Venice
August 1672

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1939

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263-274

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'Venice: August 1672', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 37: 1671-1672 (1939), pp. 263-274. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=90326 Date accessed: 21 October 2014.


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August 1672

Aug. 5.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
267. Girolamo Alberti, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The appearances of peace having vanished, the Ambassadors Buckingham and Arlington, with Halifax returned from Antwerp to London. The two first, who were in the secret, regretted the continuation of the war on account of the risk of civil commotion in England, but with the firm hope that it will at length end advantageously, the Most Christian abiding firmly by the alliance and by his promise.
They report that the prince of Orange, encouraged by his councillors to secure for himself supreme authority by means of war, is gaining the goodwill of the people by protesting himself obliged to them and making it appear that solely for their advantage does he reject the offers made to him by England and France. As a fact the prince believes that if those two powers were to render him absolute, the dependence on one or both of them would prove more burdensome than the preservation of his present command is likely to be difficult, by following the policy of his ancestors and thereby possess himself of the sovereign authority, to dispose arbitrarily of peace and war.
Fresno did not deceive himself in his opinion about the policy of Orange, who may possibly bind himself to Spain as closely as his Excellency anticipated, the safety of the prince depending on military force, the bulk of which rests with the Catholic king.
All the ministers of the Low Countries are of one mind, namely that the queen mother of Spain should defend her Flemish possessions on the soil of the United Provinces, and they have again written to Madrid urging a declaration, remarking, with regard to the last news, that when once the Dutch cede the fortresses of Brabant and Flanders to the Most Christian in exchange for those occupied by him, the brunt of it would fall upon Spain. Were it now proposed to divert Orange by the mere threat of ceding the Spanish Netherlands to France in exchange for other territory, leaving him thus exposed single handed to her fury, the execution of such a project would prove no less difficult than it would be impossible for Spain to defend those Provinces were she to remain at war alone.
The ambassadors add that the declaration of the emperor, of Brandenburg and of other members of the empire is about to appear. I also know that the Danish resident here has had a long conference with Arlington. So a leading minister remarked to me a few evenings ago that as all the powers are taking part in the war, only the Venetian republic is left to mediate peace.
I have spoken since to Lord Arlington and I fancy he is much relieved of his fears about de Wit to which I have referred, since the arrest of his brother at Dort, the Pensionary being a prisoner in his own house, and others being indicted at the Hague upon suspicion of conspiracy against Orange. The prince himself announced in the full assembly of the States General that he would not give his vote in any matter until after the withdrawal of De Grot, who had been ambassador in France. They say that he has since withdrawn with his wife and children to Antwerp, after previously leaving the Hague. In this way Van Beuninghen, the prince's chief councillor, gives the finishing stroke to the party of his opponent de Wit, and while it benefits himself, no minister could be more satisfactory for the policy of this Court.

London, the 5th August, 1672.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Aug. 5.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
268. Girolamo Alberti, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The duke of York remains at his usual station in front of the Texel, although occasionally harassed by gales of wind, which so far have done them no considerable harm, and it is hoped that those which have been blowing during the last two days will not take any considerable effect on the fleet.
That of Holland remains among the sandbanks of Zeeland, and a number of advices confirm the report that it is short of hands. Others state that it is without tackle and all come to the conclusion that it is not in a state to put to sea.
Here they are anxious for news of the Dutch fleet of the Indies, but at any rate ten ships of the English East India Company have come into the Thames (fn. 1) with a valuable freight, and so in the midst of war establish a most valuable trade.
A Dutchman bound from Guinea, having heard of the war with France but not of that with England, its captain landed on the Sussex coast carrying with him a valise full of Guinea gold, to avoid all risks. Scarcely had they entered Dover harbour ere the natives, having discovered the mistake, sent on board, inviting the crew to land and see their captain, pretending that he had arrived. The Dutchmen abandoned their richly freighted vessel and were made prisoners the moment they set foot on shore. The captain had similarly been seized at Setford. The prize is valued at many hundreds of thousands of pounds sterling. (fn. 2)
The earl of Peterborough, first gentleman of the chamber of the duke of York, having returned from the fleet, has been appointed ambassador to the emperor for the ceremony of asking the archduchess of Innsbruck in marriage, though he is not expected to start just at once, or before the negotiation is thoroughly concluded.
The Spanish ambassador is not a little jealous of the affair being dealt with by others, claiming that all the instructions are in his hands, and he is afraid of losing the credit of it. Similarly, as he has already declared that it is not his intention to include any other political interests or advantages for the Spanish crown, so he is now awaiting the return of a courier despatched by him to Madrid, on account of this matter.
The king, having detected great abuses in the copper coinage circulated here by a number of private persons, but in virtue of the royal privilege, has determined that it is all to be issued from his own mint, having obtained the copper from a Swedish merchant. Hitherto it has only circulated in those corners of the city where it was coined, but now the king's copper money will be of the same stamp throughout the realm. (fn. 3)
London, the 5th August, 1672.
[Italian.]
Aug. 11.
Collegio,
Secreta.
Esposizioni,
Principi.
Venetian
Archives.
269. The Resident of his Britannic Majesty came into the Collegio and presented the following memorial, which was read. In the absence of the doge the senior councillor, Andrea Soranzo promised to give the matter consideration, with the usual desire to gratify him. With this the resident departed after the usual reverences.
The Memorial.
I renew my petition for the release of Marc Antonio Melchiori, called Bertam, encouraged by the kind answers of your Serenity. I know the gravity of the case, but I also know that the laws do not exclude pardon. The case is the more pardonable because Melchiori is not contumacious, but has come to your feet and offered to pay the sum of 2000 ducats. I therefore ask you to loose his chains, as his unhappy family depends on him alone. The greater the difficulty, the esteem shown for my king will also be greater and will serve as a testimony of the appreciation of my services here. I hope that your Serenity will not leave me in doubt, at this time of my departure, of a consolation which I desire so much.
[Italian.]
Aug. 12.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
270. Girolamo Alberti, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Sir [Gabriel] Sylvius whom the king sent to Holland with secret commissions for Orange, as reported, has returned and confirms all that the ambassadors told the king about the prince's maxims. He adds further that not only does Orange roundly decline the offers of sovereignty of the United Provinces promised to him by England and France, knowing that they would be valueless with the utter break up of the government, but he is persuaded by his counsellors that authority thus usurped, by giving umbrage to his subjects, would compel them to depend upon a crowned head for support, whereas with the position given him as a trust by the people, he need not fear civil strife or be under obligation to his neighbours. He has decided to try to obtain a good peace for the Provinces, sword in hand, establishing his authority by rendering himself as necessary to them as he can. He already possesses absolute power with respect to treaties for peace and war. As a mark of confidence they have also conceded him that of arresting persons suspected of treason to the republic or to himself so that even de Wit is under arrest in his own house, and Grotius, who was making his escape to Antwerp, has been detected. at Lillo and taken to prison at the Hague.
Although the party of de Wit is falling to pieces and disintegrating, yet as the oppression is violent it creates alarm and jealousy of the prince of Orange, which might increase unless it is averted by fresh French aggression; at which all will have to rally round the republic for its defence, whereas at present, their wounds being numbed, the people feet more bitterly than ever the loss of territory and the disorder of the government.
All their hope rests on succour from the empire. As this begins to show itself the English cabinet is in suspense and agitation about future pledges, though the French ambassador told the king in my presence that such measures would only have the effect of impeding the peace, the Most Christian being determined not to listen to any proposals made in the name of those powers when united with Holland, being perfectly sure that they would make every stipulation for their own personal advantage, so as to tie his Majesty's hands for ever. I do not believe in the sincerity of this, but as the union of such considerable forces cannot but displease the king of France I infer, perhaps maliciously, that he wishes to detach Holland by an offer of peace. Agreeing with this Arlington told me that the two crowns had made an offer to Holland, owing to the hopes placed in the empire, but once England and France consented to treat with Holland as the ally of the emperor and the princes of the empire, it would be raising her higher than ever, and would, in her present distress, facilitate that union which had been so earnestly sought by the Dutch republic in the days of its prosperity.
I may add that they are very much afraid of the baron dell' Isola, suspecting him of having embroiled the whole affair and urged the emperor and the Spaniards to take those steps which interfere so greatly with the policy of England.

Two days ago Lord Piterbero, chosen ambassador to Vienna, told me the king had written in plain terms to ask frankly for the hand of the archduchess for the duke of York, as she would be received with all possible honour and civility; but desiring him, should any delay or chicanery be introduced, to leave both the negotiation and the Court, as they have decided here not to wait any longer or to purchase the marriage by further concessions.
In the mean time we hear that the Dutch East India fleet is at Delfzyl on the Ems, in the province of Groningen. As the town of that name is being besieged by the bishop of Munster, the cargoes cannot be landed, so the duke of York may either take the fleet when it comes out, or attack it in the harbour, and news about this is expected at Court at any moment.
I have received the ducali of the 9th and 10th July, with the offices passed by the Resident in the Collegio. I will acquaint Lord Arlington with them to morrow and arrange with him to present the Signory's letter to his Majesty. Next week your Serenity shall hear what this government thinks of Dodington's behaviour, and of the satisfaction given by the Senate.
London, the 12th August, 1672.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Aug. 13.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
271. To the Secretary Alberti in England.
Enclose a memorial presented by the resident of England, repeating his request for the liberation of Bertan. As he received all necessary information in the office of which a copy was recently forwarded, the matter will be allowed to drop, without any further reply.
Ayes, 115. Noes, 4. Neutral, 1.
[Italian.]
Aug. 13.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Germania.
Venetian
Archives.
272. Giovanni Morosini, Venetian Ambassador in Germany, to the Doge and Senate.
The negotiations for the marriage of the archduchess of Insbruch to the duke of Jorch are proceeding at a slow pace since the stimulation imparted by the emperor himself to the prince of Locovitz to lay aside his original stiffness and obstructiveness. From this Colonel Guasconi conceives strong hopes of a fortunate issue to his efforts and he is calculating that his king might already send a stately embassy to Cologne for the reception of the bride herself. Nevertheless I cannot persuade myself that the arrangement of this business will prove so easy a matter, as it seems that they will be announcing before long the proposed move of the emperor towards Bohemia.
Vienna, the 13th August, 1672.
[Italian.]
Aug. 17.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
273. Francesco Michiel, Venetian Ambassador in France. to the Doge and Senate.
Nothing is spoken about England since Sunderland was in some doubt whether he should proceed to England before assuming his character at this Court. It is also believed that the agreements established by the government here with the commissioners Buckingham and Arlington will have prescribed sufficiently the limits of action between these two crowns. They do not think that anything can happen to disturb their being carried into effect seeing that they have been founded upon generic bases. These are that France shall employ all her strength to injure Holland in every conceivable way and that England is correspondingly to do her part to the same end. There are no other arrangements except that peace may not be concluded unless by the reciprocal consent of the powers.
Paris, the 17th August, 1672.
[Italian.]
Aug. 19.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
274. Girolamo Alberti, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
So scanty are the military successes of this crown that the king can scarcely dissemble his inner mortification, nor will the people be satisfied, considering the reverses of the war irreparable and the national prestige utterly degraded. Small hope remains of capturing the Dutch East India fleet in the Ems. It is not enough to cite a precedent of the late war, when two English fleets from the Indies and from Smyrna passed within four leagues of Ruiter while he was cruising in the Channel and yet got safe to port; indeed if any one but the duke were in command of the fleet, he would be suspected of treachery.
Besides this mortification the report of the capture of the Dutch Norwegian fleet by Lord Osseri is contradicted. We hear also that an East Indiaman, separated from the fleet and ignorant of the war, fell into the enemy's hands by a stratagem (fn. 4) similar to the one practised at Dover, the prize being valued at
100,000l.; 60,000l. worth of the cargo belonged to the London Jews.
Besides these anxieties which occupy the ministry, there is also the league signed at the Hague
(fn. 5) by the baron dell' Isola between the emperor and the States, who for a succour of 24,000 men, promise to pay 45,000 crowns per month, and 200,000 crowns on the arrival of the troops, including a Danish force, with addition of Brandenburg and other princes of the Empire. This considerable aid embarrasses the king greatly, as he sees clearly that it will be difficult to persevere in the alliance with the Most Christian and that it is no longer time to share his fortunes, but rather to seek personal advantage.
It is already notorious that France desires most earnestly to establish possession of what she has conquered, by means of peace, and my opinion is confirmed that the Most Christian would fain avoid a conflict with so many allies. I do not hesitate to say that some coldness is beginning to appear and the Ambassador Colbert, announcing his departure, told me three days ago that he had written urgently for leave, though I do not think it will be granted until these affairs take some definite turn infavour either of peace or war.
The duke of Monmouth returned to London to day, leaving his regiment at Dunkirk, nor is anything talked about except the Most Christian's dissatisfaction over the slight service rendered by the English, who are undisciplined and their commanders lack experience.
The prince of Orange is still harassed by home affairs, a prey to that jealousy which causes all his actions to be suspected. The Pensionary de Wit, having been set at liberty and returned to the Hague, they write that he declines the office of consul in the Grand Council, which was given him when he resigned that of Pensionary; but this will not lessen the suspicions entertained by Orange of his intrigues.
Some persons maintain that the prince places small trust in the king, his uncle, but perhaps he conceals it artfully, as I have been told in confidence that he aims at detaching England from France, in order, later to demand account from the Most Christian. A few days will reveal the truth.

Two days ago I went to Lord Arlington to tell him what took place about the currants; but being much occupied he told me he remembered the letter written by the king, but he wished to receive more definite information from me, as he was sure your Serenity gave good orders, and did not doubt but that they would be duly carried out; so I was to delay presenting the letter to the king until he has a longer conversation with me at some other time. He expressed his obligation to the Signory for the honours conferred on him by the king. He is even more worthy of these now as a few days ago his Majesty gave his own natural son by Lady Castlemaine now duchess of Cleveland, in marriage to his Excellency's only daughter, the bridegroom being decorated with the title of earl of Euston. (fn. 6)
London, the 19th August, 1672.
Postscript: News has just come that the duke of York is off the coast of Norfolk to take in water. It is said that he may embark troops for a landing, but so far nothing is known for certain.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
Aug. 20.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
275. To the Secretary Alberti in England.
We enclose a petition from the merchants of this mart. They have laded important cargoes for England, but they consider that the continuation of the trade is impracticable while they remain subject to the obligation to pay double duty and accordingly they are sighing for some modification of these contributions. We therefore desire you to take steps to inform us with all possible detail to what impositions goods are actually subjected which reach the ports there from these parts and if other nations are treated at all differently. Such information will serve as the surest guide for such decisions as we may consider to be desirable upon this matter. At the present time when Lord Arlington is expressing the desire for mutual agreements about trade, you might endeavour, without committing yourself, to obtain some relief for our traders, pointing out that every facility afforded will be likely to attract a concourse and will serve to provide an easy opening for the negotiations which are to be proposed. It will also serve to establish more firmly the idea of the sincerity of Lord Arlington's intentions. These are authenticated on our side by the privileges granted on several occasions to members of that favoured and most highly esteemed nation.
Ayes, 101. Noes, 1. Neutral, 11.
[Italian.]
Aug. 20.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Germania.
Venetian
Archives.
276. Giovanni Morosini, Venetian Ambassador in Germany, to the Doge and Senate.
Colonel Guasconi is still continuing his negotiations for the projected marriage. Apparently they find it easy to compromise about the articles of minor importance, while on the contrary manifold difficulties are encountered over the others of more serious consequence.
Vienna, the 20th August, 1672.
[Italian.]
Aug. 23.
Collegio,
Secreta.
Esposizioni,
Principi.
Venetian
Archives.
277. The Resident of his Britannic Majesty came into the Collegio and presented the following memorial, which was read. In the absence of the doge Sig. Andrea Soranzo, the senior councillor said that the case did truly involve great difficulties, but the would give it due consideration, with the desire to afford him satisfaction. With this the resident departed, after the usual reverences.
The Memorial.
Renewal of his appeal for Bertan. He sees it is in their power to grant him this unique favour. He would be truly sorry if he could not get it, especially as he thinks the case very pardonable, and Bertan has not rendered himself unworthy of such an act of favour, as he (the resident) has never been guilty of the least smuggling, offended any one, given shelter to outlaws nor have his servants done anything against the orders and good pleasure of the state. There remains only this act of grace to render his consolation perfect.
[Italian.]
Aug. 26.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
278. Girolamo Alberti, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The duke of York, leaving the Dutch coast solely for the purpose of going in quest of the India fleet, got to Berlington in the North of England, where he took in fresh water. But having heard that immediately on his departure from the Texel Ruiter moved from the Zeeland sandbanks, he again set sail to give him battle, if he enters the Thames, whither the duke must go to supply the fleet with provisions after so long an absence.
News of the duke is awaited with impatience it being rumoured, without foundation, that he is already fighting. As the magazines are all full of stores and from 12 to 15,000 men are ready for embarcation, it is foreseen that he will go out again immediately and also that some design is afoot. The duke is full of courage and skill for undertaking the most arduous attempts, especially as a variety of accidents have so far thwarted his expeditions against Holland.
The Dutch fleet of the Indies is unlading in safety in the Ems, the most valuable part of its produce being conveyed by small boats along the shoals there to Amsterdam. That mart will suffer from the loss of the Falcon, an English ship bound from Surat and captured by a Dutch privateer, (fn. 7) as it appears that half its cargo, belonging to Jews, concerns those of Amsterdam. It also appears that this ship and the privateer have been seized by the governor of Bergh until he receives further order from the king of Denmark. Another Dutch East Indiaman, though only of 100 tons, has fallen into the hands of the English, laden with cinnamon, pepper and other valuable spices.
The duke of Monmouth has come to London, leaving his regiment in various towns in Flanders, of those recently conquered by France. He talks of returning to the army immediately after the delivery of the duchess, his wife, which is expected at any moment. (fn. 8) All signs of peace seem to have vanished utterly.
The Dutch ambassadors have at last departed after having been for so long sumptuously defrayed by the king at Hampton Court; but they are dissatisfied at being compelled by his Majesty to leave, without awaiting further replies from Holland, by which they tried to gain time and continue their residence at this Court, however fruitless.
The ducali of the 23rd ult. tell me of the retractation by the Resident of a part of his office about the currants; but I have not yet been able to confer with Lord Arlington, who is occupied with many important matters. When these are disposed of I will try to speak with him on the matter and also encourage him to proceed with the treaty of commerce and the other matters. When he has communicated this scheme, which is entirely his own, to the merchants and gathered their opinion, I shall try to learn the particulars and communicate them to your Serenity.
London, the 26th August, 1672.
[Italian.]
Aug. 26.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
279. Girolamo Alberti, Venetian Resident in England, to the Doge and Senate.
All day long the king is agitated by his conflicting opinions and tormented by the dread of a sinister result from the alliance with France. But I fancy that, after all, he is encouraged to persevere in it for the sake of the country's prestige, which he considers pledged to a second year's war, as the successes of the first have been so scanty; and that Holland is in a state to prove more troublesome than ever to this crown her spirits and resources being but little depressed by the present war.
Although the government of the Dutch republic, stunned by the elevation of the prince of Orange, may be said to be much lowered by an authority which destroys it, yet they are still afraid here that the United Provinces may still be entertaining thoughts of rebellion against the prince and have forces for an attack on England. It was said indeed that the king would get nothing but shame from peace and that to make it separately would be too flagrant a breach of his sworn promise and he would risk much if he were to detach himself from the interests of the French crown and its support.
Provided they have the moral certainty of the good faith of France I have little doubt but that England will abide by the alliance because she cannot endure that Holland should compete with her at sea both in strength and skill, and also because it will not be difficult to defeat an alliance consisting of so many powers with interests so dissimilar that their operations will always be disjointed.
In the mean time the only decision formed is to recall the fleet into harbour to embark
15,000 men for a landing, 25,000 having been raised by the parliament of Scotland, which, at the solicitation of Duke Lauderdale provides also for their pay, and they will be ready for all eventualities. But as all the projects of the English are talk rather than well digested plans, they often fail to be realised or are unsuccessful. I can only say that the feeling against the States is extreme, it having been discovered that the generalship and power of England are not, as was claimed, superior to those of Holland. The king's vexation is increased owing to the great difficulties encountered by the prince of Orange, to whom he writes, and causes the same to be frequently intimated, that once the de Wit party is destroyed he will find England and France well disposed towards the States, thus making the popular odium fall on that party.
Orange would gladly detach England from France, but here they are at a loss to form any decision, the less so because of reports that Brandenburg will not stir without ready money, and that similar succour, instead of aiding Holland would only render her jealous; that the emperor will not employ his troops abroad or for the defence of anything but the empire, nor will Spain contribute more than promises or a small sum of money, without making further perilous declarations.
Should all this prove true the fear of a coalition of the powers in favour of Holland will vanish, and the English alliance with France will continue. In the mean time the general opinion is that there is a scarcity of money at Amsterdam, the bank being attacked by the people and private individuals have withdrawn their money into their own houses.

London, the 26th August, 1672.
[Italian; deciphered.]
Aug. 27.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
280. To the Secretary Alberti in England.
The resident of England has presented a third memorial relating to Bertan. If the question is raised he is to point out the strong reasons which operate against making the concession which is asked; that Bertan was sentenced only a short time ago and for a hateful offence which prejudices the rights of the prince.
Ayes, 118. Noes, 0. Neutral, 47.
[Italian.]
Aug. 27.
Cinque Savii
alla
Mercanzia,
Reg. 157.
Venetian
Archives.
281. With reference to the petition of Captain Raven, an Englishman, for permission to go to Zante and Cephalonia to lade currants on the ground that he brought his entire cargo to this city with his ship, we find that his cargo consisted of 83 baskets of ashes, six bales with wool and 114 pieces of marble of Genoea, where he unladed a quantity of goods for which he took the marble in exchange. We fear that the introduction of such laxity would prove very prejudicial to the interests of your Excellencies. He said that he trusted to the decrees of the Senate of the 26th August, 1626, and of the 2nd April, 1634, which make no distinction about the character of the cargoes but are couched in general terms. But considering the objects of those decrees, which was to increase the flow of goods to the city, we consider that the benefit requested should be refused.
Dated at the office on the 27th August, 1672.
Vettor Contarini
Anzolo Zustignan
Antonio Venier Savii.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 Five East India ships arrived in Spithead on 20 June with other merchantmen convoyed by the Newcastle; and four others are mentioned as having left Plymouth for Spithead on the 27th. On the 24 July Capt. Pearce of the Newcastle reported that he had arrived at the Nore with all his convoy except three East Indiamen, which were expected next tide. Cal. S.P. Dom., 1672, pp. 256, 285, 389. The dates are all old style. Salvetti Antelminelli says they were the richest ships seen for many years, and they had arrived safely in the Thames in spite of the great efforts of the Dutch to surprise them. Brit. Mus. Add. MSS. 27962 T, f. 362.
2 An Amsterdam ship of about 200 tons and ten guns. The master went ashore at Seaford with a portmanteau containing a quantity of gold. He was arrested at an inn there. He sent the ship on to Dover where Robert Stockdale, collector of customs, lured a part of the crew ashore and then took possession of the ship in the king's name. She carried a cargo of ivory and other valuable goods. Cal. S.P. Dom., 1672, pp. 371–2; Brit. Mus. Add. MSS. 27692 T, f. 362.
3 Owing to the shortage of small change a number of private persons had struck their own tokens. On July 25 a notice was published in the London Gazette forbidding the use of any coins but those struck in the royal Mint. About the same time the officers of the Mint were negotiating with Abraham Cronstrom of Sweden about the purchase of copper blanks for farthings, and on 17 August an agreement was signed between Cronstrom and James Hoare of London for a regular delivery of copper blanks. Ruding: Annals of the Coinage of Britain, Vol. i, p. 343; London Gazette, July 22–25; Cal. S.P. Dom., 1672, pp. 430, 495. There is a representation of the farthings struck at this time in Plate 44 of Oman's Coinage of England.
4 The Falcon, the remaining ship of the year's East India fleet, taken by privateers off Land's End and carried to Berghen in Norway. Cal. S.P. Dom., 1672, p. 463. See Alberti's dispatch of 26 August, below.
5 On 25 July. Printed in Dumont: Corps Diplomatique, Vol. VII, pt. i, p. 208.
6 Henry Fitzroy, reputed to be the second son of Barbara Villiers by Charles, was married on 1 August, o.s., to Isabella, Arlington's daughter. The bridegroom was nine years of age and the bride five. Cal. S.P. Dom., 1672, p. 685. G.E.C. Complete Peerage, new ed., Vol. VI, pp. 43, 44. The marriage is recorded in the London Gazette of 1–5 August, where it is stated that the king gave the bridegroom the title of earl of Euston. In the Complete Peerage (loc. cit.) it is stated that he was created on 16 August, perhaps the date of the patent.
7 An East Indiaman which left Swally on 13 January; she was taken off the Lizard on 27 June and carried to Bergen. Fawcett: English Factories in India, Vol. I, n.s., p. 217; Sainsbury: Court Minutes of the East India Company, 1671–3, page v.
8 She gave birth to a son, styled Charles Scott, earl of Doncaster, on 24 August, o.s.; but he died in the following February, G.E.C. Complete Peerage, Vol. IX, n.s., p. 66.