 2nd inst., with the suggestion from the English deputies about sending ships to Zante next month, if they are exempted from the new custom. The Senate would like to oblige them, but there are good reasons for not making any change in a rule which has been observed for many years. He is to tell them this and do his best to satisfy them.
Ayes, 123. Noes, 2. Neutral, 2.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 Hans Petersen. His successor, Johan Schulten, is mentioned in a letter from Hamburg to Richard Cromwell of 7 May, 1659. S.P. For. Hamburg and Hanse Towns ix., 222.
2 Fernando de Faro; he had his first audience on 22 July. Aitzema: Saken van Staet en Oorlogh, Vol. iv, page 268.
3 Leopold, at Frankfort on 18 July.
4 Salvetti on this same date mentions that Cav. Geo. Wastenhoff, resident of Danzig in Holland, is coming to treat with the Protector. Brit. Mus. Add. MSS. 27962P. f. 374. He was in London on 22 September and signs himself G. Wustenhoff. Thurloe: State Papers, Vol. vii, page 407.
5 Elizabeth Claypole died on 6–16 August.
6 The ships in question were the Postillion, Frederick and Francis and John. Sainsbury: Court Minutes of the East India Company, 1655–9, pages 268–9. The Company's petition was presented on Aug. 12–22. Mercurius Politicus, Aug. 12–19.