Venice
January 1674

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1947

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194-204

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'Venice: January 1674', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 38: 1673-1675 (1947), pp. 194-204. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=90368 Date accessed: 31 October 2014.


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January 1674

1674.
Jan. 5.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
263. Girolamo Alberti, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
An express was sent to Cologne last week with instructions for the English plenipotentiaries about the peace negotiations, but as the Dutch there insist on including Lorraine in the general treaty and the mediators will not consent to interfere in what concerns England and the States to the exclusion of France, no imaginable result can be anticipated.
The Spanish ambassador tells me that parliament will see clearly that the king will not make peace without France; he also maintains that the offers of the States are advantageous. He says that Queen Elizabeth, after the victories at sea over the Dutch, never ventured to claim the salute and it was much for Holland to concede it after having worsted the English fleet thrice. Such are the sentiments with which he arms the malcontents. But the king hopes to convince parliament of the contrary. If he succeeds in gaining their good opinion England will become the most irreconcileable enemy of Holland.
The Dutch had prepared their answer to the king's rejoinder, but Arlington tells me that they are holding it back until the meeting of parliament and they have not the slightest thought of peace. To exasperate France and England a medal has recently been struck at Amsterdam against them.
Arlington who was the first, some time ago, who suggested to me that the most serene republic was the only prince free to mediate the peace, remarked to me these last days that if the king were not forced to peace by necessity then the war in the coming year would be universal, and that the mediation of Sweden would fall through as she is beginning to take sides. I have not been able to discover what Arlington has at the back of his mind, but before the next ordinary I am not without hope of having an opportunity of speaking at my ease and of finding out what he may have in his mind about the mediation.
The government here is in great confusion caused by the arrival from Scotland of Hamilton with charges against Lauderdale. The king thinks of dismissing the latter and of sending the former to the Tower, but doubts whether by so doing he can quench the flames of these parliaments.
The duchess of Modena with Prince Rinaldo has determined to leave on Monday, choosing to let the Christmas festivities here pass. They will not stay over that day even if they do not receive the passports which they are expecting.
The French ambassador has not seen the duchess of Modena, under the pretence of a claim to be placed on her right hand; but the prince's favourite, Count Nigrelli, told me in confidence he believed it was because in France the duchess of Modena did not return the visit of the duchess of Orleans, refusing to accept an unequal seat and so the French are on the look out for opportunities of resenting this. The fact is that no foreign minister had public audience either of the duchess or of the prince, and in order not to be singular I avoided committing myself, though I paid all possible compliments on such occasions as my access to the Court afforded me.
I have the ducali of the 2nd and 9th ult. and will follow out the instructions about the Zante incident, although I cannot promise to obtain the fresh letter from the king retracting the complaint made in his first, without instigating Arlington, to whom I shall say no more about it, if he lets the matter drop.
London, the 5th January, 1673. [M.V.]
[Italian.]
Jan. 6.
Inquisitori
di Stato.
Busta 442.
Venetian
Archives.
264. Girolamo Alberti, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Inquisitors of State.
In expectation of your Excellencies' commands as promised on the 7th and 12th October last I kept my friends here in hope of replies to their projects concerning glass manufactures and the silver alloy. I venture to remind your Excellencies of the matters for the announcement of your decision, as they both require time and a great deal of arrangement to carry them into effect to the public satisfaction. For my own part I do not know what great benefit might result to the republic from the adoption of this alloy for her coinage, but I am very sure that some expedient is necessary to avert the ruin of the glass trade with England. This decays daily, because of the facilities afforded to Venetian artificers for quitting Murano and establishing glass factories elsewhere, and because of the experience which foreigners acquire in the manufacture of glass as well as to the illicit exportation from Venice of plates of glass unpolished or not rubbed, which ruins the trade of the mirror makers. They already make crystal glass here in perfection and they are beginning to receive a somewhat copious supply of mirrors from France; so that the only way to hinder this new trade would be to establish some one in London to support that of Venice in the manner I suggested; as once the English glass factories and the trade with France are suppressed the glass trade of Venice will revive as well as the prices of former times, which have now fallen to the lowest ebb.
London, the 6th January, 1673. [M.V.]
[Italian.]
Jan. 12.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
265. Girolamo Alberti, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The license assumed by this nation to scrutinise current events is so monstrous that there is scarcely any recognition of the authority of the government. (fn. 1) The outcry against this increases in proportion to the delay of the peace with Holland, on which the people are bent, however hollow and disadvantageous it may prove.
Not a single Englishman can be found to maintain that the sea fights of last summer were victories. Many are hostile to Prince Rupert, who commanded; others too partial to the duke of York, whom he superseded, and all prone to exaggerate the losses of the war, to prove the necessity for peace.
With this bias parliament will assembly next Wednesday. The general tenor of the speeches will be that the king must assign reasons and convince his subjects, before they give him money; that it is incumbent on parliament to provide for the succession to the crown and that all persons are at liberty to suggest any means for extirpating the Papists.
These gentlemen have in view not merely to compel the king to break the present alliance with France, but to bind him for the future to acquaint them with his intentions about the war, although hitherto such matters have always depended on his Majesty's will, as a prerogative of the crown.
They also think of proposing a new spouse for the king and that he shall repudiate the queen. But their end and ultimate object are to create confusion which will begin with an attack on the Catholics. It is impossible to see what will be the end of such unbridled licence on the part of the people and such goodness and forbearance on that of the king, who feels and sees everything and attempts nothing. The remedy of prorogation or dissolution of the parliament, which would have been the most fitting as showing mildly the strength of the royal authority, might now come too late as these gentlemen, being of another mind, will represent as an act of violence whatever the king may do to stem the tide of their libertinism.
The French ambassador took leave yesterday evening, although after announcing his intention of being an eye witness of the parliament's proceedings, he had established himself in a new house, his lease of the duke of Buckingham's mansion, where he has resided these last two years, having expired at Christmas. Some say that he despairs of resisting the fury of the Gallophobes, others that he is indifferent to it and that the Most Christian, weary of parliamentary abuse, has turned his thoughts elsewhere. But for this I have no good authority, and believe with the rest that Ruvigni will remain here on behalf of the French crown.
It seems difficult for the king to obtain money and as it is impossible for him to maintain the war without it, a precipitate peace is expected, counselled by his own necessities, without the trouble of mediators. For this reason the English make no provision for the future and, losing sight of all mediation, await the decision of their affairs from accident.
London, the 12th January, 1673. [M.V.]
[Italian.]
Jan. 12.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
266. Girolamo Alberti, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The duchess of Modena having decided to leave London on Tuesday morning, the duke and duchess of York were preparing to accompany them, but finding that the ceremony could not begin without a series of embarrassments and obligations, the Modenese suggested that they should not take the first step beyond the palace, since it must entail others. This arrangement was accepted by their royal Highnesses and the duchess went forth with Prince Rinaldo attended solely by the royal coaches which will accompany her to Dover, where there are yachts and frigates to accompany her to France for her passage.
The duchess of York was in tears when she took leave of her mother and has been so since, so much so that with her eyes swollen and her health disordered, she was in no state to attend the Court ballet last evening, and so it was postponed. She is downcast, not only because of the separation from her mother, but also from seeing the exasperation of the duke of York's enemies, she is apprehensive of her own ruin.
It is already known that there is an intrigue on foot to secure the inheritance to the crown to the Prince of Orange by marrying him to the duke of York's eldest daughter, to the exclusion of the family which he might have from the present duchess. This project is supported by Lord Corombery, son of the ex-chancellor Clarendon and brother of the late duchess of York. Corombery together with his faction is the bitterest enemy the duke has, and is seeking to place his niece upon the throne and possibly to re-establish his father as chancellor.
The king is no less apprehensive of this party than the duke as it is composed of the most violent agitators, the very same who restricted the king's authority at the restoration. I have indeed discovered that these are the men who aim at the regency of the kingdom, as mentioned a fortnight ago.
The disturbances in Scotland are of greater consequence to England than they appear. The majority of the Presbyterians is violent and open rebellion is expected at the first stir of the English parliament. Hamilton seeks support here and finds it, whereas Lauderdale loses ground daily. The boldness with which the Scotch extend their intrigues in this country is extraordinary and yet the king flatters himself that he will quiet everything, but these master minds, when once in the ascendant, are not easily satisfied, just as when the yoke is on them they are incapable of throwing it off.
London, the 12th January, 1673. [M.V.]
[Italian.]
Jan. 17.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
267. Ascanio Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
The news which has reached here from England affords scant satisfaction since it bring word of the impossibility of that crown being able to extract advantages from the Chambers to leave it provided with the means for sustaining the war against the Dutch. Indeed those members, even before meeting, express their intention to force their king to detach himself from this side and to make up his mind to peace with the Dutch. Many of them are in a hurry from seeing at no great distance a rupture with Spain if England continues to be tied to France. They say that the British king will do his very utmost to resist such violence and that he will never tear himself away from union with this crown unless the necessity of not exposing himself to greater unpleasantness force him to make his choice in order that he may keep at a distance the injuries with which he is threatened.
Paris, the 17th January, 1674.
[Italian.]
Jan. 19.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
268. Girolamo Alberti, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Last Wednesday the king sat in parliament and addressed the two Houses as follows: When I parted from you last it was with a resolution to meet again soon. That was enough to satisfy my friends that they need not fear and my enemies that they could not hope for a breach between us. I hope I have done my part in the recess to please you and I am now ready to receive anything you may reasonably propose for the security of religion or property. I expect you to do your part also for our enemies make vigorous preparations for war; but their chief hope is to disunite us at home. It is not possible for me to doubt your affection at such a time and I desire you to consider that the war cannot be well made without a supply or a good peace be had without being in a posture for war. I am not averse from an honourable peace, but no serious offer has yet been made. The best way for a good peace is to set out a good fleet, which we can do if supply is not delayed. If peace should follow I am willing what remains shall be appropriated to building more ships. I rely on you for a speedy, cheerful and proportionable aid and I hope that the debt to the goldsmiths will be considered. With regard to the French alliance and the rumours of secret articles I am willing for all the terms of the treaties to be seen by a committee of both Houses who may report the true scope of them. I have no doubt but you will have care of my honour. The rest I refer to my lord keeper.
The Lord Keeper Finch, lately made a baron of England, (fn. 2) spoke energetically on the same points. With regard to religion he demonstrated the danger of violent remedies. With regard to supply, he instanced Archimedes who was found drawing lines in the dust while the enemy was entering the city. (fn. 3) He informed them at length of the proceedings of the Dutch as being remote from peace, accused them of having attempted to stir up sedition among the people, and said that in reply to the king's letter they cancelled all the offers of peace.
I enclose a translation of the Dutch reply, which the States sent to the Spanish ambassador, who refused to present it. (fn. 4) In spite of this it was allowed to get into print, though in London they do not think Lisola had any hand in it and they say that the States employed one of the clownish burgomasters of Amsterdam to concoct it.
The Spanish ambassador is not displeased at the lord keeper's language about his conduct; indeed he admits the reasons given here for not rushing into a precipitate peace. He is convinced that it is not for the interest of his crown to perplex England which, after all, has a Spanish bias. He therefore presented the king with a letter from his queen in which he told me that she endeavoured to prove to the king the necessity for his joining Holland and the importance of quiet; but so mildly that his Majesty is beginning to rely on peace with the Catholic crown. Yet it is a fact that he does not yet allow the fleet of 300 merchantmen to sail towards Spain and the Strait for they are manned by the greater part and the pick of the seamen of England and he might have need of them for his own navy, for which he is making provision despite all the appearances of peace. He has taken money in advance from the farmers of the last duties paying them interest in proportion.
London, the 19th January, 1673. [M.V.]
[Italian.]
Jan. 19.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
269. Girolamo Alberti, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The House of Commons adjourned from the day before yesterday until Monday next. Some are comforted by this calm while others expect the storm to burst the more fiercely and disastrously inasmuch as many abandon themselves to the hope of quiet with all the confidence of certainty. Arlington is recommended to take care of himself. His rival Buckingham is now on trial for having wounded Lord Shrewsbury in a duel, who died in consequence, (fn. 5) and of continuing his intimacy with the widow, and is now fashioning several corner stones for his defensive operations. It seems that there will be mutual recrimination, to the reproach of civil government, in a form but one degree less barbarous than that of drawing on each other with naked swords.
The king is apprehensive of evil consequences, as no minister can quit his service without affecting the royal authority and these disputes, by delaying the money grant, cannot fail to embarrass it. This seems to be the stumbling block of the present session, and is the very same as preceded the late rebellion.
The Ambassador Colbert, expecting parliament to oppose the alliance with France, is hastening his departure, having already been anticipated by Locard. Rovigni, who remains as envoy extraordinary, has this day received two couriers. He is satisfied with the goodwill of the king, but complains of the antipathy of the English nation and says that as the Most Christian has recalled his ambassador, he apparently does not intend to sue to England for the alliance.
The Spanish ambassador by reason of his rivalry with Monterey, is much to the taste of the English Court and France possibly approves of him as he is by no means an advocate for the war, which Monterey urges, against the Most Christian. Fresno, on the other hand, does not seek to break the alliance between France and England, which Monterey expects to bring about a general peace. He merely asks at once that peace be made with Holland and leaves it to the English government to arrange for the inclusion of France, whom he does not desire to exclude, as the Dutch desire, who flatter themselves that they can humble her. It is not yet known which of these two ministers is in the secret. Monterey is fascinated by Lisola, who, as a foreigner will never have success in Spain whereas Fresno sustains himself by moderation. His Court may possibly sanction his present policy, especially as it deprecates the overthrow of England, from whose friendship Spain might expect so much.
In Scotland all the disputes proceed from personal enmity between the dukes of Lauderdale and Hamilton. The king is now trying to reconcile them so that by removing the root the other disturbances may easily be quelled. But his remonstrances and arguments meet with bitter opposition and strange obstinacy. More than one has remarked that as language has not sufficient effect it is a pity that the king of England cannot try the efficiency of the cudgel to remedy this.
London, the 19th January, 1673. [M.V.]
[Italian.]
Jan. 26.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
270. Girolamo Alberti, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
I mentioned last week that the accusation against the duke of Buckingham in the Upper House would draw down others with worse consequences. This has happened, for on Monday, when the Commons resumed their session, they voted thanks to the king for enforcing the laws against the Catholics, without saying a word about money. On Tuesday, after hearing the charges against Lauderdale, the king's commissioner in Scotland, the House decreed his banishment from the royal presence, as a dangerous and unpopular adviser, respecting his life and property, in order that their sentence might encounter less difficulty. On the same day they attacked the duke of Buckingham, setting forth many licentious expressions uttered by him against the king and the government. He replied concisely to these at the moment but on the morrow, presenting himself again to the House, he thought fit to justify himself by revealing the secrets of the king's privy Council. He said that the projects of the alliance with France, as formed by himself to the advantage of England, had been completely altered; that ships instead of money were received from the Most Christian; and that Arlington and Shaftesbury advocated these opinions, introducing moreover an accusation against the duke of Ormonde, the lord High Steward.
In spite of this the House of Commons voted his banishment from the king's presence and deprivation of all his offices save such as are held under patent. They pretend to act in this way solely from zeal for the king's service and that they were very moderate in their punishment, having spared his life. They did not ponder or ascertain whether it became them or not to investigate such matters and to try peers. But everyone admits that if the king wants money he must give satisfaction to the country; and so they settle the matter without study and without confining themselves either to precedents or to constitutional law.
To his additional misfortune Buckingham has disobliged the king by revealing the secret and bringing fuel to the fire, as well as offending the House of Lords through the violation of their privileges in presenting himself before the Commons. But it seems that previously Lord Bristol did the same and the peers could not convict him legally for lack of witnesses because lawful and credible testimony could only be obtained from members of the Lower House, as persons present. Thus Buckingham counts on escaping their vengeance on the ground of their fear of appearing before the Lords lest the Commons call them to too strict account for such action.
An anonymous accusation reached the House of Lords against Arlington who also presented himself yesterday to the Commons to answer Buckingham's charges. He appeared before them again to-day; but nothing will be decided until to-morrow. In the mean time the abusive liberty taken by the Commons to summon the peers is becoming established, contrary to the prerogative of the Upper House in which the supreme judicature of the nobility is invested.
An anonymous letter was also produced in the House of Lords, a youth being examined there who pretended to have found it in Westminster Hall. The writer represents himself as the servant of a Catholic peer and acquaints the Lords with the intention of the Catholics to assassinate the king and perhaps all the peers, a revival of the gunpowder plot of the time of King James. The numerous examinations to which the youth was subjected failed to elicit any confession, but he gave many indications of being a sheer impostor.
Lord Mordent moved that during the session of parliament the Catholics should be banished to a distance of ten miles from London, except peers, and those who have permanent dwellings there, only those who come from remote parts being excluded. The motion was carried. It is estimated that the number of Catholics in London amounts to 40,000. The king signed the proclamation for their departure, on or before Monday next. Lord Salisbury also proposed that all the peers should take the oath of allegiance before entering the House, a proceeding at variance with the privilege which their lordships thought to enjoy of never being bound to take any oath. But a precedent has been discovered and the motion was carried. The duke of York, after debating whether as heir presumptive to the crown he ought to submit to this, is disposed to take the oath and many Catholics have already done so. Some scruple to take it as it contains a clause stating that the pope cannot dispose temporally of the territories of sovereigns who are disobedient to the Roman Church.
The speeches of the king and lord keeper have produced very little effect in parliament. The like may be said of the offers made by the envoy from Mayence, who is here to mediate for peace. It was intimated to him that the negotiation could not be transferred from Sweden, whose agent states openly that his king has 40,000 troops and that he will be compelled to attack whichever party breaks the treaties.
London, the 26th January, 1673. [M.V.]
[Italian.]
Jan. 26.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
271. Girolamo Alberti, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The Lower House has not yet entered upon religion or said anything about the war. It dwells on the examination of ministers, a no less dangerous point, though so far it has shown some moderation. Such is the term used here when sentence is passed with a certain impartiality and when one sole opinion does not carry everything before it. On the other hand they do not consider it strange that a single individual and his friends should attempt everything and obtain more or less, however contrary to reason.
It is said unhesitatingly and believed that the sacrifice of the bad ministers must precede the money grant although it is evident that this determination proceeds from the envy of their rivals, not from zeal for the service of the country. Indeed they go so far as to establish the principle that the people will preserve their liberty in so far as they are able to check the ambition and policy of the ministers.
The most moderate among the agitators merely say that as the king began the war on his own responsibility, he himself must finish it; and similarly, as it is unfitting for the people to catechise and condemn the king with respect to the causes and objects of the war, so it is just that his Majesty should remember the considerable sums received, and the custom of his predecessors to acquaint the country beforehand with their engagements in order that the people might sanction them cheerfully; and it was an abuse to wage war by force on the purse of the nation. All these axioms, whether extravagant or moderate, are scarcely in accordance with the service of the crown. Fresno, who to a large extent encouraged them, does not know what their result will be or what advantage he can promise himself therefrom. He begins to realise that they are exposing the dynasty and the royal family to too great a risk and that the Catholic king may lose rather than gain by rebellion in England.
Before his departure the Ambassador Colbert told the king on behalf of his master, that during his adversities the people succeeded in driving him out of Paris and the cities of France refused to acknowledge him; but he would never consent to do anything unworthy of his crown. He hoped his Majesty would never be brought to such a pass, but the sure way not to hazard everything was not to yield everything.
It is impossible to discover what instructions were given subsequently to Rovigni, who received another express yesterday (fn. 6) ; but it is believed his orders were to keep the king as staunch as he can to the alliance, continuing up to this day the pensions in ordinary and offering extraordinary ones as well. The king does not dare to accept them. I have indeed heard that he has refused 200,000l. offered him by the duke of York as well as an equal amount subscribed by several private individuals, who are, I believe, Catholics; but the king elects to try to obtain supply from parliament, lest something worse befall, though the amount will be small even if he succeeds. Every one suspects that the king will gain little by his patience; that parliament proceeds slowly to gain time for negotiating various matters and that at the last they will declare themselves against the duke on the score of his religion and against his Majesty because he wears a crown. But the truth is that they have not yet done sufficient mischief to give the king cause for proroguing them, the one magic word whereby to effect their separation and stop them from cutting each others' throats and from reopening the wounds of the government.
London, the 26th January, 1673. [M.V.]
[Italian.]
Enclosure.272. English demands of the Dutch concerning the India Trade.
(1) No fortified place to be considered besieged unless it is attacked by forces sufficient for its capture.
This is intended to thwart a certain device by which the Dutch, knowing of the coming of English trading ships, prevented them from entering, and they used to send a certain number of ships to blockade the mouth of the port to shut out the English under the pretence that they were suspect and enemies.
(2) Communication to be free to all places where trade is open to the two nations.
(3) No treaties to be made with native princes for exclusive trade.
[Italian.]
Jan. 30.
Inquisitori
di Stato.
Busta 156.
Venetian
Archives.
273. The Inquisitors of State to the Secretary Alberti.
With regard to the representations you have already made and to which you draw our attention in letters of the 6th ult. which have reached us about the provisions upon glass manufacture and the silvering of mirrors, while we commend your zeal we think it proper to inform you that since these are matters upon which it is necessary to take deliberation with the Senate you should write to that body in a suitable manner so that with the illumination and information of the proper magistracies it will be possible to take such steps as may be considered to be most advantageous for the public service.
Bernardo Donato
Marco Ruzini
Alvise Mocenigo Inquisitors of State.
[Italian.]
Jan. 31.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
274. Ascanio Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
All here are of opinion that the resolutions of the crown of England whether to continue the war or to establish peace must depend upon the decisions which are taken in the sittings of the parliament there. This is what I heard some of the leading men saying on Saturday at St. Germain in his Majesty's chamber. Such is the opinion of the generality in all the city. None the less this side has not neglected every means to oblige his Britannic Majesty to continue in the alliance and the remittances in cash which have been made have been very generous to enable him to rid himself of those Chambers without obtaining advantages, and have the means to meet the necessary expenses for the armament in the coming campaign.
A courier has arrived from England but the news he brings has not transpired. It is the custom here to conclude that the news is far from good when they do not publish it. The publication cannot be long delayed since this evening they are expecting Sieur de Colbert, coming home from his embassy there.
Paris, the 31st January, 1674.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 Je vois de tous cotés tant d'inconvenients, tant de faiblesse dans ce gouvernement et tant d'emportement dans le parlement que j'advance qu'il ne m'est pas possible de juger quel parti sera le moins dommageable à Votre Majesté. Colbert to the king, 7 Jan., 1674. P.R.O. Paris Transcripts.
2 Created baron Finch of Daventry on 10 January. G.E.C. Complete Pecrage, N.S., Vol. IX, page 791. The speech is printed in full in Journals of the House of Lords, Vol. XII, pp. 595–8.
3 His words were: “If the supply be at all delayed it will have as ill effect as if it were denied, for we may chance to be found, like Archimedes, drawing lines in the dust, while the enemy is entering our ports.”— Journals of the House of Lords, Vol. XII, page 597.
4 Letter of the States General to King Charles II dated at the Hague 19 December. 1673. Printed in Aitzemia and Bos: Historien Onses Tyds, pp. 708–9.
5 At Arundel House on 16 March, 1667/8 G.E.C.—Complete Peerage, Vol. VII, page 142.
6 The final instructions to Colbert and Ruvigny, dated 8 Jan. 1674, are printed in Recueil des Instructions données aux Ambassadeurs de FranceAngleterre ed. Jusserand, Vol. II, pp. 140–7.