Venice
July 1672, 1-15

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1939

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235-253

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'Venice: July 1672, 1-15', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 37: 1671-1672 (1939), pp. 235-253. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=90324 Date accessed: 22 August 2014.


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July 1672, 1–15

July 1.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
241. Girolamo Alberti, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Scarcely had the queen decided to visit the duke of York at the fleet than she acted upon it, departing with the king and the whole Court, and their Majesties did not return to London until last evening, all in exuberant health.
The doubts about the French subside with difficulty. Some go so far as to suspect that the Most Christian ordered d'Estrees not to run any risk, being ambitious of conquering the Dutch single handed on shore. But the duke, who adapts himself marvellously to the king's opinions in this matter, circulates every possible statement to confute these misgivings. I gather from confidential friends that the duke merely reproaches the French with mismanagement and the chef d'escadre du Cane with lack of courage, and thus endeavours to conceal the mortification of having, through their fault, lost the opportunity for renewing the fight on the Wednesday, when he had good reason to anticipate the rout of the enemy, and to exculpate himself for the confusion which enabled the Dutch to offer battle in the first instance. This is the chief reason why the duke does not allow himself to be superseded in the command by Prince Rupert, who has already been appointed Vice Admiral of England, in place of the late Lord Sandwich.
However much the duke may seek to distinguish himself the Dutch will pursue him, and having burned the
Royal James, a ship no less powerful than the Prince, on which his flag is now hoisted, the example causes apprehension for his Highness, since experience shows that the Dutch do not lack the knack of performing whatever they deem feasible, while the courage of the English, without the smallest regard for the issue, is satisfied by rushing blindly into the fire, and they will never learn a profitable lesson from the enemy's tactics. Yet in a sea fight their desperate courage will always win them the victory over Holland.
Ruiter's demonstration at sea is a secret in the breast of that commander, who seeks to gain credit by appearances. It is not known how he will wait for the English, who will not put to sea until next week, having received word that the Dutch East India fleet is not yet near home.
Other projects are being devised in order to gain glory for the nation in this war; but the unchecked progress of the Most Christian only leaves time for attention to things at hand and to procuring advantages in the treaties for adjustment.
That the world may not conclude that the grandeur and wealth of France have made the king here cut a sorry figure in the war, and that she may outwit him in the peace, I understand that the reserve is due about listening to the Dutch ambassadors, a policy attributed to fear of giving umbrage to the Most Christian, though it merely indicated overflowing goodness of heart on the part of the king, who rejoiced at the submission of the Hollanders. It was also caused by too much reliance on the Most Christian. This confidence having now cooled, the king repents that he did not sound the Dutch envoys, as provided he made no reply, France could have no cause for complaint, his honour would have been saved in the face of the world and a certain confidential intercourse formed with Holland to prevent her from throwing herself in despair into the arms of France.
On the other hand, because of past affronts and present proceedings, the United Provinces cannot count much on the king of England, who is now so much exasperated against them. Yet everything possible will be done if the Most Christian, in the flush of conquest, forgets his pledged faith to England. The king here knowing that every victory has been facilitated by the alliance and the diversion effected, will not choose to be at the mercy of France with respect to the gains merely to avoid censure from people in general or condemnation from his own subjects, who, having disapproved of the war, would clamour even more over a disgraceful issue, indeed to silence licentious opinions and discourse the king has issued the following proclamation.
To avoid taking any false step in this essential matter, a courier having arrived from the Most Christian asking for commissioners to confer with those of Holland, his Majesty decided yesterday to entrust the main point of the business to the duke of Buckingham and the earl of Arlington, who are to leave tomorrow, to be at the king's elbow in Holland.
I have just heard that Lord Arlington and Lord Clifford went to day to Hampton Court for a conference with the Dutchmen, though the journey may have other private motives. Similarly while Lord Olifax will now only offer congratulations on the birth of the Most Christian's son, (fn. 1) so Sir
[Gabriel] Silvius is going to the prince of Orange with other secret commissions, and the Dutch republic, having adopted new maxims in place of its former principles, after showing too much disregard for its friends, finds itself alone and experiences strange effects from the present overthrow, many scandalous events having occurred, which your Serenity will have heard already.
Two evenings ago the Spanish ambassador told me that Monterey had sent off four couriers, one to the queen in Spain, one to Vienna, one to the ambassadors in Paris and one to himself in London, with the news that Brandenburg was marching with
20,000 foot and 10,000 horse to succour Holland; Locard having returned from his fruitless negotiations with that duke, and that the other monarchs ought to bestir themselves, as the Most Christian is no longer proceeding in military array to conquer fortresses, but passes through them in procession. The queen mother of Spain during her son's minority, did much in the teeth of two crowns who dared not dispute her right to succour the Dutch, nor will the Spaniards admit that England and France wink at this because it suits them to wage only one war at a time. Fresno added that for the first year England might keep on terms with both Spain and France, but in the second she would be compelled to declare herself for one or the other. In the mean time he had all the instructions in his closet from Vienna and from Spain, for negotiating and concluding the marriage of the archduchess of Innsbruck with the duke of York.
London, the 1st July, 1672.
Postscript: I have just heard that the king will leave for the fleet tomorrow, accompanied by the ambassadors, the duke of Buckingham and the earl of Arlington, who will proceed thence to Holland.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
July 1.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
242. Girolamo Alberti, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
In accordance with the instructions of the 28th May and 4th June I had a long conversation with Lord Arlington. I told him of what had been done for Morelli, Galileo and Dodington and asked for his assistance in obtaining a royal passport for the ship Leonessa. (fn. 2)
In reply Arlington expressed his obligation for the part taken by your Excellencies in the honours lately conferred on him. He promised to back my request for the passport, but said there would be difficulties. The war was being waged on the trade of Holland, whose subjects during the late war continued to trade under other names. His Majesty was now more on the watch, lest English civility to other nations should prejudice his chief object, namely to destroy the trade of the United Provinces. Provided this suspicion were removed the subjects of the most serene republic would always receive the best treatment, and when the commissioners meet they will forward the matter.
He then told me plainly that the king had been induced to remove Dodington chiefly because he knew him to be importunate at Venice, but he hoped that the Senate would not attribute this decision to abandon the minister, to weakness. The true object was to cultivate friendly relations. He expected that your Excellencies would be stimulated to emulate. Opening his heart to me he said that Dodington, to exculpate himself, would declare that he had been removed for having too zealously advocated the interests of the English nation. To refute this, Arlington was determined to apply himself to some commercial treaty beneficial to the two countries. The king had decided to send to your Serenity Sir [Thomas] Hugons, a gentleman of very good parts, brother in law to Lord Bath, first lord of the bedchamber, to whom he would give instructions on the matter, before he left, next autumn, if your Excellencies would not agree to have the matter negotiated here in London, as his Majesty would wish, and he was waiting to know if the Senate would agree to this. He dropped a hint about the extreme softness of Sir Thomas, as if he could not promise himself much success from his negotiations, though I am of opinion that Arlington prefers to negotiate himself for I see that he is ambitious of undertaking any business that can bring him credit, and so render him more than ever necessary to his Majesty. Moreover, Sir Thomas, being new to Venice, would hardly be able to master so important a matter. Yet in Arlington's opinion the present moment is opportune, and your Serenity may be of the same mind, because when once the trade of Holland is destroyed England will raise her terms.
In the mean time I await instructions and will draw up proposals to submit to your Excellencies, as it would be well to anticipate lest the English, accustomed to demand everything, insist on their claims, while many of their proposals being combated at home (for in England every new thing is opposed) they may reserve the best and most feasible for the last, so as to make them appear the finishing stroke. My share in this promising arrangement is confined to having cultivated the ample disposition generated by the Ambassador Mocenigo. With regard to Dodington's recall I congratulate myself on having confined myself to hints, without further commitments.
In the matter of trade I may add that here in London they think of opening a public bank, in which private individuals may deposit their money in safety, receiving interest at the rate of six per cent. and with liberty to withdraw it at call. The project originated thus. The goldsmiths, who kept the money of all the merchants, had a difficulty in refunding it, because the king suspended his payment to one or two of them. As they thus lost their credit, no one trusts them any longer, and many persons who lived on the interest of their capital, are thus inconvenienced. If this scheme is realised the profit which used to be shared among all the goldsmiths would form a handsome fund for the king, provided he succeeds in establishing his credit, and that the mart will trust him with its money.
I enclose the commercial treaty with Denmark in which your Excellencies will not find the agreement about the passage of the Sound; but in a separate secret article it is settled that the English are not to lower their flag, provided they give notice of their coming beforehand, whereupon the governor of the Sound will hoist the white flag, the usual signal whereby the king of Denmark allows all ships to pass without stopping, but only in case of storms and sea risks.
Your Serenity urged me to obtain drawings of the finest English ships. While it would not be difficult to get representations of their exteriors, their proportions, which are the essential part, are kept a profound mystery, which can only be learned by a bribe. The king indeed told me that he would allow any one to measure a ship now building at Plymouth in the assurance that no one would discover a new secret peculiar to its build.
London, the 1st July, 1672.
[Italian.]
Enclosure.243. Proclamation to restrain the spreading of false news and licentious stating of matters of state and government.
Given at Whitehall, the 12th June, 1672. (fn. 3) [English.]
Enclosure.244. Articles of alliance and commerce between Charles II, king of Great Britain etc., and Christian V, king of Denmark etc, concluded at Copenhagen the 11th July, 1670. (fn. 4)
42 Articles.
[French.]
July 2.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Germania.
Venetian
Archives.
245. Giovanni Morosini, Venetian Ambassador in Germany, to the Doge and Senate.
The emperor has chosen the prince of Locovitz to treat about the Inspruch marriage as desired by Colonel Guasconi. It appears that the question has been carefully considered and discussed by the Catholic ambassador here with some of the imperial ministers. It continues however to encounter more and more difficulties and the interposition of delays, in direct contradiction to the wishes of the English king and his ministers. I have been assured on trustworthy authority that before consenting to the conclusion of these nuptials the ambassador requires that they shall obtain definite assurances from England that they will detach themselves from the present union with the Most Christian, to cause the triple alliance to continue steadfast in complete vigour for the preservation of the Catholic dominions, and finally to oblige the French king by the efficacy of his offices to remove his troops and forces from the Rhine and from the empire. The consent of the British king to these conditions may prove difficult to obtain and accordingly the issue of this affair is thought to be doubtful. It may be that the portentous good fortune of the Most Christian king and the utter shipwreck of the affairs of Holland may oblige the Spaniards to change their policy.
Vienna, the 2nd July, 1672.
[Italian.]
July 7.
Collegio,
Secreta.
Esposizioni,
Principi.
Venetian
Archives.
246. The Resident of his Britannic Majesty came into the Collegio and presented the letter and memorials below, which were read. The senior councillor, Andrea Soranzo, in the absence of the doge, said that his requests should be duly considered, and after inquiry had been made they would decide what was proper, always with the desire to gratify his Majesty and to show the Signory's regard for the nation. The resident said that when the hot weather had abated he was directed to return to London. He would first come to take leave, and meanwhile he asked for the despatch of the matters contained in his memorials. The Councillor Soranzo said he would always be welcome and they would see that his requests were promptly dealt with. And so, after the usual reverences, he left.
Gio. Battista Nicolosi, secretary.
Charles D.G. king of Great Britain etc. to Domenico Contarini, doge of Venice and the Venetian Republic.
Quaerentibus olim nobis per litteras nostras menses ab hinc aliquot datas de exacto aureo super singula millia uvarum Corinthiacarum ex Zacynthi, Cephaloniaeque insulis a subditis nostris exportata, telonariis vestris inhibitum fuit ne quid eo nomine mercatores Anglos rogarent quod tamen ita male observar accepimus ac ea audacia Zacynthi Pisarum et Cephalonia Vendraminum ut dictam pecuniam aut aliquam ejus partem dicta de causa extorquere nunquam destiterint, nos quidem non possumus non agre ferre vim illam commercio fieri quod quidem adeo delicati sensus est, ut nisi a rapaci manu undique munitum sit, languet prorsus deficitque quapropter e re esse consuimus repetitis instantiis serio vobiscum agere ut praescriptorum vestrorum gravitatem asserere velitis ac non leviter patiunt aliquorum privatae rationes publicis nocerent commodis, verum severius jam decernatis, ut quod injuste exceptum fuit juste reddatur et ab argento hoc nomine in posterum exigendo omnino abstineatur. Adeoque vos rempub. vestram publicam summo numini animitus commendamus. Dabantur apud palatium nostrum de Whitehall, 21 die Februarii 1671/2.
[Signed] Carolus R.
First Memorial. (fn. 5)
Although I have had his Majesty's letter nearly two months I have delayed presenting it until the time of the departure of the new Proveditori for Zante and Cephalonia. To tell the truth I have not had precise information from the merchants on the subject for more than 5 or 6 days. I learn that in spite of various representations and the repeated orders of the republic the Proveditori of the islands continue to exact the real per miliare, and under this pretext they have raised 7000 ducats from my king's subjects trading there since the termination of the Proveditore Bernardo, which was confirmed on 3 December, 1670. The order could not have been more precise and no one would ever have believed that after it any one would have ventured to thwart the Signory's intention. In your letter of 11 March, 1671, to the Procurator Antonio Bernardo, Proveditore da Mar, your Serenity directed him to see that the good order practised by the Proveditori Pisani and Vendramin in the islands to prevent this charge of a real per miliare should be practised by their successors. But who would believe that these Proveditori have done the exact opposite. I know that your Serenity dislikes hearing of this affair and so I abstain from wearying you with a long memorial. I have simply stated the truth and ask for the orders which his Majesty's letter and justice require.
Affidavit by the English consul and merchants at Zante that to obtain the despatch of their ships which came to lade currants they had to pay to the Proveditori Pisani and Vendramin the sums mentioned below, in spite of the orders of the Proveditore Bernardo, confirmed by the Senate.
I, Clement Harby, consul, paid to the said Proveditori at divers times, 525 reals.
We, William Pendarvis and William Vare, paid to the same at divers times, 2247¾ reals.
We, Onofrio Vaim and John Gefferli, paid to the same at divers times, 1227½ reals.
I, Thomas Cordell, paid to the same at divers times, 190 reals. Besides 115¼ reals paid to the Proveditore Pisani by the said consul and the agents of the Morea company for 231 miara of currants laded at Zante on the ship Porta d'Oro for the said company.
Second Memorial.
I have informed the Court of the kindness with which your Serenity has always listened to my requests and your readiness in doing justice for his Majesty's subjects trading in your dominions, as shown lately in the affair of William Pendarvis whose assailant is now imprisoned. But the process begun here has not yet been despatched for the completion of the affair. I therefore ask that the process may be given to me together with the orders to the Proveditore General da Mar, as we have to keep one of our nation in those parts for other eventualities. Your Serenity will immediately comprehend the enormity of the attack and of those who promoted it, so that both may be punished, as is fitting.
Third Memorial.
You cannot easily imagine how much I dislike coming here to complain about the ill usage which my king's subjects are daily receiving from the officials of your Serenity at Zante. I should not do so were it not necessary to prevent the continuation of such unkindnesses, which might in time cause worse results. This last week I have received a long complaint about an affront, accompanied by threats, offered to Sir Clement Harby, the consul at Zante, in the office of the Sanita on 29 May last by one Cristoforo Stabile, when the consul was asking for pratique for two English ships newly arrived at the port. The nation, seeing itself offended in this manner, appealed to the Proveditore General da Mar, but without receiving the redress they hoped. I therefore come here to ask you to summon this Stabile before you to answer for his behaviour, the nation having decided to appoint two merchants to prosecute the affair on their behalf, being certain of receiving justice from your Serenity. In times past the republic has always been most particular to prevent offences of this kind, as may be seen by the orders of 1633 and 1636 of which I am leaving copies with your Serenity.
Fourth Memorial.
Returns thanks for the protection afforded in the case of Clisenti. This man has now asked for pardon and the resident also asks it, but with this caution, that due provision shall be made for the safety of Sig. Druso Guerra, who suspects with good reason that this Clisenti may do him fresh injuries in the future.
Fifth Memorial.
Renews the appeal for the payment of the 2322 crowns owed to Captain Tidiman, for which the Senate intimated that it would shortly give satisfaction. Asks that the sum may be paid from the chamber at Zante to the consul Sir Clement Harby, who is appointed to act for the captain.
Sixth Memorial.
Thomas Galilee returns thanks for the money voted for him, with continuance for the rest of his life. He has nothing to support him for the short time that remains to him. He lost his ship and goods in the fight in 1652 and endured twenty years of bitter slavery, during which his father died, having also lost all. He now asks for some maintenance from your Serenity in consideration of all his losses.
The present petition is supported by one who professes himself the most devoted servant of the republic, who feels no doubt of the generosity of the Signory.
[Italian.]
July 8.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
247. Girolamo Alberti, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The king came back from the fleet yesterday morning. To encourage the forces he gave orders for numerous payments to be made, and similarly the queen gave considerable alms, which were converted into shirts and other articles to secure their reaching the wounded English as well as the Dutch prisoners.
The populace nevertheless complain because the king, for the second time went on board the French Admiral, Count d' Estrees, a mark of confidence which he insisted on showing to allay the irritation caused by the charges to which I have alluded. While the Ambassador Colbert went to the fleet to draw up a sort of process of what occurred during the action, the arrival two days ago of provisions and military stores caused an outcry in the whole fleet against his brother, because for lack of these supplies the English squadrons could not put to sea before Wednesday, (fn. 6) and yesterday
(Thursday) the French hove anchor from the buoy at the Nore. Six men of war and fourteen armed merchantmen embarked Buckingham's new regiment and a quantity of implements, all indicating some project for a landing, news having been received that the Dutch squadron has disembarked its troops for employment on shore, Ruiter being ordered to remain with the rest of the forces purely on the defensive, off the sand banks.
These projects originate with the duke of York, who is ambitious of some signal action, and they surprise everybody, because on the other hand all appearances are in favour of peace, according to the following inferences which I forward to avoid the risk of giving my own uncertain opinion about future events.
It was true that Arlington went to Hampton Court, accompanied by Buckingham, Clifford, and Shaftesbury, to listen in the king's name to the proposals of the Dutch, who said they merely had instructions to ascertain what the king demanded of Holland. Although other persons imagine that they made humble offers, which his Majesty consigns to silence, for the maintenance of the French alliance without exasperating the people of England further, I and many others believe that the United Provinces are not yet so alarmed and devoid of resources as to implore peace with clasped hands. On the contrary, since their reverses it seems that diplomatic intrigue is more rife than ever. They did not choose to risk the rejection of their offers and, after requesting the king's friendship in general terms, showed themselves equally well prepared to accede to a just stipulation, as disposed to throw themselves into the arms of France if England refused them her hand in this emergency.
Such is the jealousy shown by the States in order to save themselves and it has made a great impression at this Court, for they suddenly sent Buckingham and Arlington to the French camp to deter the Most Christian from these secret arrangements.
The king is convinced that the hatred of the Dutch for England is hereditary; that it increased because of trade and became implacable owing to the pretensions of the United Provinces, which required him to sacrifice himself for the interests of their republic. Wherefore his Majesty suspects them of humbling themselves in despair before France, the avowed antipathy of the Pensionary de Wit being an additional reason for this surmise. Proceeding to consider the government of the Dutch republic, at present so harassed by the conflicting opinions of two individuals, I venture to say that de Wit, the irreconcilable enemy of England and the prince of Orange, constantly maintained as his policy a certain attachment to the Court of France. Van Beuninghen, with his faction, was the one who planned the present war; obtained for it the approval of Spain, urged it himself in London, invariably exasperated the Most Christian king. Now as a sequel to so many extravagant projects he draws down war and destruction on the States and on himself the blame of such a flood of misfortune. So it is supposed that de Wit, resuming his maxims, will again adhere to France and thus, despite England, obtain for the Provinces the restitution of their territory.
In spite of this I am assured that the king cannot bring himself to doubt the sworn faith of the Most Christian, and is convinced that, having rejected the offers of submission brought by Grotius to Paris, he would be even less ready to receive him in the camp. His Majesty said he never could suspect France of aiming at winning over Holland by formally laying her under an obligation
(con officiosamente obligarla), it being simply intended to coerce her and take every possible advantage, leaving the United Provinces in the form of a republic, but vassal, rather than subject to France, with their territory dismembered, their liberty destroyed and their trade annihilated, the Most Christian knowing how jealous the States must be of his progress, nor could he ever rely on any oaths taken by them, contrary to their interests, in the present emergency.
Such is the conviction of the king of England, who has given the fullest possible powers to his ministers; nor can the Most Christian feel any jealousy, as both powers simultaneously advocate peace, although with different ends, England being suddenly alarmed lest the unexpected conquests of the Most Christian being extended, aggrandise him overmuch, while he on his side is apprehensive lest the European powers, terrified by the violent destruction of Holland, take up arms against him, especially now when he is gnawing the hardest part of the bone, so that the United Provinces remedy their catastrophe speedily. From these facts, elicited by me from the English ministers and the French ambassador, I infer that the two crowns will seek to heal the wounds of the Dutch republic so as to mitigate her enmity.
Colbert himself told me that in the peace the Most Christian would display especial zeal for the faith, restoring liberty everywhere, and that after England had received satisfaction about the flag, India, colonies etc., he did not know what other fortresses she could claim and expect.
Spain also aspires to have a great share in the peace and Fresno said to me that the States had lately bound themselves not to make it without the Catholic king. In spite of this they sent commissioners to the Most Christian and to London without giving him notice of the mission; but the queen mother would not brook any detriment done to Flanders, the Spaniards suspecting that the embarrassments of the Dutch may cause them to neglect the interests of their allies.

London, the 8th July, 1672.
Postscript: An express has arrived from the duke of Buckingham and Lord Arlington at the Hague, on their way to the French camp. At this moment all I can ascertain is that they have conferred with the prince of Orange and that their yachts were saluted by the fleet with every formality. I have not even time to sift another report that the king grants letters of naturalisation to all foreigners; which would be a great step for foreigners.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
July 8.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
248. Girolamo Alberti, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The unexpected conquests of the king of France which disconcert the measures of this Court, compelling it to have recourse to peace and also to disregard every advantage and the honour of the country, do not deprive the king of the benefit anticipated by him for his internal affairs, in his serious intention to restrain the excessive liberty of the people. He knows that he will gratify them by making peace with Holland, and therefore he does not despair of obtaining money from the parliament. But being weary of this state of dependence, so perilous for the crown, and convinced that the difference of religion generates turbulence against the government, he thinks of curing the disease by separating the tainted leaders of the various sects in England. The liberty granted to them is but a feint to reduce them to some sort of order, and that given by him to the Catholics, which appears limited, is the most gracious and replete with confidence, the king's object being to oblige them as good subjects.
I do not believe that as yet his Majesty has been animated in the least by conscience. He does not say so, but I know from the lips of his most confidential minister that he disapproves of divisions among the Catholics, from fear of their swerving from that obedience, which is desired by him. At present the disputed point is the nomination of a bishop, which is no less desired by all good Catholics than opposed by others, from fear of losing that freedom which they enjoy in a state of disorder, and everyone tells me that the Jesuits are the bitter opponents of the measure as it is they who intrude more than others into the direction of families, and by such means into that of every other matter; that they give themselves greater liberty and would suffer most of all by the restoration of good order in England. Either they or others have impressed upon the Court of Rome the idea that if a bishop were nominated the country would take alarm and the hatred of the Catholics redouble, from fear of their introducing the hierarchy, which is detested by practically the whole country, and the anti episcopalians cause it to be suspected that the king, in order not to endanger himself, would again abandon them to worse persecution. If the Court of Rome really believes this, it ruins the Catholics here by too much tenderness; but the usual irresolution of that ephemeral government is more probably what causes their confusion for I cannot suppose that there is no one who dares frankly to inform the pope for fear of contradicting the Jesuits, who
(if it is true or a common fallacy) have a great share in the distribution of the good things of this world, which depend on their agency, and this is the secret for the control of practically all mankind.
The truth is that a Burgundian Jesuit arrived here with orders to ascertain the need for appointing a bishop and the manner and time for effecting this without noise. Few persons anticipate any good result from this, and it is perfectly true that all the Catholics, having turned towards the king, await aid from him, invoking that authority by which formerly they were crushed, and which, at this moment, the heretics here declare to be usurped, null and invalid.
Such is the desperate state of the Roman Catholic affairs and it has transpired that the Apostolic See complained to the Ambassador d'Estrees of not being informed before of the grace conceded to the Catholics, supposing it to have been granted according to an arrangement between the allied crowns, whereas here I have heard it said openly that had the measure been communicated it would certainly have been thwarted, as the congregations of cardinals at Rome judge remote affairs upon scanty information and that insincere.
In the mean time we are expecting to hear of the negotiations of Lord Lauderdaile, the king's commissioner in Scotland, who will similarly benefit the Catholics, those in Ireland being comforted by the adoption of the various privileges already reported.

A few days ago the king formed a great resolve and recently announced it in public. Thus he restores to the Howard family the charge of earl marshal of England, which they lost in the civil war. (fn. 7) Lord Henry, earl of Arundel, brother of the duke of Norfolk, now under charge in Padua on account of his infirmity, has earned by his long services (he and his son are now volunteers with the duke of York) the favour hitherto delayed by the king solely out of scrupulousness, as the earl and his family are all Catholics. His Majesty now dispenses with this obstacle in the face of the whole country. The office renders the earl the chief personage in the kingdom and he will become the premier duke if he survives his elder brother. He has always shown great devotion to your Serenity's service, and his attachment may prove a most valuable asset.
London, the 8th July, 1672.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
July 9.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
249. That the following be sent this evening by a notary of the ducal chancery to the Resident of his Britannic Majesty, to be read to him. (fn. 8)
You judge rightly of the upright intentions of the State, as we have shown by the orders to ensure to the merchants of your nation all the privileges and advantages that may serve to show our partial affection towards them. We have learned with much displeasure that our commands concerning the exaction of a real per mille on currants have not found due observance in the islands of Zante and Cephalonia. That every omission may be corrected we have enjoined our Proveditore General at Sea to proceed to an exact information so that justice may be done, and in the mean time to be very vigilant for preventing all disorders so that the rules of the State may find an entire observance.
We also charge him to provide for the indemnity of the consul residing there, and we shall enjoin him to promulgate such orders as may serve to restrain every one within the limits of modesty, and cut off all things that tend to disorder, making evident our affection towards your nation.
We promise ourselves from the Proveditore, who is well disposed to your nation, and who has sent us a copy of the paper presented by the consul and merchants against Constantine Scagno, a good account of that affair, since he is already in prison, and on receipt of this we at once directed the despatch of the process thither so that Scagno may be punished as he deserved, which he avoided by his flight from this place.
We were ready to correct the insolence of Francesco Clisenti against Druso Guerra and the Avogadori di Comun had already issued orders to secure him. Now at your desire we ordain them to proceed no further, but that they oblige Clisenti to refrain from offending Sig. Guerra in any kind whatsoever.
Concerning the claims of Capt. Tidiman we have nothing to add except that he shall have the justice which is impartially administered to all.
Capt. Galilee has already received some consolation from us by a present disbursement of part of his credit and a monthly assignment until the whole be paid. We shall not fail to remember his merit with attestations of the public approbation.
We regret to learn of your approaching return to the Court. Your worthy qualities render your longer residence here more desirable. Howbeit we shall always receive gladly any other minister of his Majesty, to whom we profess an affectionate observance, and towards whom we find ourselves united by strict ties of an ancient, never interrupted, sincere correspondence.
That the Avogadori di Comun be directed not to proceed further against Francesco Clisenti, but to bind him in the manner they think most fitting not to harm Druso Guerra in any way soever, as asked by the Resident of the king of Great Britain.
Ayes, 143. Noes, 1. Neutral, 2.
[Italian.]
July 9.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
250. To His Britannic Majesty. (fn. 9)
Deep regret at learning from his letters and from what the Resident Doddington says that the execution of their instructions issued from time to time for the benefit of the English nation in the islands of Zante and Cephalonia has been neglected. Desirous of showing their sincere regard for his Majesty they have directed the Providitore General da Mar to make a careful inquiry about any abuses that may have occurred, so that justice may be done subsequently. In the mean time they are charging the Proveditore General to see that the State's wishes are carried out.
Ayes, 143. Noes, 1. Neutral, 2.
[Italian.]
July 9.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
251. To the Secretary Alberti in England.
His letters for the current week have not arrived. Enclose copy of a letter for his Majesty with copies of a memorial presented by the English resident and of the replies given to him. He is to present the letter to his Majesty with a suitable office and to let him know of the orders given to the Proveditore General da Mar for the removal of abuses and the punctual observance of the Senate's orders. He is to follow the tenor of the enclosed reply if anything is said about other matters contained in the memorials.
Ayes, 143. Noes, 1. Neutral, 2.
[Italian.]
July 9.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
252. Francesco Michiel, Venetian Ambassador in France, Doge and Senate.
The thing which has aroused most interest at Court is the arrival here with the king of the duke of Buchengam and the Secretary Amelton with the title of ambassadors. Joined with these is the duke of Mommut, who is already with the army. The king, his father, has chosen to decorate him with letters directed to the king which entitle him and beg the king to receive him as his ambassador extraordinary. From this he emerges as the principal figure of the embassy. The day before yesterday, after a few days on the road, they arrived at this Court. After dinner they had their first audience of the king and yesterday morning for a long space of time they had a prolonged conference. The king was present, with Mommuth, Buchengam and Amelton for England, and Pompona and Luvoe for France. After dinner the king reviewed the troops, with a great display of gold and feathers.
With regard to the business done yesterday morning there is a great variety of opinion in discussing it. It would seem, however, that the first benefit has redounded to the glory of the prince of Orange. Many said that from this embassy one might predict the fortune of that prince. If the king, his uncle, did not seize this opportunity, so fatal to the republic of Holland, to raise the nephew to an exalted position, he might throw away all his hopes and expect to be in an ever declining position. What is made public is not merely to the advantage of the prince. This is not only to cause him to retain the title of which he ought to be the worthy heir by the merits of his ancestors as there is no cause in himself why he should be disinherited, but to raise him to a more exalted pinnacle and cause him to enjoy more illustrious prerogatives. Thus they are not to listen to the deputies unless they settled upon these points.
Other contend that more important affairs were discussed. It is thought that England, seeing her enemies reduced to such great misfortune, may conceive greater hopes than were at first proposed. For this reason she will urge by means of her ministers that they ought to give the severest shaking to that republic. It would be easy to follow up if only the matter is tackled with resolution, the king undertaking the operations on land and England, with her powerful fleet, those at sea. They urge the king to this task for the tempting bait of so many wealthy towns, but much more with the consideration that the trade which is at Amsterdam will be divided between the two nations. Moreover it is not advantageous to listen to peace when a fleet which is coming from the Indies may be the reward of such heavy expenditure. In addition they demonstrate the necessity in which the Dutch find themselves, being besieged on every hand. Finally it is pointed out that England cannot conquer unless the trade of the States is completely interrupted. They would consider the two islands of Zeeland a scanty harvest after such great labours. They would prefer conquests in the Indies to the possession of provinces which could serve no other purpose than to render their friends jealous.
This is an essential point to be considered by the king, who is singularly wise, and to reflect if his ancestors would have incurred such toil and he himself have incurred such heavy expenditure to thrust into the kingdom detached from these provinces a nation as warlike as the English are. Every reason requires him to seek all possible means to avoid admitting them afresh unless it be from a fear that disturbances may ensue in his own kingdom in consideration of his power and of the sincerity which passes between this crown and England. In any case he has to consider the vicissitudes of fortune which changes very frequently and the genius and interests of the nation and of those who lead it.
The camp of Utrecht, the 9th July, 1672.
[Italian.]
July 15.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
253. Girolamo Alberti, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
In my last I mentioned that advices had come from the Ambassadors Buckingham and Arlington. A gentleman who brought them reported that on the arrival of the two royal yachts (fn. 10) in sight of the Dutch fleet of about 70 sail, at a distance of two miles from Hamburgh off the island of Walcheren three of the Dutch despatch boats went to meet them. Seeing the Union flags, as the English colours are called, with the white astern, they fired a shot to windward as a sign of peace. This being returned and the captain of the largest vessel having come to pay his respects to the ambassadors, they saluted him when he went back with a discharge from nearly all their guns.
Buckingham and Arlington having landed at Maesland on the Meuse, opposite the Brill, were entertained there by the chief magistrate, and at the Hague by the deputies of the States, being received with acclamations by the people who shouted Long live the king of England and the prince of Orange and may God confound the States. They then continued their journey and nothing more is known of their negotiations with the prince of Orange or their arrival in the French camp. On the other hand the duke of York writes from the fleet that the Dutch were stationed in their former position, in the midst of the sandbanks, and that he was cruising boldly in front of them towards the Meuse. The belief here is that he means to enter the river and make some considerable landing.
At this most important crisis, by depriving himself of his two chief ministers, the one a man of vigorous mind, the other steady and experienced, the king shows that he knows how to preside alone at his Council board. Two evenings ago he said that the Dutch sought in vain to separate him from France, by engrafting suspicions, and he alluded definitely to the scheme which I reported, whereby they hope to save themselves. He added that for his own part he placed no trust in the prince of Orange or in the civilities of the States, nor did he any longer fear the acceptance of their proposals by the Most Christian king.
From this speech and from other indications I gather that the government is less uneasy than it was last week, as not only does the present contingency thwart the conquests of the Most Christian, which appeared excessive, hut it also renders the king here morally certain that the king of France will not detach himself from the interests of this er own.
England is apprehensive of the exuberant good fortune of the Most Christian, lest he forget his promise, and because it is evident that he will henceforth dispose arbitrarily of all events in these parts. Accordingly she does not disapprove of the emperor's alliance with Denmark, Saxony, Hesse and Brunswick, as the Most Christian will thereby be more confined to his own resources, and the chief object will be attained, to wit that of balancing between the allied crowns the fortunes of war and of peace.
Speculation is still hesitating as to whether the stir made by the princes of the empire will hasten the peace or not; but contrary to the general opinion I venture to suggest that even if the corps of auxiliaries were ready, the allied crowns will not be obliged to yield to their demands, as the Most Christian relies on making similar diversions in the empire. In the next place the reasons which would prevent Holland from accepting hard terms are evident. She will hope to improve them through assistance from so many quarters; and they would not be tolerated by the Spaniards, who will prefer to lose all at once, by force of arms, rather than prepare their own ruin by a disadvantageous agreement. Holland therefore injures herself by espousing without benefit the interests of the others, from whom she cannot detach herself, save at the risk of losing the fortified towns in Brabant and elsewhere, the Spaniards having intruded themselves by way of garrison, and retain possession for their security. So the peace which was accelerated last week by the mutual jealousies and domestic occurrences of England and France, is now rather impeded by the concurrence of so many powers, who inopportunely unite with the emperor and Spain, whereas, if this had not happened, we might in a few days have witnessed remarkable results from the irreconcilable antipathy between the nations.

London, the 15th July, 1672.
[Italian, the part in italics deciphered.]
July 15.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
254. Girolamo Alberti, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The duke of Lauderdaile, on arriving in Scotland, opened the session of parliament there, presenting the royal letter, of which I enclose a copy, together with the reply and the duke's speech, to show how prudently that minister seconds the mild policy adopted by the king in the management of his subjects, in the hope of gaining popularity.
Lauderdaile had not yet made any proposals, but was to announce them in his next letters to the king, it being of extreme importance that Scotland should readily accede to the High Commissioner's intimations, and thus support the policy pursued by his Majesty with the utmost assiduity and prudence.
I need not enter into details about Ireland, for being of ancient date, the story is a long one; but the king, having thought it necessary to suppress certain burdensome and superfluous offices, the dismissed officials have caused some disturbance, availing themselves of the pretext afforded by certain compassionate concessions made to the Irish Catholics. But everything has been quieted by the king's good management. The other reports of disturbances, circulated in England and which will have been even more current abroad, are false.
Last week letters were received from Colonel Guasconi announcing his arrival in Vienna, and fair hopes of the marriage of the archduchess of Innsbruck to the duke of York. I fancy that, at his instigation, the king has written to the Empress Eleanor, to assist the negotiation, though perhaps existing circumstances will break its thread, as it is not known when the duke of York will return from the fleet.
The corpse of the earl of Sandwich, late Admiral of the Blue, has been brought up the river and at the king's cost there was a stately funeral; the body being interred in Westminster Abbey.
I received this week the ducali of the 23rd June and enclose the duplicate of No. 87, as instructed. I congratulate myself on having obtained from the king the permit for the ship Leonessa, despite the scruple concerning Van Aelst personally and his ship, both being considered foreign; and as the English aim at destroying the trade of the United Provinces they are fearful that other nations may lend their names to the Dutch. The king graciously overcame every difficulty, and I know that at the present moment the Swedish minister is labouring in vain to obtain a favour of possibly less importance. I venture to suggest that thanks should be expressed to the Resident Dodington, as the king would thus be encouraged to grant future favours, though he is already perfectly well disposed towards the republic.
The proclamation said to have been issued for the naturalisation of aliens is not printed and indeed I believe the measure (which would be a great step in favour of foreigners as well as highly beneficial to England) to be still f ar from settled. (fn. 11)
Consul Hayles has dropped a hint to me about the appointment of viceconsuls, and will unbosom himself more fully next week, when all his Communications shall be reported as well as the result of his demands for the concession by the merchants here of certain charges on goods arriving in Venice.
London, the 15th July, 1672.
[Italian.]
Cl. vii.
Cod. mdclxxi.
Bibl. S.
Marco,
Venice.
255. His Majesty's gracious letter to his parliament of Scotland, of May 23, 1672, with their answer; as also the speech of the Marco, duke of Lauderdale at the opening of the session of parliament, Venice. on June 12) 1672. (fn. 12)
Printed by Thomas Newcomb, 1672.
[English.]

Footnotes

1 Louis François, duke of Anjou, born on 14 June.
2 At Amsterdam, laden by Venetians. It was granted on 2/12 July. Cal. S.P. Dom., 1672, page 305.
3 Steele: Tudor and Stuart Proclamations, Vol. i, page 431, No. 3569. The text is printed in the London Gazette for June 13–7.
4 Printed in Dumont: Corps Diplomatique, Vol. vii, pt. 1, pp. 132–7.
5 There are copies of the first three memorials, with the English versions, in S.P. Venice, Vol. li, ff. 240, 236, 238.
6 This must refer to supplies for the French squadron, for which Colbert's brother, the famous controleur des finances, would be responsible.
7 The patent was not made out until 19 October. G.E.C. Complete Peerage, n.s., Vol. ix, page 627.
8 There is a copy of this office with English translation, omitting the paragraph about Tidiman, in S.P. Venice, Vol. lii, ff. 5–7.
9 The original letter is preserved at the Public Record Office, Royal Letters, Vol. LXVI.
10 The Katharine and Henrietta; the former for Buckingham and the latter for Arlington. Cal. S.P. Dom., 1672, page 260.
11 This would have been in connection with the declaration of 12 June inviting Dutch subjects to come over and settle in England (No. 235 at page 231 above). A bill for naturalizing Protestant aliens was introduce in the House of Commons in the following February; but it does not seem to have got beyond a second reading. Journals of the House of Commons, Vol. ix, pp. 250, 267, 274.
12 For the king's letter see Cal. S.P. Dom., 1672, page 49, and Lauderdale's speech, ibid., page 209.