Venice
July 1674

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

Year published

1947

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270-280

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'Venice: July 1674', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 38: 1673-1675 (1947), pp. 270-280. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=90375 Date accessed: 23 July 2014.


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July 1674

July 6.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
356. Girolamo Alberti, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The king having returned from Portsmouth to Windsor, the envoys of Holland and Sweden resumed their sojourn there and have frequent conferences with the ministers. Much is said of a suspension of hostilities, but it cannot yet be ascertained whether the belligerents seem inclined to this or whether England and Sweden are enamoured of it and urge it in order to propose treaties of peace at leisure later on. The Swedish ambassador takes great pains about this, expatiating on the necessity of withdrawing the crowns from the contest on which they are engaged, both exposed to the strange chances of war with the danger of serious consequences to the neighbouring powers who are all interested in preventing the upset of the balance of power.
The Dutch ambassadors now make scarcely any secret of the intention of the States to think of peace for themselves alone, to avoid ruin through the Spanish campaign. But the cabinet here suspects them of spreading these reports to hasten the decision of England and thus create distrust between her and France, from whom the Dutch might then hope to squeeze better terms. The general opinion is that whether their interests are divided or united, it never can be sound policy for the prince of Orange and the States to think of abandoning Spain for the sake of being reconciled to France, but it is very probable, since they know the state of the Catholic's exchequer as well as the Spanish ministers themselves, because of their great interest in it, they will try to grab the last gold piece as a war contribution for their own relief. But once they have gained this point the Dutch will content themselves with having saddled the Spaniards with the burden and danger of the war.
The Spanish ambassador continues at the baths and has made no announcement to the Court about his leaving. But he is expected in London next week and when I visit him I will try to get his views.
As a mark of confidence one of the commissioners appointed to treat with the Dutch about the India trade, who are Colepepper, Downing, Ford, Thomson, Jolif and Bakworth, (fn. 1) told me that it was useless to hope for any profit. The Dutch were too much attached to their own advantage and were violently overbearing in their commercial relations in those remote countries, than careful to preserve in Europe the reputation of just, fair and honest merchants. Our wise republic appointed to her offices and government the most gifted persons in the world. After instancing some other examples he referred rather vehemently to the time of Cromwell. Then favour and partiality were put aside, posts were conferred solely on men of parts and rare ability, who formed a united body and towered above the rest. They were thus able to display in high relief the might of England. In the last war the Dutch did not choose to fight and spared the English fleet several blows, to avoid parading their power in the face of the world. In pursuance of the same policy they made the present peace with England although, as the king was unable to put to sea this summer, their fleet would have sailed triumphant and blockaded all the ports of this kingdom. This is what the English say, but they know very well that the moderation of the States did not proceed from any scruple about the jealousy of the world but because they would not rouse the entire population of England, for it is certain that the war was waged by the Court without money, not by the country with its united forces. This truth is well known both to the English and to foreigners. In spite of this divisions multiply daily, being fomented by rebellious spirits who seek through turmoil to make the wealth of the nation common and to improve their share.
A dangerous remark has been made about the proclamation on priests to wit that by proclamations the king arrogates to himself the right to make laws and to abrogate those of the realm by changing the penalty of death against priests to a mild threat of transportation. The multitude insists on the king retracting this power and takes every possible liberty, believing his Majesty in need of money. But it seems that the king will prefer the prerogatives of the crown to the convenience of his purse. He has indeed dismissed from the Scotch Council of State the rivals of Lauderdale, whose friends have been appointed in their stead, all for the sake of quelling the troubles by the removal of their authors.
Confused reports have come from Scotland that the women there, who are almost all Presbyterians, resenting the dismissal of their ministers whom Lauderdale has replaced by Protestants, are gathering tumultuously to obtain the reinstatement of their “holy guides” the name they give to their pastors.
London, the 6th July, 1674.
[Italian: deciphered.]
July 6.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
357. Girolamo Alberti, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
There is no time to lose if your Serenity thinks of reviving the glass trade. The workers of Murano are unemployed; they die of hunger or emigrate and with them the consumption of Venetian produce perishes. Trade suffers as England procures from abroad the ingredients which she cannot supply, to the utter ruin of the Venetian glass trade, which used to bring in articles in exchange from all quarters, much money and great repute to the mart. Besides this, sympathy between nations cools with the loss of their mutual trade. This is proved by the recent demonstrations made by all England in favour of Spain, a country whose manners and climate are utterly different from theirs. The whole kingdom was ready to rebel for the Spaniards, with whom the English carry on a very considerable trade; but I will leave these matters to the judgment of your Excellencies.
During the late war, when the navigation of the Mediterranean was interrupted, many persons obtained from France a quantity of plate glass for the coaches here, each of which requires six or eight pieces, which amounts to a great deal in a year. They found the French glass very white, clear and quite strong. I know that the merchants are now returning to France rather than Venice saying that the shortness of the journey and the permission to export free unpolished plate glass make amends for the higher price which they have to pay. Here mirrors are made on the furnace of the duke of Buckingham. As he has now sold it to his creditors they, by adopting better methods, will furnish a great supply for consumption here.
The Senate may perhaps be induced by these representations to seek some remedy. The old law forbidding the export of unpolished plate glass is now a dead letter and paralyses the merchants in general, though there are some who provide for their needs with impunity and even defraud the state of the duty. So they injure the polishers whom the law no longer protects though the furnace owners are ruined as it prevents the free sale of plate glass both for consumption and export. If your Excellencies cannot find a way to enforce the law and correct abuses, the merchants will be forced to prefer the very expensive manufactures of the English polishers and if the state does not grant protection to the masters of glass works rather than privileges to the vendors of plate glass both those arts run great risk of perishing soon and for ever when once the manufacture is established in other countries. With regard to Venetian drinking glasses, they have lost their reputation and whereas formerly a single house exported 10,000 cases, scarcely 1000 now reach England in the course of a year. Nevertheless, before the mischief becomes irreparable, I hope to suggest means to your Serenity for re-establishing the reputation of Venetian crystal in England.
London, the 6th July, 1674.
[Italian.]
July 7.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
358. To the Secretary Alberti in England.
The Senate acknowledges receipt of his letter of the 15th ult. We send a copy of what we received this week from the Ambassador Mocenigo, from Rome about the dispensation for the marriage of the duchess of York. For ourselves we always rejoice that all should turn out satisfactorily for that royal House.
With regard to the manufacture of glass we sent a copy of your letter to the Chiefs of the Council of Ten with whom you may continue to correspond as often as may be necessary. We will consider the matter of the export of unpolished glass sheets, to remedy the irregularity and so that the dispositions taken may be carried out.
That a copy of the letter of the Secretary Alberti about the manufacture of glass be sent to the Chiefs of the Council of Ten and that they be requested to consider the matter for the public service. That what the same Secretary wrote about unpolished glass sheets be sent to the magistracy of the Five Savii alla Mercanzia so that they may consider the question and that they may issue such directions as they consider most likely to put a stop to such irregularities in the future.
Ayes, 135. Noes, 1. Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
July 10.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Costantinopoli.
Venetian
Archives.
359. Giacomo Quirini, Venetian Bailo at Constantinople, to the Doge and Senate.
After the fulfilment of all the formalities of the first visits with the ambassador of England, he has chosen, with an abundance of courteous expressions to style himself ever a subject of the most serene republic having lived for seven years in the city of Padua, venerating the name of the Reformers of the University and exalting the merit of all the other Rectors who were in that government in his time. I responded with a full appreciation of his courteous offices assuring him that his character and ability were impressed upon the memory of every one. He was good enough to present me with divers sorts of wines of Italy and Spain, to which I responded by the exchange of other civilities.
The Vigne of Pera, the 10th July, 1674.
[Italian.]
July 10.
Collegio
Secreta.
Esposizioni
Principi.
Venetian
Archives.
360. The Secretary of the English envoy came to the doors of the Collegio with the Consul Hailes and asked to speak to a secretary. I the secretary went by order of the Savii and he said: that Sir Thomas Higons, sent by the king of England as envoy extraordinary had sent to pay his respects to the Savii and to inform them of his arrival in this city. That their Excellencies may see his title he will show his passport in the assurance that the republic will see that he enjoys the honours and distinctions that are accorded to residents. On reporting this to the Savii I was ordered to answer as follows: Their Excellencies rejoiced to hear of the safe arrival of Sir Thomas Higgons who would always be welcome as is fitting with the minister of a king so much esteemed with whom there is such perfect correspondence. Let him show his credentials in the usual way in order that the customary formalities may be performed.
The secretary promised to report the courteous reply to Sir Thomas and that lie would be pleased to send his credentials. When I asked later when he thought the envoy would be ready to come to audience the consul replied that he expected it would be in about two weeks as the envoy wishes to do everything in order.
On handing back the passport to the secretary I took down the essential words which are: “Thomas Higons, equitem auratum, inque regni nostri comitiis senatorem ad Ser. ducem rempublicam Venetam ablegatum nostrum extraordinarium misimus etc.
The envoy's secretary returned after dinner and asked to speak with a secretary. I went to him and he said: In accordance with the intimation given this morning by the Savii Sir Thomas Higons has sent a copy of his credentials. I took these to their Excellencies and after they had been read I was directed to make a courteous reply to the secretary, with which he departed.
A copy of the credentials follows.
[Italian.]
Enclosure.
361. Carolus II D. G. Mag. Brit. etc. Rex etc. Ser. Principi Dom. Dominico Contareno, Venet. Duci, ser. reipub. Venet. amicis nostris predilectis:
Cum amicitiam nostram erga vos rempub. vestram ut antecessoribus nostris diu jam per secula continuatam argumentis in dies recentioribus pro occasionum varietate magis magisque confirmare cupiamus, dilect. nobis ac fidelem Thomam Higons, equitem auratum etc. ad vos ablegandum duximus, qui affectus nostri singularis testis vobiscum, praesens resideat et ablegati nostri extraordinarii munere apud vos fungatur. Igitur ablegato nostro extraord. quoties res nostrae postulaverint acessum facilem praebeatis petimus, inque iis omnibus que nostro nomine quovis tempore proposuerit aurem ei faventem fidemque plenam adhibeatis precamur, praesertim autem cum certories vos reddiderit nos amicitiae nostrae pristine nullo unquam officiorum genere in posterum defuturos, quo eam ex parte nostra fixum stabilemque semperque duraturam reddamus. Adeoque vos rempub. vestram Dei Opt Max. tutamini ex animo commendamus.
Dabantur e palatio nostro de Withhall 3 die mensis Septembris, A.D. 1673, regni nostri XXV.
Signed: Carolus Rex. Countersigned: Arlington.
July 13.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci.
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
362. Girolamo Alberti, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The king attends the cabinet councils regularly and does not omit anything than can establish the routine of government, despite his absence from London. The citizens there grumble in proportion to the diminution of their gains, for not only has the Court retired to Windsor, but all the nobility are in the country. The people do not believe this to be an accidental resolve of the king for his diversions, but a political measure intended to mortify the city of London which has grown unwieldy in its greatness and scandalously abandoned itself to disobedience and licence. It has become dangerous to the crown by reason of its strength, wealth and peccant humours which gather there from all parts of the country. If this belief serves to correct bad subjects and confirm the faith of the loyal the king would owe much to his accidental decision, but the English by nature only give way when they are either deceived or cudgelled; they do not easily resist these extremes of cunning or force.
His Majesty uses every effort to accomplish the general peace before the meeting of parliament. The whole nation seems inclined blindly to espouse the interests of Spain even at the risk of breaking with France. The king, who is of another opinion thinks it enough for England that Spain should subsist but not triumph. Without allowing himself to be tempted by the considerable sums which he would obtain from parliament if he employed it in war against France for whom they have so great an antipathy, the king is bent on a good understanding with the Most Christian, to deter him from alliance with the Dutch, to whom he is irreconcileably hostile, both personally and politically.
Serious impediments are foreseen about an armistice. Spain declares against it from fear of ruin once the allies disband. The English say that it would suit France, which merely requires breathing time to recover and then return to the attack with more violence than ever. The Dutch on the other hand are not averse from it in their hearts, but a secret has come out, to wit that they cannot bear the confidence between England and France and try by every device and means to thwart it.
If this suspicion does not fade it will generate many obstacles in the course of the negotiations; indeed a minister of the Dutch faction said to me that his king deceived himself if he hoped through mediation to obtain the territories of Spain and the purse of Holland while continuing in close confidence with France. Yet Temple is hastening his departure and will receive instructions about the peace.
Fresno announces that he had an order not permission to return to Spain. He continues at the baths, although he had decided to come away at the beginning of last week. It is supposed that he wants to be asked to remain in London.
Here they are competing with Holland to gain the good opinion of Spain, in preparation for the award which that crown is to pronounce concerning the India trade. The Dutch commissioners are expected hourly. A house has been taken for them but their negotiations are not expected to produce any result. Confused reports have come of the loss of three Indiamen, sunk by the Dutch, but 12 others were coming this way, richly freighted. The envoy from Genoa (fn. 2) arrived three days ago and is preparing to go to the Court at Windsor tomorrow. I have the ducali of the 9th and 16th June.
London, the 13th July, 1674.
[Italian: deciphered.]
July 18.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
363. Ascanio Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
Efforts are being made on the part of Spain to win over England and they say they will do everything in their power to see that parliament interests itself in the protection of their side. But here it is hoped that they will not succeed in this as they oppose it with the favour of the king there which seems to be steadily propitious to the interests of this side, using every sort of suggestion and the most vigorous measures. If the distrust of the mediators increases there might be some opening to admit that of the pope.
Paris, the 18th July, 1674.
[Italian.]
July 20.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
364. Girolamo Alberti, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The Spaniards make a clamour about the suspension of arms which is being negotiated at London and in the mean time they practice it in Flanders, not daring to publish the reasons for this in order not to discredit their vision. A confidant at Brussels writes to me that, after several conferences, Orange and Monterey had removed the scruples of Suaches, after many others, about crossing the Meuse and opening the campaign, leaving the Palatinate exposed behind him, and with scanty forces. It was accordingly expected that general would march in accordance with the agreements and he was urged on by the despatch of five couriers in four hours. At the end he had asked for a month's pay, which was immediately provided, although with difficulty, 50,000 crowns by the Spaniards and 50,000 by the Dutch. But they were disturbed anew by seeing Suaches (fn. 3) immobile, and their incapacity to draw near to the prince of Condé without the diversion of the imperial forces. They are beginning to realise the usual disadvantages of auxiliary and allied forces, with the fear that at the first shock or reverse they will find it difficult to unite.
In spite of these confusions the Spaniards speak more strongly than ever here against the armistice and at last the secret of their second intention has come to light. This morning I was told by the Swedish ambassador that yesterday an express brought news of the emperor's open refusal, who would apparently make a similar announcement to Sweden. Spain thus uses the emperor as her mouthpiece to announce what she has hitherto masked from England under civil pretexts. As the emperor has accepted the mediation of the pope and urged Venice to undertake it, the intervention of England and Sweden is at an end. For this reason the allies turned a deaf ear to the projects for an armistice. If they had accepted it when proposed last winter, Franche Comté would not have been lost, Switzerland would have remained free nor would the Palatinate be now ravaged by Turenne. Moreover Wrangel with 14,000 men is about to join the 30,000 in Pomerania, 26 ships being ready for their passage. Notwithstanding this Sweden will not enter upon the performance of her treaties with France until after the refusal of the agreements.
The English ministers keep the Vienna news a close secret, feeling the king's exclusion deeply after having prejudiced his own interests by a forced peace with Holland without gaining credit or confidence with Spain, although he acted at her suggestion. No other way remains to reinstate him in the opinion of the world and remedy past mischances except to play a part among the belligerents of obliging the Most Christian by a partial mediation. This being now at an end the ministers are apprehensive that the friendship may be turned into hatred and contempt. But they say that these are the ordinary but unlucky effects of granting ready forgiveness to enemies, placing reliance in suspicious quarters and rashly abandoning friends. They will therefore do everything here in order to have the mediation, insinuating that nowadays an armed power is the only one that can persuade; and both English and Swedes are exerting themselves to promise the allies a good peace. They add that they have great promises from France and facilities for forcing her to increase them whereas the new mediators might find neither confidence nor disposition on the part of the belligerents to adapt themselves to cold persuasions.
The Ambassador Fresno talks of leaving in August. Some of the ministers urge the king to detain him as long as possible, saying that this is the only way to moderate the heat of Monterey, the enemy of England; while Fresno is of a different party. Others maintain that Fresno revealed to Spain the weakness of this government and the partiality for France, thus inducing them to prefer the mediation of the pope and Venice. No trust should ever be placed in a minister who so openly instigated the people of England to make the strangest attempts in direct opposition to the respect due to the crown and contrary to their own interests, which have been sacrificed to the Dutch, all in support of a blind partiality for Spain.
This partiality was the substance of the communication to the Ambassador Zeno in Spain. I have mentioned that the Spaniards based their operations here upon it. On the other hand Fresno has not the prerogative of hastening the meeting of parliament, which depends solely on the king's will and which can only be forced by lack of money.
The Scotch Presbyterians, supplied with arms and money by the Dutch and aided by correspondence with their fellow sectaries in England, have forced the king to send cavalry from here and infantry from Ireland to the border. But if once the Presbyterians arm and take the field a few troops will not suffice to master a whole kingdom armed with blind religious zeal and furious disobedience.
When Fresno was on his way back from the baths last evening with his whole retinue he had a slight scuffle half a mile from London with the attendants of the earl of Oxford who, on recognising Fresno, called off his men. This morning he sent the pages who had caused the affray to apologise to his Excellency, who seems satisfied.
London, the 20th July, 1674.
[Italian: deciphered.]
July 24.
Cinque Savii
alla
Mercanzia
Risposte
157.
Venetian
Archives.
365. In the present scarcity to which the people of the islands of Cephalonia and Zante are obliged to submit, at the suggestion of some of them, we notice that these same persons, to facilitate as much as possible the exportation of currants, have decided, in the absence of any other expedient, to hire a ship for lading 450 migliare, with prompt payment of the duty. So, if they hire another ship with the cargo for the West of 350 migliare, perhaps it may be permitted to themselves alone to do so upon finding sufficient pledges for the satisfaction of the duty within the term of eight months.
This opening might be considered as a remarkable stroke of good fortune owing to the fruitful results that might result therefrom not only to the state but in the interest of those islanders as well. We consider that these persons have shown themselves deserving and that they are worthy of the most ample concurrence and favour, while imposing, nevertheless, such regulations as the public wisdom may think fit.
Given on the 24th July, 1674.
Almerigo Balbo
Nicolo Corner
Almoro Barbaro Savii.
[Italian.]
July 27.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
366. Girolamo Alberti, Venetian Secretary in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The anxiety of the ministers here to preserve the office of mediation is evident. To that end they pay court to the Spanish ambassador and to the Swede as well. Far from resenting the emperor's refusal they have decided to try gently to regain the Catholic and to persuade the Dutch through Sweden that it would be well for them to accept her mediation and that of England. They tell Fresno that the king sacrificed his own interests to those of Spain whose queen could not now suspect him of arranging disadvantageous terms for her as the safety of their crowns was identical, hi conjunction with Sweden they had now brought the Most Christian to grant a good peace, though he might draw back if his affairs improved. All the allies would do well to accept the treaties before time and the usual disputes, by dividing their forces, scatter them and the negotiations simultaneously.
The Swedish ambassador addressed the Dutch in another tone. He told them that the States had no reason to distrust Sweden who, although armed and the ally of France had always shown herself impartial about the mediation. If excluded from it she would be compelled to take another side. This exclusion was by no means advantageous for Holland whom a speedy peace would suit better than an eternal one. The pope, a feeble sovereign and Venice, unarmed, could neither hope for facilities for persuading the Most Christian or for a prompt conclusion. He suggested that the States, pretending to distrust the pope on the score of religion, should refer the mediation to England and Sweden and they would find great advantages and facilities.
The Signory will see that the English and Swedes, by keeping Spain to her word and Holland in hope, would fain begin the work of charity for their own sakes. They have such strong expectations of prevailing on the parties that they have put forward projects for discussing the treaties in several places and free towns of the empire.
Fresno is determined in spite of this to change the air of London before his health gets worse again. He says that Lira will come from Holland with the title of envoy extraordinary.
Such is the uncertain position of the Court with regard to foreign affairs; but they fancy things at home to be more stable. By remonstrances, promises and favours bestowed they have bought the leaders of the agitators who promise to let the succession to the crown sleep, and to speak in the next session of parliament against the Catholics, merely to pass some trifling act to quiet the mob whom they have impressed with the necessity of putting down popery. On the strength of this the king has decided to assemble parliament not without hope of asking for and even obtaining money, for once the leaders of the factions are disbanded the others have not the brains to oppose anything.
At the moment the duke of York is all powerful with the king and makes use of the opportunity to advance his creatures, showing an increasing partiality for those who are least hostile to the Catholic party. Some of the Presbyterians here are parleying and the duke listens to them, his maxim being that he must make use of every one to weather the storm and then give the preference to his confidants.
If the Scotch Presbyterians are not assisted by their fellow sectarians in England, all their chimaeras will vanish, as predicted by Lauderdale who, despising his rivals, characterised them as hot-heads, without discretion, friends or judgment to maintain and guide themselves. The duke of York is the one who has supported Lauderdale and united him with the party of the treasurer who has now the greatest influence with his Majesty.

The Dutch commissioners and the directors of the India Company are in no hurry to begin the discussion of the treaties of commerce and the English do not hasten them much. The directors, the commissioners and the ambassadors alike condemn a Dutch corsair for having captured an English ship and tortured the captain and sailors to make them confess or rather protest that the cargo was French property, so that he might take the whole to Amsterdam. He would have done so had not the wind carried him into the Thames where he was boarded by Captain Harman who sent him prisoner to London. Some here wish him to be put to death as a thief, the common law of the country not authorising his execution otherwise. They also say that the Dutch will never deplore the death of this pirate as they are anxious to preserve in Europe their character as just and honest merchants, though they are indifferent about this in the Indies, where the English complain bitterly of the injuries to which their trade is subjected. The loss of the three Indiamen, worth 100,000l. is confirmed, and, what matters more, nothing is known of the seven ships in their company.
Salvago, the envoy from Genoa, having paid his respects and taken leave is merely waiting for his present to quit London.
London, the 27th July, 1674.
[Italian; the part in italics deciphered.]
July 28.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
367. To the Secretary Alberti in England.
Acknowledge his letter of the 6th inst. Commend his vigilance about the manufacture of glass and the exportation of glass sheets. His letter has been sent to the heads of the Council of Ten for consideration and also to the magistracy of the Five Savii alla Mercanzia.
That the letter of the Secretary Alberti about glass be sent to the heads of the Council of Ten for consideration and that the paragraph about glass sheets be sent to the Five Savii alla Mercanzia to make their report to the Collegio.
Ayes, 101. Noes, 0. Neutral, 1.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 By warrant dated 21 June Lord Culpeper, Sir George Downing, Sir Richard Ford, Sir William Thompson, John Joliffe and Peter Buckworth were appointed commissioners to treat and conclude with the Dutch commissioners a new marine treaty and also a treaty for regulating trade in general between the two nations and particularly in the East Indies. Cal. S.P. Dom., 1673–5, page. 287.
2 Bernardo Salvago. He had been expected in May, to thank the king for his good offices with France. Brit. Mus. Add. MSS. 27962 V, fol. 249d.
3 Ludwig Raduit von Souches, commander of the imperialist forces. Serious complaint was made of his conduct by the allies, including charges of an understanding with the enemy, and soon after the battle of Seneff he was recalled by the emperor and spent the rest of his life in retirement. Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, Vol. XXXIV, page 700.


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