Venice
July 1670

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

Year published

1937

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217-236

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'Venice: July 1670', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 36: 1669-1670 (1937), pp. 217-236. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=90275 Date accessed: 23 October 2014.


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July 1670

July 2.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
237. Zuane Moresini, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
This Court is plunged in the deepest grief by the sudden and unexpected death of the duchess of Orleans, which took place at St. Clu on the night of the 29th ult. after four hours of intense suffering. Her Highness returned as reported in previous despatches from the British Court covered with glory and amid universal plaudits. By the advice of the physicians, it is believed, she was obliged to take baths and adopt some trifling remedies. As the debility from which she suffered was attributed to excessive heat of the intestines it was hoped to give her complete relief by refrigeratives. Having come out of her bath on the day mentioned and experiencing an exceptional dryness in her throat, she asked for a glass of iced water with chicory to put her right. This was handed to her by her first lady in waiting and it would appear that the moment when she took it was fatal to her for she was instantly attacked by most violent pains in the stomach. The human remedies which were applied in abundance did not afford her the slightest relief and she herself recognising that her end was near had recourse to spiritual aids and received the sacraments with exemplary resignation and devotion. She had a long talk with the duke, her husband, embracing the crucifix all the time and speaking tenderly with those present of the other life she ended the present one at the age of twenty six years and a few months, amid the most acute pains, borne with heroic constancy and Christian piety, to the intense grief of whoever enjoyed the honour of knowing well her outstanding merits and her exalted rank which adorned them.
The strained relations which existed in the last months of her life between her Highness and her husband and the instantaneous manner of her death after she had taken the water as mentioned has caused the people, who always take the worst view, to conceive the suspicion of poison. This opinion has got such a hold on the populace that the demonstrations carried out by the royal order, although very vigorous, have not sufficed to uproot it. It was accordingly decided, with the unanimous consent of the royal House, that the body should be opened with all possible speed in the presence of ten of the most celebrated physicians of this city with the assistance of the British ambassador and other English subjects staying at this Court, so that the true cause of the mischief and of death might be known and that all those present might convince themselves of the falsity of the present rumours and put an end to the world's belief in them, so far as it depended upon them.
The operation was carried out yesterday. The intestines were found to be all ulcerated and the lungs in particular almost completely putrified so that it was established in the general opinion that Madame had only a few months more to live; that an abscess had already formed and by the excessive cold of the water it had suddenly burst and was probably the sole cause of so sudden a death. For the rest there was a complete absence of anything that gave any sign of poison or that would justify the unjust and ill considered report among the common people.
Before the malady of the duchess had reached its last and hopeless stage, in her last hours of agitation and attempted remedies, the king hastened with extraordinary diligence from Versailles to St. Clu and stayed for some while at the bed of his sister in law. The king sought in every possible way to give her relief, but seeing that she was past hope, she was left by his Majesty, who shed his tears freely showing his intense grief at such a loss.
Since her death the duke, her husband, has been in this city in no state to receive consolation and the exhaustion and physical languour by which he is prostrated afford the clearest testimony to this.
When the king heard of the death of his sister in law, he abandoned his sojourn at Versailles declaring that at a moment so unhappy he did not wish to stay any longer in a place that had been chosen above all others for relaxation and ease. From St. Germain where his Majesty was staying at the time, he proceeded yesterday with all the royal House to this city to console Monsieur in his present affliction. As soon as he has become visible the foreign ministers will perform this duty and I will try to assure him of the deep sympathy of your Excellencies over such a loss.
The desire of the government here, for reasons already given to your Serenity, to be united with the British king and the hope it had conceived of succeeding in the present design through the most efficacious means of the deceased, causes the accident of her death to be most severely felt. Moreover the knowledge that the Dutch will not leave any means untried to encourage estrangement from this side in the mind of the British king, even confirming the common report of poison, is a severe blow to the royal feelings. The king is considering with his Council in what ways they may take steps to counter the negotiations which they foresee. In the mean time the Marshal de Bellefond will leave for London to-morrow in the capacity of royal envoy extraordinary to assure the British king and the princes of that royal House of the sorrow of the king and princes here at this present loss. He also has definite instructions to disabuse their minds of every suspicion of poison at such a sudden death, taking with him the most ample attestation of the physicians and letters from the British ambassador here, with assurances thereon.
Paris, the 2nd July, 1670.
[Italian.]
July 3.
Collegio,
Secreta.
Esposizioni,
Principi.
Venetian
Archives.
238. The English consul and the secretary of Viscount Falcombridge came to the doors of the Collegio and asked to speak with a secretary. I went to them by order of the Savii. After some preliminaries about the reception he said that the ambassador had sent him to inform his Serenity of his arrival in this city and that he was ready to receive the state's favours. If the Collegio so ordered he would make his entry on Monday and have the honour of his first audience on Tuesday.
When I had reported this to the Savii they directed me to tell him that they were glad to hear of his Excellency's safe arrival in good health and they would be glad to fix the days suggested, in accordance with his wishes, and the necessary orders would be issued. As in the ceremonial the ambassador expressed the desire for the offer of the house, which he would then refuse, I was directed to make the offer in the name of the state. The secretary thanked their Excellencies and saying he would report everything to the ambassador, they departed.
[Italian.]
July 4.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
239. To the Ambassador Mocenigo in England.
Acknowledge receipt of his letters of the 16th ult. The Senate is sure that he will find out about the negotiations of the duchess of Orleans as it seems very likely that there is some motive worth inquiring into. His vigilance should also be directed towards the negotiations of Van Boninghen. The character of this individual, on whom they are accustomed to rely for affairs of great import, makes it unlikely that there is not something of moment upon this occasion.
The Ambassador extraordinary, Viscount Falcombrighe, has caused us to be notified of his arrival and all the arrangements have been made on our side, to his complete satisfaction, for his reception with the usual formalities. Monday next is the day appointed for his entry and Tuesday for his first public audience.
Ayes, 114. Noes, 2. Neutral, 3.
[Italian.]
July 4.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
240. Piero Mocenigo, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Immediately after the death of the duchess of Orleans the Ambassador Montagu sent an express courier from Paris. (fn. 1) He brought the news on Wednesday morning and the king and queen and the duke and duchess of Hyorch heard it with infinite sorrow, as it affected their nearest ties. They feel the loss because of the remarkable qualities of Madame and the highest value that they always attached to her person and to her supreme tactfulness. The meeting at Dover, which revived their affection and confirmed their intimacy has only made the blow worse. The king, buried in melancholy and in the solitude of his own apartments, would not have let himself be seen for some days had not the French ambassador besought him to day to arrange an audience for him. The reason for this is a courier sent from his own Court with instructions to perform a very special office of condolence. As the other ministers have no need for such insistence I shall await his Majesty's convenience before doing what is required by propriety on the part of your Excellencies. In the matter of public show I shall follow the example of the others, going into the deepest mourning, which will be worn by the whole Court. Although this is a fresh burden at a moment when I was hoping to be relieved of the embassy, I bow to it in the confidence of the usual generous assistance from the Senate.
The antipathy of the English for France leads the generality of them, when looking into the causes of Madame's death, to have recourse to suspicion and political reflections, which in themselves are unworthy of the notice of the Senate, but I feel bound to mention the matter so that your Excellencies may know how much inflammable material is ready for the kindling and how inclined men are to put the worst interpretation upon whatever happens. The king in his prudence, even in the very depths of his grief, has never given expression to any sentiments except those of the utmost piety and resignation to the Divine will; and the ministers, dumbfounded, do not utter a word.
Van Beuninghen is watching for an opportunity to set on foot all sorts of insinuations that are calculated to serve the interests of the States. In the mean time he is speaking of the necessity of providing some security for the case of Flanders which has been upset by the delay over the boundaries and by the position of the portion of the Spanish dominions conquered by the Most Christian, which is being gallicised. When I went to return a visit of the Ambassador Borel, I found this same Van Beuninghen there, in a private capacity. We engaged in conversation and he remarked to me that the same reasons militated for Flanders as for Italy, as both were the counterpoises of Europe. The government of the most serene republic was most prudent and it had always been the author and preserver of the liberty of Italy. At the present moment, free from the war with the Turk, she might, by the alliance, provide for the common defence and help to prop a monarchy, the ruin of which threatened trouble for its neighbours. Bringing back the conversation to where it began, on the subject of Flanders, I afforded him a fresh opening. He said that the substitution of Prince Francis of Lorraine for the constable as governor would lead to the formation of a hedge of buffer states for Flanders; Luxemburg, Lorraine, Franche Comté and the Swiss with whom they had the best understanding. Passing from this imaginary alliance Van Beuninghen went on to speak of the supposed necessary separation of the parts conquered by the Most Christian from the Spanish dominions; it would not be difficult to make a better agreement about the frontiers at the same time that they are dealing with the boundaries; but Ognate, the Spanish minister told me two days ago that the reference by the Catholic to England and Sweden had not yet arrived.
Van Beuninghen confines himself within the limits of these questions speaking only without reserve about the trade of the Indies. For the rest he does not visit the ministers, in order to keep to his original undertaking, protesting that he is here in a purely private capacity without any special character from the States.
Acknowledges receipt of the ducali of the 7th June.
London, the 4th July, 1670.
[Italian.]
July 7.
Collegio,
Secreta.
Esposizioni,
Principi.
Venetian
Archives.
241. Thomas Viscount Falcombridge, ambassador extraordinary of his Britannic Majesty came into the Collegio accompanied by the Cavaliere Michiel Morosini and the usual senators. After making the usual reverences he seated himself on the right of his Serenity and making a sign to his secretary the latter gave him the letter of credence which the ambassador handed with due respect to the doge who gave it to me. I opened it to read, but without allowing me time the ambassador began to speak in English what I afterwards read from a copy translated into Italian, in the form given below.
The doge expressed great pleasure at seeing him and satisfaction at his safe arrival, especially after such a long absence of a minister from so great and friendly a sovereign. They would always be glad to see him and he could count upon every possible facility for conducting the affairs which belonged to his charge. The more often he came the better they would be pleased. They were sure that he would cultivate confidential relations, informing his Majesty of their great regard which had endured for centuries and they hoped would endure for ever trusting that it would be for the eternal preservation of their republic.
The Exposition. (fn. 2)
From my letters of credence it will be seen that I am sent as ambassador extraordinary. I need not weary you with a long disquisition upon the regard and esteem of his Majesty for this republic, and his desire for its prosperity. If he did not respond to the embassy at his restoration or since I am enjoined to say that he continually intended to do so, and years ago he decided to entrust me with this honour, in which I have so much satisfaction. The reason why he did not do so was due to the war and some other affairs of no small consequence.
I am also commanded to congratulate your Serenity and the republic on the good peace concluded with the Ottoman empire, and that you are relieved of so long and costly a war and from the menace of so powerful an enemy through your remarkable bearing, your heroic valour and your admirable hereditary prudence. It remains for me to ask your Serenity to believe that I shall not fail to observe your wishes and that my efforts will be directed chiefly to the preservation and increase of the close friendship which has existed without interruption for so many centuries between his Majesty's ancestors and this republic, for the satisfaction and profit of the subjects of both and I am more than certain of a friendly reception in everything which relates to the same which depends upon his Majesty, who cherishes an intense desire to contribute everything possible for the maintenance of his own and your subjects.
[Italian.]
Attached,
filza.
242. Charles II, king of England, etc. to Domenico Contarini, doge of Venice.
Has long intended to send an embassy in response to his friendly advances, but has hitherto been prevented by various affairs, which he imagines are not unknown to the doge. Is now sending Thomas, viscount Falcombridge as ambassador extraordinary, to offer his congratulations on the peace recently made with the Turk, and to offer assistance in any difficulties that may arise over the terms of peace. Compliments.
Dated at Whitehall, the 2nd January, 1670.
Signed Carolus Rex. Countersigned: Arlington.
[Latin.]
July 7.
Collegio,
Secreta.
Esposizioni,
Principi.
Venetian
Archives.
243. His Excellency desires an offer to be made to him on behalf of the republic of a palace to lodge in for some days, in accordance with what has been done with other ambassadors extraordinary, which he will refuse as he is furnished with his own palace. He will make his entry on Monday 7 July.
He will not incommode himself or the officers of the Senate, giving up being conducted at Padua or Chioza, to be received or defrayed, as other ambassadors extraordinary have done.
He will be at San Spirito on the said day at the 22nd hour, to be received by the cavaliere and the body of the Senate, who will meet him and bring him to his own palace in the city.
He will make the meeting in the cloisters of San Spirito, and after the exchange of compliments, he will take the hand of the cavaliere on leaving the cloister, and his suite will do the same with the senators, the same order being observed in the gondolas.
On leaving the gondola he will observe the same order, as in mounting the stairs to the audience chamber whereafter the offices of welcome etc. he will accompany the cavaliere to the fondamenta, (fn. 3) and wait until all are in the gondolas, his suite observing the same practice.
On the following morning when the cavaliere comes to take him to audience he will meet him half way down the stairs, give him his hand at the door and take the best place in the gondola, his suite doing the like observing the same method hi returning after the audience.
On entering the door of his palace he will change hands and lead the cavaliere to the audience chamber, and then accompany him to the gondola, his suite doing the same.
After the three customary reverences he will take his seat on the right hand of the doge, will hand in his letters of credence and after they have been read by the secretary he will make his exposition in English, giving a copy in Italian and English. After the exposition has been read by the secretary and after a brief reply from the doge, he will return in the same way as he entered the Senate.
He will not receive the refreshments for more than three days, in order not to be a charge upon the state, although it is customary to defray ambassadors extraordinary for the whole time of their stay. (fn. 4)
[Italian.]
Attached.244. The following are selected to accompany Viscount Falcombridge, ambassador extraordinary of England, on Monday next, the 7th Inst, and on Tuesday morning, the 8th.
Alvise Mocenigo, Pier Emo, Lunardo Contarini, Zorzi Querini, Piero Foscarini, Antonio Dona etc. [seventy three names] and to come to the most serene prince.
[Italian.]
July 8.
Collegio,
Ceremoniale.
Venetian
Archives.
245. George Hailes, the consul of the English nation and another person who said he was secretary to the embassy came to the doors of the Collegio to announce the arrival in this city of the Viscount Falcombridge, destined to reside with the most serene republic as ambassador extraordinary as shown by the copy of his credentials, which was left.
Afterwards when inquiry was made privately in his name concerning the treatment that would be accorded to him, the Secretary Corniani, by order of the Most Excellent Savii, replied cautiously that he would receive exactly the same treatment as the ambassadors extraordinary of France. Other questions asked later received similar answers, as shown on the file of expositions, under this date.
The monastery of San Spirito being chosen for the compliment and reception to be made, the most excellent Signor Michiele Morosini was told off by his Serenity for this function, with a large number of senators. On the 7th July he made his public entry, being accompanied to the house taken on hire by the aforesaid consul. With regard to the said house, although it was shown that one had not been given either to his predecessor Filding, also ambassador extraordinary, or to Ambrum and Besier, ambassadors extraordinary of France, because they had taken one on hire, yet he wished to have the satisfaction of having it offered, when he would not accept it, and so it fell out.
On the following day, the 8th, with the same accompaniment he had his first public audience in the Collegio, with open doors, with the forms adopted with the other ambassadors of crowned heads. He spoke in English having first handed in a copy of his exposition in Italian, as a guide. Instead of defraying him for three days, 500 ducats of good value were voted for him for refreshments, to be spread over the three days, by the magistracy of the Rason Vecchie.
Angelo Zon, Secretary.
[Italian.]
July 9.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
246. To the Ambassador Mocenigo in England.
Informing him of the entry of the Ambassador Falcombridge and of his audience in the Collegio. Forward copies of the ambassador's exposition and of the reply given to him. Also enclose the reply to the ambassador's letters of credence, in presenting which to the king he is to express the Signory's appreciation of a minister of this character.
Ayes, 153. Noes, 0. Neutral, 1.
[Italian.]
July 9.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
247. To the King of Great Britain.
The Senator is highly gratified at the despatch of Viscount Falcombridge as ambassador extraordinary who has been welcomed in a manner calculated to show their appreciation of the greatness of that crown and the rank of the individual, as well as the character he bears. The ambassador very fully and courteously has explained his Majesty's concern in the interests of the republic and particularly in the peace recently concluded with the Turk, in which they are sure of the full equal concurrence of all the princes of Christendom and especially of his Majesty, who has so large a share therein. This being already ratified they are equally confident of its duration, by God's grace, for a relief from the late long and painful troubles. Satisfaction at his Majesty's pleasure in receiving the expression of their regard. Compliments.
Ayes, 153. Noes, 0. Neutral, 1.
[Italian.]
July 9.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
248. That the Viscount Falcombrighe, British ambassador extraordinary, be summoned to the Collegio and that the following be read to him: (fn. 5)
The king's sending of your lordship as ambassador extraordinary is a sincere testimony of goodwill and of the mutual correspondence maintained for so many ages. This demonstration of regard is the more welcome from the eminent qualifications of your lordship, so that you may be sure of a constant kind reception from us. We desire that you would report of us accordingly to your king, and you may further be pleased to represent to his Majesty the particular sense we have of his good offices in the matter of the peace with the Grand Signor of which we have now received the final ratification, so that we have no reason to doubt the continuance thereof, for our relief from our long cares and troubles. We shall communicate the same sentiments to our ambassador resident with his Majesty so that he may represent the same, together with the extraordinary satisfaction which we have received.
Ayes, 153. Noes, 0. Neutral, 1.
[Italian.]
July 9.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
249. Zuane Moresini, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
With the return from London of the courier sent from this Court with the sad news of the sudden death of the duchess of Orleans the king has received various despatches from his Ambassador Colbert which have very greatly disturbed the government here. The ambassador reports the very bitter feeling of the British king over this loss, the reports published broadcast in the city there of the use of poison for such a sudden death, and the arrival of a secret despatch from the Ambassador Montagu here confirming this opinion in the British Court. All this serves to increase ill feeling and discontent in the king here and his royal House. Your Excellencies will receive fuller particulars from the spot. Here in the mean time they spare no effort to remove from the mind of the British king a suspicion so injurious and so hateful His Majesty has written an affectionate letter in his own hand to the king there in order to make him fully realise the grief that is felt here and to remove from his mind every thought of violence.
In the mean time the king strongly resents the mischievous change in the sentiments of the English ambassador here. In the first days, immediately after Madame's death, he agreed with the others in declaring it to be natural. A few days later he changed his mind, withdrew this truth and by harmful offices is inspiring mistrust and ill feeling between these governments. Moreover the freedom with which Mons. Van Boninghen is constantly affirming in London the violent death of the duchess makes a sensible impression on the feelings of the Court. The Marshal di Bellefond has been sent on a special mission and has already started, charged with the necessary instructions to act as a counterpoise and so far as is possible to put an end to the detraction and the mischief against this side.
Here in the mean time with all the magnificence that is used on such occasions, the heart of the deceased enclosed in a gold vase was taken these last days to the church of Val de Grace and deposited in the same place that holds that of the queen, mother of his Majesty here. Her corpse, encased in several coffins, has been placed in the church of St. Denis until such time as it is buried there with the customary pomp.
Paris, the 9th July, 1670.
[Italian.]
July 9.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
250. Zuane Moresini, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
The Most Christian ambassador in London has intercepted a letter of Mons. di Boninghen to the States of Holland and sent it here. By this means the government here has penetrated into the very innermost of the present negotiations. I venture to impart to your Excellencies some particulars from the letter itself that I have succeeded in finding out, not without some trouble. Mons. Boninghen advises the States that he encountered some difficulties in London over his first commission about the union of the English with the Dutch fleet in the Mediterranean in order thus jointly to offer a more vigorous resistance to the career of the Ottoman corsairs. With regard to trade between the two maritime nations at Surinam he hoped to find suitable arrangements which would be for the good and advantage of both the parties. From those who have the management of affairs at the British Court he had unimpeachable assurances for the duration of the triple alliance. He adds that the death of the duchess of Orleans has occurred very opportunely, as with the impression already formed in the mind of the king and of the whole kingdom generally that it was due to poison, the sentiments of that Court are completely estranged from the interests of France. He would try to encourage the idea. It was a very necessary thing to gather in other Christian powers to the triple alliance, cultivating the inclination so far shown by the imperial minsters at the Hague and that displayed by the new king of Denmark to the ambassador extraordinary of Holland. The loss suffered by France in Madame may be considered a notable gain for the United Provinces. Finally that the States should live in the complete assurance of the sincere inclination (propensione) of the British king, who becomes increasingly reluctant to afford further gratification to the Most Christian. The Signory will realise how strongly this letter has stirred the government here against the States.
The king has expressed his extreme appreciation of the diligence shown by the Ambassador Colbert in tracking down and getting possession of the very letter, and in this connection they will seek every possible means to meet and thwart the plans and the measures taken by the United Provinces.
Paris, the 9th July, 1670.
[Italian.]
July 9.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia
. Venetian
Archives.
251. Zuane Moresini, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
Among the efforts made manifest by the British king for working with all his might to counterbalance the future designs on this side, I have found out, upon good authority, the apprehension of the government here that when the Ambassador Falcombrige arrives at Venice he means to propose to your Excellencies some treaty for an alliance or for trade and I have learned from a trustworthy source that precise instructions have been sent to the Most Christian ambassador at Venice to penetrate thoroughly into the negotiations and treaties of Falcombrige with your Serenity. Your minister at this Court has frequently been asked with some circumspection by one in the confidence of him who rules, as to what might be the motive for this present move in the direction of Venice. To this I reply that it is merely a ceremonious response to the action of the Signory; but I perceive that this does not satisfy the mind of one who is seeking to penetrate more deeply into matters, as in their heart of hearts they hold fast to the idea of an understanding and more occult designs between England and your Serenity.
Paris, the 9th July, 1670.
[Italian; deciphered.]
July 9.
Collegio,
Secreta.
Esposizioni,
Principi.
Venetian
Archives.
252. I, Michiel Morosini, being commanded by your Serenity to wait upon the earl of Falcombridge at his entry, arranged the honours and formalities with Colonel Analdi, an Englishman, but who has long served your Excellencies. (fn. 6) The ambassador made some objection about meeting in the apartments saying he could not do so because of the recent example of the ambassadors of Germany and France, and as his religion prevented him from entering Catholic churches, he would remain in the cloisters of the convent, so as not to leave anything to be written against him to the foreign ministers resident here. This being arranged to his satisfaction by the Savii, I went on Monday to San Giorgio Maggiore, and accompanied by a large number of Senators I proceeded thence to the island of San Spirito. There, as arranged I found the ambassador's household outside the convent gate, but the English consul, who arranged the function, having got into a confusion, I decided to enter the church to bow to the altars, where, in a moment, word was brought that all was ready to receive me. Accordingly I entered by the great door of the cloister, towards which the ambassador advanced to meet me. After an exchange of compliments I took him by the right hand and led him to his house, and after due formalities, took leave of him there, with the Senators. On the following day, assembling a number of Senators at the church of San Barnaba, I again went to wait upon him, when he met me on the stairs and brought me to the audience chamber. After more compliments I took him to audience and back again.
Our conversation was about the nature of his travels, the conspicuous situation of the city and many other particulars with which I need not weary the Senate. I gathered that he is not going to stay long, but before he leaves another embassy is to be appointed, and on this point he insisted very strongly that he was not to stop with any other title than ambassador extraordinary. Afterwards, in friendly confidence and upon a promise not to mention it, he told me that he had letters for his Serenity from the duke of York, but having learned that in the reply your Excellencies would not give him the title of “Royal Highness,” he decided not only to withhold the letter but to say nothing to the duke in his exposition. He was amazed at this reserve towards a great prince, the son and brother of a king, whom everyone called “Royal Highness” without hesitation. It was not to do him a favour but only to give him his due.
I told him that the Senate had a peculiar regard for the duke and would always be glad to show it, but the uses and formalities of the republic were incapable of alteration. This was the title which they gave to all the brothers of kings, and there was no question of the Senate's sincerity as the forms were public. When he said that all gave him this title I knew that he did not include the crowns, whose example was followed, and not those of inferior condition. He replied that the crowns indeed did not use it, but in any case it seemed proper to him not to take this step without fresh orders and he had sent an express to the Court with the information.
This is a summary of the formalities and conversation. To conclude I have only to represent the wretched state in which I found the island of San Spirito, which is more like a den for wild beasts than a place for receiving and honouring foreign ministers. The most remarkable stones have been carried away, for the most part, the windows have fallen and the walls are going to ruin. It seems to me that the place calls aloud to the Senate to issue orders for the care of an ancient church and to repair the injury wrought by time and negligence to so conspicuous and stately a monument. (fn. 7)
[Italian.]
July 10.
Collegio,
Secreta.
Esposizioni,
Principi.
Venetian
Archives.
253. The ambassador extraordinary of England having been sent for to the Collegio, the office decided yesterday evening in the Senate was read to him. After acknowledging this and exchanging compliments with the doge, he made the usual obeisances and went into the other room to take a copy of the office, which he caused his secretary to write, and then left.
After dinner the ambassador's secretary came with the English consul to the doors of the Collegio and told me, the secretary, that the ambassador had sent them to return thanks for the abundant refreshments and courtesies during these three days, begging his Serenity to rest satisfied with what had been done. Secondly he asked to be informed if he had done wrong in any of the formalities of the morning. Thirdly he asked for an appointment for an audience on affairs, suggesting Monday or Tuesday next.
The secretary then drew me apart, away from the consul, and told me that the ambassador desired to be honoured by the communication of things which happened in the Levant and which did not touch the secrets of the republic, such as might have been communicated by the Ambassador Mocenigo in London, in conformity with the practice adopted when ambassadors were resident with the republic before.
Having reported everything to the Savii I made the following reply by their order. The refreshments were to please the ambassador. He had acted quite correctly and his behaviour had been greatly appreciated. He might have audience when he wished by sending the evening before to arrange it. Of the day suggested Tuesday would be the more convenient, and it would be well for the consul to come the evening before, to arrange it. I drew the secretary aside and told him that he might freely give me his commands as I had orders to hear him gladly. With regard to news of the Levant there was nothing of consequence beyond what was contained in the office of the morning, namely the ratification and establishment of the peace. After the secretary had made a few formal remarks, they departed.
[Italian.]
July 11.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
254. Piero Mocenigo, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The French ambassador having broken the silence of the foreign ministers since the death of Madame of Orleans and the king having relaxed from his retirement, I saw an opening for arranging an audience, and the Ambassador Borel followed my example. Thus on Sunday morning, separately we performed our offices with the king and queen and after dinner with the duke and duchess of Hiorch. The minister of your Serenity was introduced first by the Great Chamberlain and by the Master of the Ceremonies with every ceremonial and the highest honour. I spoke of the large share that your Excellencies had in this calamity from the esteem that you always professed for this royal House and from your interest in all that concerns it. Their Majesties and Highnesses expressed their gratitude and their infinite obligation to the Senate.
The Marshal di Bellefont performed much more elaborate offices. He arrived from France at the house of the Ambassador Colbert. He was taken to Weithal in the royal coaches by the Master of the Ceremonies and performed the office of public condolence. He withdrew afterwards to the king's cabinet and talked for two hours about the particulars of the accident. The Chevalier Flamerino also brought the offices of the duke of Orleans to the whole of the royal House. They were both received with the utmost graciousness. But while the king, in his prudence and the wisest of the ministers interpret the despatch of so distinguished a marshal advantageously as a mark of esteem and of the unquestionable sincerity of the Most Christian the public generally proclaims that this is necessary to justify the accident and continues to believe that the real truth is palliated by so conspicuous a demonstration. This report, which came from France although it found a ready echo here because of the antipathy for the nation, does not as yet resound with the clear accents of any apparent truth, nevertheless the Ambassador Colbert is still very apprehensive that, besides the loss of the duchess, the happy minister of trade between these two countries, the affair will still remain buried in the hands of my lord Arlington.
The ambassador himself has told me all this. He is also devoting exceptional attention to the advices from Spain about the arbitration, and still considers it certain that the queen has referred it to the kings of England and Sweden. On the other hand the Dutch ministers discredit the report. The truth is that they have no news of it at the secretaryship of state here nor have they any light on the subject in Flanders so far as I can learn from my correspondents.
Nothing is said about the Baron dell' Isola coming here. It is a long way off and may never happen if the opinions prove true which the Spaniards say are of French origin and which touch him to the quick. This is that the king does not wish to see l'Isola back here because of his dissatisfaction with him on the last occasion; but the truth of this is not yet established.
Mons. Van Beuninghen continues incognito at the Court. As he is not speaking any more about the junction of the squadron of Dutch ships with the English one against the Algerian corsairs it is not at all unlikely that the States, being better advised, will prefer to conclude a peace with the corsairs separately on their own account, rather than act jointly with England and risk capital and incur expenditure on an indecorous war.
In the treaty of commerce the States will only study to get advantages from a union with England seeing that the Dutchman in the Indies is so strong that he has no need of supports. With the arrival in Holland of fifteen ships of the Indies richly laden in Battavia last December with goods of the Company the news of the conquests in Macassar is verified. Four viceroys have been captured and peace has been made in which the king of Macassar is obliged to remit 200,000 pieces of eight to the company on account of war expenses, to rase fortresses, to admit the money of the company in his dominions, not to wage war or conclude peace without the knowledge of the same and finally not to admit any European nation but the Dutch to trade in his dominions. (fn. 8) Such advantages and such conveniences for trade persuade Van Beuning to announce that the peace is not durable and that the sum mentioned is the harvest of three years. This is to diminish envy and to avoid the danger of encountering the ships of his Britannic Majesty in the Channel. To escape this and to avoid recognising the dominion claimed, these fifteen ships took the northern route round Scotland and four others which are expected from Bantam and Ceyland will do the same, when only four from these same Indies have arrived in England.
The ambassador Borel has taken leave of the king unexpectedly, without ceremony. He came to the house of the minister of your Excellencies saying that his private affairs called him to Zeeland for two or three weeks.
London, the 11th July, 1670.
[Italian.]
July 16.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
255. That a notary of the ducal chancery be sent to read the following to Viscount Falcombrighe:
The Senate readily agrees with what you said about maintaining a constant correspondence between princes, and this republic will express a suitable readiness upon all occasions. His Majesty could not have pitched upon a means more effectual than your most worthy person. We are also abundantly assured of his Majesty's concern towards the peace with the Turk, and we profess a due sense of his inclination towards our interests; and the great renown of his Majesty as a peace maker will be the more loudly reported since his chief design was to extend itself to the welfare of all Christendom, not without very particular advantages in the exigencies of the late war. (fn. 9)
Ayes, 84. Noes, 1. Neutral, 1.
[Italian.]
July 16.
Collegio,
Secreta.
Esposizioni,
Principi.
Venetian
Archives.
256. Viscount Falcombridge came into the Collegio and speaking in English in the sense of the memorial in Italian he left it. After the secretary had read this the doge expressed his thanks for the office and promised a reply. They thanked him also for what he had reported to his Majesty. They were glad to see him in good health, as they heard yesterday with some concern of his slight indisposition. The ambassador made a sign of his esteem for the honour of these words, rose and went out, after the usual reverences.
The Memorial (fn. 10)
Friendly relations between powers who are far apart are kept up by ambassadors or other ministers, and in this way ancient alliances are renewed and made stable. To this end it has pleased the king, my master to send me to your Serenity. I remember that on the first occasion that I had the honour to speak in this august Collegio it was to congratulate you on the peace, with the Turk. I will now add that if my king did not supply help, it was due to the pressure of his affairs with respect to trade. But now that peace is concluded he is glad to be able to make known his goodwill to the republic and to employ his offices for the continuation of the peace. I say this only to show how much my king has at heart the safety and relief of this state.
[Italian.]
July 17.
Senate,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
257. Alvise Molin, Venetian Ambassador at the Porte, to the Doge and Senate.
The English ambassador came to call on me the day before yesterday with a distinguished and numerous cortege. He expressed his desire for a good understanding and the best correspondence, not only as a matter of duty, but by the express command of his king. I presented him with the letter sent by your Excellencies and he responded in an appropriate manner. On returning his visit I observed the same formalities as his Excellency had practised with me. He told me by way of confidence that he had heard that when the Vizier arrived at Rodosto he was not altogether satisfied about the movements of France. In view of the delay over the return of the Turk who had been sent to that Court with the minister who is expected here (fn. 11) he thought it advisable to despatch a certain number of troops to Candia.
Pera of Constantinople, the 17th July, 1670.
[Italian.]
July 17.
Collegio,
Secreta.
Esposizioni,
Principi.
Venetian
Archives.
258. I, Nicolo Cavanis, went yesterday evening, by order of the state, to the house of the English ambassador and being introduced into his apartments read him the office recently decided in the Senate. He asked me for a copy and I left one with him, and so took leave, having been courteously treated in all the other formalities.
[Italian.]
July 18.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
259. Piero Mocenigo, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The decision of Spain about the arbitration has arrived at last. But it is not what was expected or what the rumours in circulation these last weeks had imagined. As your Excellencies will know already, the queen calls in the States of Holland to the decision of the boundaries so that with the addition of a third to the two arbiters nominated by the Most Christian and accepted by the Catholic they may give their award upon clear points with brevity and facilitate a decision in doubtful cases. Although Holland is one of the powers of the alliance and perhaps more interested than the others in peace and in the guarantee of the peace of Aix la Chapelle, and although Spain, for this very reason believes her to be a necessary member of the arbitration, the Council here has not as yet decided on the manner of presenting the affair at the Court of Paris. The information will not be news to them there as the decision was imparted to the French ambassador at Madrid who wrote it to the Ambassador Colbert here. He communicated it to me three days ago with the addition of the opinions expressed in his conversation with the king here. These are that the measures of Spain were taken with extraordinary deliberation in a matter that was extremely pressing. That as the Dutch had not once been called in by the Most Christian to the arbitration he did not see how it would be possible to admit them now; and it was not becoming that a new republic should arbitrate upon differences between the most conspicuous crowns in the world.
While the affair is thus in the balance Mons. Van Beuninghen, who has his ears open for everything, is cultivating the Spanish envoy more than ever and on the other side he says that the Lords States would be reluctant to find themselves engaged in this, as they prefer not to be involved in the differences between the crowns.
Van Beuninghen is confining himself to these intimations, and yet the transactions confided to him as a person of experience must be of extraordinary consequence to the States, who have sent him, who belongs to the Province of Holland, in spite of the fact that the Zeelanders have the privilege of being nominated by their Province to be ministers at the Court of London. This encroachment on the privileges of the Province of Zeeland, which has never been attempted against Holland, which chooses the ministers for France from its own members, is of no little consequence to that republic and obliges Boninghen to be more than ever careful to conceal every title and quality, so as to give no cause for just criticism.
Van Beuninghen is devoting his attention to the trade agreement which Mons. Colbert is negotiating. He rejoices to hear that the replies of the Secretary Arlington are colder than usual, especially since the death of Madame of Orleans. Under pressure he has been induced to promise Colbert a reply in writing to the articles presented, upon which the English will not fail to start fresh difficulties.
Close attention is being paid to the events of Africa. Definite news has arrived with the letters from Spain of the successes of Taffilet. He has established the title of emperor for himself and extended his rule over all the kingdoms and provinces as far as Cape Verde. But the suspicion previously entertained by the ambassador. Lord Arondel, of the treachery of Taffilet, is being confirmed, namely that he was scheming to get the ambassador into his hands and then bargain for the cession of Tanger to secure his release. The secretary Waren, who has experience of the country, has penetrated more deeply into this scheme. They are expecting the earl back here very soon without any hope of establishing commerce and security for the fortress of Tanger.
The winds having ceased the ducali of the 14th, 21st and 26th June have come to my hands and I note more than ever the infinite generosity of your Excellencies towards me.
My zeal to serve the state led me to seek an encounter with Van Beuninghen when walking in the Park. I turned the conversation on to Sautin through an opening afforded by Borel last time. I supposed him to be aware of the expectation of your Excellencies that the States would decide that matter and release the money seized, after receiving information from the commissioners. He offered excuses for the States saying that they could not abandon their subjects. The case had been allowed to run too long in the civil courts at the Hague. The case of the most serene republic against the claims of Sautin had never been heard. He suggested a compromise, that the Senate should recommend the revision of the accounts, settle the debt to Sautin and promise payment by a merchant at the Hague, to be made only after the removal of the sequestration and upon terms most agreeable to the most serene republic. If Sautin was convinced that there was some doubt about the amount demanded by him he would listen to reason, the sequestration would be removed and the affair settled. Knowing that Sautin's claims were considered to be unfounded by our magistrates, not only in part but altogether I contented myself by asking him to write to the States to cause the arrest to be removed and promised complete justice at Venice on the part of your Excellencies. Van Beuninghen replied that he personally and the magistracy of Amsterdam had exerted themselves in vain to move Sautin from the sequestration. He would write again to the States. Some means would be found for getting the affair referred to arbitrators in the States of Holland themselves. Personally he was most anxious for the revival of the best correspondence with the most serene republic. He went on to speak to me of the hope that the States would send a minister to Venice, for political considerations, for the requirements of navigation in the Mediterranean and for the Levant trade. He left me, expressing the intention of writing to Holland again about fresh expedients, protesting that he would do all that was possible during his brief stay at this Court and with the States also when he got back there.
London, the 18th July, 1670.
[Italian.]
July 23.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
260. Zuane Moresini, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
Their minds are relieved at this Court by the knowledge they have received of the courteous reception given by the British king and all the princes to the Marshal di Bellefond and the Chevalier di Flamansi who were sent to assure them of the grief felt at the loss of the duchess of Orleans. Owing to the popular rumours that her death was the result of poison, accredited by some sinister insinuations from the British minister here and openly fomented by the remarks of the Dutch ministers, the government here feared that unfavourable impressions would be made on the minds at that Court. Accordingly they have received with the utmost satisfaction the assurances of the Most Christian ministers that the propensity of his Britannic Majesty towards this side continues unchanged.
Paris, the 23rd July, 1670.
[Italian.]
July 26.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
261. To the Ambassador Mocenigo in England.
He is to express the grief of the Signory at hearing of the death of the duchess of Orleans, by a special office with the king. The ambassador of the Most Christian has been in the Collegio to inform them of this accident. This has not yet been done by the Ambassador Falcombrige, and the Senate supposes that it is because he has not had time to receive the news from England. The Senate approves of his decision to follow the example of the Court and go into mourning, and will grant him 1000 ducats for his relief.
Ayes, 105. Noes, 7. Neutral, 11.
On the same day in the Collegio:
Ayes, 20. Noes, 1. Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
July 30.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
262. Tomaso Rudio, Venetian Secretary in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
I expressed my sorrow to the English envoy at the news of the death of the duchess of Orleans. He said how much both England and France had lost and I gathered from his remarks that he is in some doubt whether this misfortune may not give rise to strange events on one side and the other and that the proposals about trade which had been put forward with France might not have that happy issue that was promised at the outset.
I also gathered something from him about the affair of Flanders. When the king of France proposed to pursue his victories there the king of England reminded him of his undertaking to maintain the peace. Last spring the Most Christian wished again to invade those provinces when King Charles, by his ambassador at Paris, renewed the strongest representations against disturbing the peace and in the end induced France to consent to the nomination of mediators. The Spanish government raised difficulties but last month they gave their reply to Godolphin, and now, after many consultations this government has decided to nominate the Dutch as arbitrators, although they know that the Most Christian disapproves. Six months having passed without any treaty, their lordships here comfort themselves with the assurance that the British king will have to show his face again and take a pledge for further prorogations. With respect to this Godolphin told me in the strictest confidence that his master will not for the third time abuse the benignity of the king of France, chiefly because the affair has arrived at the last stage of expedients for a pacific treatment and a settlement since both crowns had referred the decision to arbiters appointed by one side and the other. Now it only remains to be seen whether the Dutch will be admitted by France. Later on, with the going of the Count of Molina, the complete settlement of this affair will be managed. He is all ready and expects to start this week, being fortified with a good supply of ready money. But it will be a difficult matter to succeed in satisfying both parties permanently.
This same envoy, intent on securing advantages by pressing home his efforts, has this last week sent off some one express to London with a plan laid out for new and more advantageous negotiations for the trade of his Majesty in the Indies, claiming that he is giving them in exchange a good secure and stable peace between the inhabitants of Jamaica who are of considerable strength and are continually harassing the neighbouring islands and the ships of subjects of this crown.
Madrid, the 30th July, 1670.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 Sir Thomas Armstrong. Hartmann: Charles II and Madame, page 329.
2 There are copies of this office in English and Italian in S.P. Venice, Vol. xlvii, ff. 43 et seqq.
3 The local name for the footways adjacent to the canals.
4 There is a copy of this paper in Italian in S.P. Venice, Vol. xlvii, f. 55.
5 There are copies of this paper, in Italian and English in S.P. Venice, Vol. xlvii, ff. 66 et seqq.
6 Lieut. Colonel Thomas Annand, a Scottish gentleman, born at Stirling, about 50 years of age at this time, who had been twenty-five years in Venetian service, and who had a chief part in the negotiations for the surrender of Candia, obtaining much better conditions than had been expected. Dodington to Arlington on 27 June. S.P. Venice, Vol. xlvii, fol. 25. See also Vol. xxxiii of this Calendar, pp. 140, 246.
7 The island of San Spirito was occupied by the Augustinians for whom Jacopo Sansovino built the church. In 1656 the Augustinians were suppressed and the island left deserted until in 1672 the Senate gave it as an asylum to observantine friars exiled from Candia. Molmenti and Mantovani: Le Isole della Laguna Veneta, pp. 28–9.
8 The Gazette reports the arrival at Texel of the East India fleet with news of the victory of General Speelman over the king of Macassar and the peace resulting therefrom. London Gazette, June 27–30. A treaty had been made in November, 1667, to which objection had been taken in England. The news here appears to relate to a confirmation of this peace signed 27 July, 1669, the terms of which are in Dumont: Corps Diplomatique, Vol. vii, pt. i, page 78. See also Sir W. Foster in Court Minutes of the East India Co. 1668–70, pp. ix, x.
9 There is a copy of this office, with translation in S.P. Venice, Vol. xlvii, ff. 85 et seqq.
10 There is a copy of this office in English and Italian in S.P. Venice, Vol. xlvii, ff. 75 et seqq.
11 The French minister was Charles François Ollier, marquis of Nointel. Chenaye-Desbois et Badier: Dict, de la Noblesse, Vol. xv, page 162. He did not arrive at Constantinople until 22 October, v. Hammer-Purgstall: Geschichte des Osmanischen Reiches, Vol. iii, page 640. The Sultan's envoy to France is called Muta Ferraca, who had left Paris on 29 May N.S. London Gazette, May 23–6. The two travelled together from Toulon.