Venice
March 1669

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1937

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23-34

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'Venice: March 1669', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 36: 1669-1670 (1937), pp. 23-34. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=90259 Date accessed: 30 August 2014.


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March 1669

March 1.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
27. Piero Mocenigo, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
When the question of succour was discussed in his Majesty's privy council, the subject was divided between considerations about the Levant trade and measures for daily occurrences … I was one of the first to be told of the information sent some six days ago to his Majesty by Lord George Duglas of the resolution of the Most Christian to cause him to march to the coast with all the Scotch troops to be transported thence to Candia. At the selfsame moment that the news was received a decision was taken to stop the despatch of this body of troops at all costs, as if they entered Candia it was feared that they might be recognised by the Turks. They immediately communicated these personal considerations to the Ambassador Colbert, thus quickly, in order that he might write the same evening to France, so representing matters to the king there that he would desist from committing this crown against the Turks by those troops. This Duglas and Sir George Amilton, commander of another body of Scots in France, have been ordered by Auderdaile, the secretary of state for Scotland, to return to England, in the event of the Most Christian persisting about their passage to Candia. Besides these resolute measures to influence the officers, his Majesty has written with his own hand to his sister, the duchess of Orleans, to get her to make the king realise the reasons for not irritating the Turk which might provoke a vigorous reaction against the capital which this nation has at the marts of the Levant and against the persons of the English, with the manifest risk of tumults in this kingdom.
The celerity with which this decision was taken, without allowing any discussion or any sort of compromise, shows the force of their deep-rooted principles, which go so far as to include the case of a body of troops covered by the flag of France and surrounded by the soldiers of that nation, where they would scarcely be visible. God knows how difficult it would be to represent the operations themselves as secret. While they are so jealous I cannot feel sure of any other fruit from the pope's letter to the queen here than a promise of assistance for your Serenity.
The ambassador of France, in the queen's chamber showed the king and read publicly the letter written by the Most Christian to the pope in which he pledges his royal word not to break the peace with the Spaniards within the year.
The Dutch ambassador having dropped some hint on the subject and allowed it to be thought that he was ambitious of the honour, he entertained his Majesty at a most stately banquet, but as the queen was not present the king only had at table twelve of the most distinguished gentlemen.
London, the 1st March, 1669.
[Italian.]
March 2.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Roma.
Venetian
Archives.
28. To the Ambassador Grimani, at Rome.
Acknowledge receipt of the brief of his Holiness for the queen of England, to whom the Senate will cause it to be consigned. He will be able to thank the Cardinal nephew for it most cordially, the Senate being completely satisfied and content at the labours which have been employed with much fruit for the advantage of the republic's affairs.
Ayes, 175. Noes, 3. Neutral, 9.
[Italian.]
March 8.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
29. Piero Mocenigo, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Mons. di Brosse, who recently returned from Constantinople, has been sent back in the capacity of consul at Leghorn, by the Provinces of Holland themselves. While he will be giving the merchants his support, they will send to the Strait of Gibraltar a powerful squadron of ships, to facilitate trade, which is greatly upset by the Algerine corsairs who. to the number of twenty-eight have recently plundered many of their ships.
The English also suffer from the nuisance of these piracies. By an infraction of the peace so lately arranged the Algerines have recently taken a ship and searched another, taking a number of Spaniards out of it, who were coming from the Canaries. (fn. 1) The duke of Hiorch remarked to me with feeling that Sir Alan had been directed to threaten those corsairs with war if they did not give up the prisoners and with reprisals or the equivalent. It has since been decided that what the English recently took away from Porto Vello by the surprise reported, is good prize. The duke of Hiorch in upholding their right here not to satisfy the claim made by the Spanish ambassador to the restitution of the plate, told me that the Spaniards forced them to declare war beyond the line of the Tropic by their constant acts of hostility against English ships, even those which sought refuge in their ports from storms; when the trade of America is adapted to this more than to any other, because of the very great abundance of wool and because of the manufacture of … shoes, hats, which are made to perfection here.
London, the 8th March, 1669.
[Italian.]
March 8.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
30. Piero Mocenigo, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The Dutch are not satisfied with providing for their securitye by negotiation, by gathering together the forces and goodwill of the princes of the alliance. Moved to provide for their own defence by the pressure of a steadily increasing suspicion, the province of Holland at the last assembly has decided to add fifteen men to each company, as they see with dislike the armaments of the bishop of Munster, close at hand and observe, not without apprehension, the solicitude shown over the fortifications of Dunkirk and their important character, as it is a considerable land fortress, but of consequence to them as a sea port.
A letter of the Most Christian to the constable of Castile, governor in Flanders, is considered not without mystery and significant. It gives assurances about the duration of the peace and expresses the utmost readiness to demonstrate the most perfect intelligence, accompanied by all the declarations and demonstrations of courtesy that are calculated to captivate the constable, who permits the French to have passports even for munitions of war for the countries newly conquered, and shows every possible courtesy to the nation at every opportunity.
In this state of affairs the Spaniards, equally with the Dutch, are urging the re-establishment of the triple alliance. In spite of this the treaty is not yet signed. The minister of Sweden at the Hague is asking for powers and will await their arrival from the Court. After this it is possible that other lack of powers may be discovered. The Spanish ambassador, is devoting his eyes, his mind and his whole being to contemplation of the objects of Sweden. All he sees is that as they go forward they encounter resistance from those here, who will raise objections whenever it is possible to committing themselves to anything and who are unwilling to believe that Sweden, offended originally by the delay in paying the troops of Bremen and now by the alteration, will really be prepared to pledge herself and guarantee Flanders.
So much was communicated to me by Count Oxesterne, the envoy for Portugal (fn. 2) who did not conceal the possible claims of his crown for fresh important outlays if it should supply troops to Flanders. But the Spanish ambassador has told me, that everything is settled and he publishes this with design.
Amid these confusions the Dutch are alarmed, seeing that Sweden is distant and that England has grown lukewarm. They complain most of all of England for not hastening punctually to stay the excessive aggrandisement of France. But the ministers here, divided into factions, which are concerned with private feelings and interests, devote themselves to getting the better of their rivals. This happened quite recently to the duke of Ormonde, dismissed from the viceroy ally of Ireland and deprived of his offices. (fn. 3) Many of his faction, of which the late chancellor was head a short time ago, enjoyed the favour of the king. Now they may possibly consider that everything is at an end for them and while formerly they thought that their interests would flourish they now abandon these considerations and all hope for the future.

London, the 8th March, 1669.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
March 11.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
31. To the Ambassador in England.
The Senate is pleased to learn of the inclination shown there to supply powder and munitions. He is to aim at getting troops included, under the cover of levies, and to have them sent, if not to Candia, then to Zante. It is hoped that the proposed alliance will remove jealousies between England and Holland and lead to some resolution as well as to peace between the crowns. The Senate is hopeful of the effect of the queen's intercession, a feeling confirmed by her desire for a brief from the pope. This is attached and he is to present it at a suitable opportunity.
Ayes, 99. Noes, 0. Neutral, 1.
[Italian.]
March 15.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
32. To the Ambassador in England.
Acknowledge receipt of his letters of the 15th and 22nd February. Inform him of the assistance promised by the Most Christian in the Levant as well as by the Spaniards. Are unable to believe that the crown of England and the nation, which has been so warlike and so outstanding (insigne) in every age will not wish to have its part in so memorable an occasion. The pope's brief to the queen prevents them from losing hope utterly. The Senate will leave nothing undone in order to secure some advantage; and will not lose sight of Holland to get something from that quarter as well. He is to try and profit from the support of Arlinton and of the minister of the States.
Ayes, 138. Noes, 2. Neutral, 3.
[Italian.]
March 15.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
33. 15 March, in Pregadi.
That there be transmitted to the regiment of the Arsenal the secret put forward by the Ambassador in England proposed by an individual as set forth therein and in the papers attached, so that the Proveditori and Masters having informed themselves about the gilding and invention for preserving ships without careening may report their opinion in writing, for a suitable decision.
Ayes, 138. Noes, 2. Neutral. 3.
[Italian.]
March 15.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
34. Piero Mocenigo, venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
With the information about the actions in Candia I can definitely make known the courage of the defenders, but that the place is as hard pressed as ever it was. Whenever I have an opportunity in conversation I shall speak of the steadfast largeheartedness of your Excellencies, and with the moderation which has ever been inseparable from my offices I shall keep alive the question of assistance. But the infinite prudence of your Serenity will realise within what narrow limits the good will of the king is confined, and from what follows you will conclude that there is no opportunity for enlarging operations, generous impulses being thwarted by impotence and everything else rendered difficult by jealousy so impenetrable that no opening is left for persuasion.
Holland likewise has made no favourable declaration. Even the ambassador of France has no other commissions from the Court to operate in the interests of your Serenity except to renew pressure upon his Majesty to allow the passage to Candia of Duglas's regiment of Scots. The letters arrived yesterday and he will prefer the request very soon. The French ambassador has not made any application to me to join with him to procure the permission. If I left to him the task of acting with warmth I proposed to join with him in the request. If the favour had been granted the merit would have been his alone, while if it was refused I would readily have shared the repulse with him. A matter within my competence is the affair of the powder taken from an English ship Neptune by his Excellency Moresini, captain of the ships. The merchant has already hastened to the Court determined to obtain satisfaction. (fn. 4) He would not have refrained from making complaint at the Court if I had not previously given him to understand that the generosity of your Excellencies would allow him to enjoy the exemptions which are usually granted to ships which take munitions to Zante and return thence to these parts with another cargo, without proceeding to Venice.
London, the 15th March, 1669.
[Italian.]
March 15.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
35. Piero Mocenigo, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
At the end of my letter last week I gave your Serenity the opinions of the duke of Hiorch about the navigation and commerce of America, the former resisted by the hostility and the latter by the obstinacy of the Spaniards, who had proceeded to declare war, at least beyond the line and so justified the reprisals upon Porto Vello.
To all these representations the Spanish ambassador replies that they cannot proceed to any act of hostility in America without infringing the peace last arranged, which includes it in the general expressions, and then goes on to include it more expressly in the passage relating to hostilities after the publication of the peace. This point being agreed he contends that it is one thing to permit the entry of the English into their ports and quite another to admit them to trade, since not a word was said about this in the treaty. Even if they could prove this imaginative accusation here, that would in no wise justify the surprise of Porto Vello, since it is stated in the peace that the offended party must first carry his complaint to the other side and only take action if he does not receive satisfaction within a certain specified time.
In spite of all this Count Molina, at long last, has received permission from Spain to leave this Court. He has made this news known and talks about the most valued favours received from the king and queen and the infinite courtesies from the ministers, justifying his moves. But in confidence Molina spoke subsequently in another fashion. He complained that after so long a time he had been unable to extract from the roses of the peace negotiations the thorns of the points which are not sufficiently clear, but that the ministers, while pretending to understand perfectly, have kept the king from declaring his will about them. He had eventually asked for this and said that he would report any reply given him to the queen his mistress; but this government was incomprehensible; everything leads to delays and in gaining time thereby they ruin the business as well.
With these sentiments Molina has left, and has not even cared to leave Ognate here, who was sent to the king by the constable of Castile, and who might easily have stayed on after him as resident. It is not only the breach of the peace in America that corrodes the spirits of Molina, but the coldness shown here; the entry into the alliance is beginning to upset it.

The States of Holland are also becoming doubtful about the peace from a quarter whence they were no longer expecting a rupture. The bishop of Munster has passed very copious offices on the subject, and has even made complaint because they seemed to be doubtful of the genuineness of his friendship. Such a protest is worth as much as a promise to a suspicious disposition.
The Dutch, ever intent on their own advantage, have forestalled England by the despatch to Taffilet of the Commander Van Zaen who will sail off in that direction with a squadron from the coasts of Portugal, to establish trade.
Serious trouble was narrowly averted here these last evenings owing to the readiness of the people to revolt. This was because when the lord mayor, who has the office and charge of governing the city, entered the college of the Templars who are all gentlemen students, these last claimed as a privilege of that place, that they should lower the sword carried before him by the justiciar. When he objected to do this, they took away the sword and detained the mayor ignominiously for some hours in the College as a prisoner. As the people were gathering their forces on his behalf the king found it necessary to send the guards to put down the tumult. By their efforts the young gentlemen were persuaded to let the lord mayor go, and peace was restored; and so with great ease a fire was extinguished that might very easily have renewed the fire of London with the worst consequences. (fn. 5)
London, the 15th March, 1669.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
March 19.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
36. Marc Antonio Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
Astonishment is expressed here at the orders sent from England to Sig Duglas, colonel of a Scottish regiment destined for Candia, forbidding him to go, because considerations of trade do not permit that a subject of that crown shall proceed to fight against the Porte. No decision has been taken here so far upon this point. The regiment continues on its march and in any case I will try to see that the service of your Serenity is not prejudiced in any way.
Paris, the 19th March, 1669.
[Italian.]
March 22.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
37. To the Ambassador in England.
The Senate deeply regrets the order to stay the Scottish troops for Candia though they are persuaded that this will not affect the zeal of the French king. It shows however that help from that quarter is very problematic and uncertain. They enclose the pope's brief and hope that this may serve to inspire the king of England with more pious and zealous sentiments.
Ayes, 95. Noes, 1. Neutral, 1.
[Italian.]
March 22.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
38. Piero Mocenigo, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The trade of this country with the Levant is one of those questions that arouses more trouble the more it is considered. Accordingly your Serenity must not be astonished to hear of the steadfast determination felt here against allowing the passage to Candia of the troops of Duglas, together with the others of the Most Christian. This is due to pure imagination of disastrous results and of determined revenge on the part of the Turks. They take this as certain and the case does not admit of argument. As the generality are far from understanding the truth, the knowledge of the few who are exempt from such panic fear is overborne.
To the renewed representations of the Ambassador Colbert about the regiment of Duglas they replied with their former reserve and with general considerations about the danger to so much capital in the hands of the Turks. But feeling the insistence of the Most Christian in this matter to be somewhat mysterious they have since come to suspect that he is scheming to conduct that body of troops to Candia in order to bring them face to face with the Turks and gain advantage for his trade in proportion to the ruin that overtakes England.
Others with more moderate sentiments suggest that the object of the king of France has been to oblige the king here to recall the Scottish regiment. Being of old standing it enjoys many prerogatives, and he would prefer to see its place taken by a native regiment. But all these suspicions will disappear with the news that has reached the Ambassador Colbert that his Majesty has substituted the regiment of Arcurt for the Scots. His Excellency went with this news to the king before he left the Court for Nieumarchet, a pleasure resort in the country. Foreseeing from the profound silence a refusal to my instances for succour, I console myself with not having had any share in that received by the French ambassador.
On Sunday, the day before the king left, the Dutch ambassador took leave, having shortly before received permission from the States and not wishing to lose the favourable opportunity. He had already discharged all the formalities of his leavetaking, the utmost possible civility being shown towards Holland in these final moments. Borel left them with the impression here that the United Provinces will soon be substituting another ambassador to cultivate the best correspondence. Not even the news of the receipt from Sweden, by the minister at the Hague, of powers to sign the treaties for the renewal of the triple alliance sufficed to detain him, although he might have been able to hasten considerably the numerous resolutions involved on this side.
It would seem, by these new treaties that the crown of Sweden is unwilling to commit itself to anything more than is contained in the last one of Aix la Chapelle which serves merely to reunite the princes of the alliance while they remain with their original impartiality, as mediators and judges and not as interested parties with the two crowns the guarantee for the one who is first attacked by the other. The Spaniards would like to have a declaration more in their favour, but it is possible that this crown also may follow the example of Sweden. When the king and ministers have returned to the Court we shall know more definitely about their intentions.
In advance of this has been the departure of Montagu for his embassy in France, which happened five days ago. This has aroused the suspicions of the Dutch who would have wished this mission not to have forestalled but to have accompanied the despatch of the ambassador whom they are about to send to those parts.
These are the fruits of the seeds of suspicion that are growing between the princes of the alliance; but up to the present we do not know whether he has any other commissions than to cultivate good correspondence, and these are so secret that even those most intimate at Court are in the dark about them.
The Spanish ambassador announces his approaching departure. On Saturday he repaid a debt of courtesy to the French ambassador, entertaining him at a sumptuous banquet. He continues to speak with some feeling about the affairs of America and laments that decency does not avail to persuade them even if they choose to deny the agreements and rights. He says that the English claim liberties in the house of others which they refuse in their own, as they do not admit any Spanish ship to come to trade in this country, and he did not see what greater right England had to claim the trade of America.
London, the 22nd March, 1669.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
March 22.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Firenze.
Venetian
Archives.
39. Antonio Vincenti, Venetian Resident at Florence, to the Doge and Senate.
During the whole of the time that the Grand Duke has been staying at Pisa the resident of England has been living here at Leghorn, without ever proceeding to the Court. When the Court arrived here he betook himself to the palace, merely for complimentary offices. (fn. 6) Although there is still a certain amount of strained feeling on both sides on account of what has happened in the past yet the Grand Duke with his graciousness and the resident by his tact gave an appearance of the most perfect understanding.
The resident called on me at once when I arrived at Leghorn and I returned his visit. He told me of the despatch of the Cavalier Allen against Algiers.
Leghorn, the 22nd March, 1669.
[Italian.]
March 26.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
40. Marc Antonio Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
From the letters of M. Colbert, the Most Christian ambassador in London, they learn here with some attention of the complaints made by his Britannic Majesty about the measures that are being taken in this country against those of the religion, intimating that this is being done contrary to what has been established in several treaties and in contravention of the edict of Nantes in particular. They have drawn up replies here full of moderation and lovingkindness, as regards the British monarch, but at the same time they do not relax in the least in their usual severity against those who are openly estranged from the true faith.
Paris, the 26th March, 1669.
[Italian.]
March 28.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
41. To the Ambassador in England.
He is to be on the watch to meet complaints about the ship Neptune which discharged a cargo of gunpowder at Zante. Payment for this will be made without delay by the magistracy alle Artellarie. The despatch of the Cavalier Allem to Algiers may prove of special advantage to the affairs of the republic. He is to keep an eye on this and report what happens.
Ayes, 141. Noes, 3. Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
March 29.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
42. Piero Mocenigo, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Acknowledges ducali of the 2nd March. Discussion in the secret Council. It all reduced itself to small affairs about a sum of money. Now they are again taking cover by the attention paid to the decrees of Holland. The facility with which they seize upon every little incident as a sufficient pretext for withdrawal leads one to anticipate a refusal of the passage of the Duglas regiment to Candia. It also indicates that the example of the Dutch would not suffice to change the policy of England, the basis of which is delay and the constant study to gain time and in that way to get pretexts and cloaks. Everything remains in suspense, especially with the king and court far away and the ministers enjoying themselves in the country.
Your Serenity will now fully understand how little hope I have left. I cannot flatter myself that any good will result from the brief sent by the pope to the queen here. Your Excellencies will not have expected much, as from the very first I wrote that the satisfaction was obtained for the benefit of the queen and not for the relief of the republic. So far as appreciation and esteem for the generosity of the Senate, they will certainly be ample. When the Grand Almoner (fn. 7) returns from Flanders, whom I am awaiting because of previous arrangements, I will go to audience of her Majesty.
In order not to appear to abandon the declarations which it is possible the Dutch may still decide to make, I made suitable representations to the Ambassador Borel. Before his departure he was unable to tell me what would be decided towards the satisfaction of your Serenity, though he assured me of the utmost attention to both matters. I fancy however that it is the intention of the Lords States to send Borel himself back to this Court to cultivate the good understanding which he has replanted there, removing the suspicions which ruined the fruit of such a union. If his own private interests in Zeeland take a good turn he will accommodate himself to receive the character of ambassador in ordinary at this Court.
Meanwhile for the reunion of the triple alliance they are expecting from Sweden powers more ample than those reported last week. These might come by a person sent express and would serve at the same time to establish the treaty and to recall the payments promised by Spain.
While the States are applying themselves to maintain confidence here, they look with suspicion upon the despatch of Montagu to Paris. As a counterpoise to his efforts they have selected M. John de Vit, cousin of the Pensioner, as ambassador at that Court. They wish to make this appear as a mark of esteem towards that monarch. On the other hand, distinguishing this from their interests, they are considering the means of prohibiting the entry into their dominions of all the manufactures of France. Thus while the Most Christian may have the glory of serving as the exemplar of princes he will be the first to experience the prejudice both in his subjects and in trade.
In order to remove any temptation which the Margrave of Brandenburg might have to look to a superior prince for support and claim the settlement of the outstanding differences on the confines of Guelders and the Duchy of Cleves, they have, unknown to all the parties, written him a courteous letter, urging him to a friendly composition. On the other hand, in order to be fully informed about the state of the princes of Germany and especially on the Rhine, they have recalled their resident from Frankfort. (fn. 8)
The Spaniards are doing their utmost to avoid war with France and they will buy the prestige of the triple alliance for cash down in order to uphold the peace. Accordingly they are exerting themselves to squeeze money out of Flanders by gabelles and, as the people resent these, by suspending the pay of the troops. The last support themselves by plunder unchecked, so that complaints are being renewed at Brussels. They are trying for the exclusion of the Spanish garrison, as the oppressor of their liberty, and for relief from the duties, which destroy their privileges and leave them in a wretched condition, without revenues and without commerce, rendered incapable of living for themselves or of serving the king their lord.
This question of duties, which when severe are not always lucrative for the prince, forces me to submit to your Serenity what I am inclined to believe is prejudicial to the mart of Venice, according to the calculation of a person of experience and to trustworthy information. Every year a great quantity of salt fish is exported from England for the use of the whole of Italy. The merchants are obliged to pay 9 lire a barrel on entry into the city of Venice, and 18 on leaving it for distribution throughout the whole of the state. They have decided to go to the port of Leghorn where they are less heavily burdened notwithstanding the cost of 12 lire for transport on mule back as far as Bologna. In this way they supply not only the whole of Italy but the state of your Serenity as well, from which the distribution could be made with so much profit. In this year I find that 4000 barrels have gone to Venice and 24,000 to Leghorn.
London, the 29th March, 1669.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 The ship taken was the Phoenix, the other with Spaniards on board, the William and Benjamin, both belonging to the East India Co. Finch to Arlington on Feb. 8 and 22. S.P. Tuscany, Vol. x. Cal. S.P. Dom., 1668–9, pp. 179, 180, 385.
2 i.e. the Swedish minister on his way to Portugal.
3 According to Salvetti the king announced the removal of Ormonde on Monday, the 25th Feb., N.S. He stated expressly that there was no question of disgrace or dissatisfaction, he merely wished to have the duke near his person. Brit. Mus. Add. MSS. 27962 S., f. 343. The date of this decision is confirmed by Colbert, who says that the duke demanded of the king the right to be heard in the Council on the subject. Colbert to the King, Feb. 25, P.R.O. Paris Transcripts. See Burnet: Hist. of His Own Times, Vol. i, p. 373.
4 He was Thomas Warren, merchant of London, who went later to Morocco as secretary to Lord Henry Howard. He seems to have had considerable dealings in gunpowder and saltpetre. See Cal. S.P. Dom., 1668–9, pp. 208, 238, 347.
5 This happened on March 13, n.s. The mayor was Sir William Turner. Pepys, going betimes to bed, says that all is over, but according to Colbert the tumult lasted through the night and the king's guards were kept out. Pepys: Diary, Vol. viii, p. 243. Colbert to the King, March 14, P.R.O. Paris Transcripts.
6 The Grand Duke came to Leghorn on the 16th. Finch performed, the usual ceremony of congratulation and had an audience of about an hour. All passed as “occasional and accidental” and much of the time was spent in discourse touching the circulation of false French luigini in Turkey. Finch to Arlington, 8/18 March. S.P. Tuscany, Vol. x.
7 Lord, Philip Howard, third son of Henry Howard earl of Arundel.
8 A letter was also sent from England by Sir Gabriel Sylvius, who did not reach Berlin till May. Sylvius to Arlington May 15/25. S.P. Germany, States, Vol. lviii.