Venice
August 1675

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

Year published

1947

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438-450

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'Venice: August 1675', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 38: 1673-1675 (1947), pp. 438-450. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=90388 Date accessed: 30 September 2014.


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August 1675

Aug. 2.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
534. Paolo Sarotti, Venetian Resident in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Acknowledges receipt of the ducali of the 6th and returns thanks for the money of the spazzo.
With all my diligence I have not been able to learn that the affairs of the Court at Windsor are devoted to anything except pleasant diversions. None of the foreign ministers has as yet negotiated with the king because they have thought it best to allow him a little time free from serious occupations. They have had enough to do on their own account in making the necessary arrangements for their lodgings and in the exchange of official compliments. I propose to go there next week to find out what I can.
Three days ago the king was at Hampton Court, which is half way on the road, and there he held a Council upon the ordinary affairs of the realm, for the greater convenience of those who were bound to take part and who were scattered in divers places His Majesty also heard a civil cause.
We hear that a courier has reached the envoy of France from his king, but it is not known for certain what he brought. It is calculated from the times that it may be some commissions about the news which has reached his Most Christian Majesty of the successes won by the arms of Brandenburg over those of Sweden and of the decisions taken by Denmark.
The prince of Vaudemont is expected at any moment. (fn. 1) By order of the envoy of Spain he will be lodged and waited upon in the envoy's house here. As the gentleman expected from Savoy has not yet put in an appearance, they have postponed going into mourning. One of the ministers represented to the king that it was not necessary to wait for him and that it would be more seemly to forestall him by such a demonstration and they have since disputed about the nature of the mourning, whether it should be more or less deep. They have decided to write to France in order to follow the example of that Court.
It is announced that the Cavalier Temple, ambassador of the king here, is to return to his residence at the Hague to effect his landing at Ostend and proceed on his way towards the army of the prince of Orange, with whom he will discharge the commissions, the nature of which I have indicated in previous letters.
London, the 2nd August, 1675.
[Italian.]
Aug. 7.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Spagna.
Venetian
Archives.
535. Girolamo Zen, Venetian Ambassador in Spain, to the Doge and Senate.
By the most studious efforts they are showing their eagerness to conciliate the goodwill of the Court of England as well to render it favourable for the possible advantages in the negotiations for peace, as to have it as an ally for the maintenance of the same and at the opening of a new war. We hear that the operations of Ronchiglio in London are utterly opposed to what they are looking for here. I am astounded to gather that he is exerting himself to induce the duke of Hiorch to declare himself protector of the Catholic religion and to give birth to discussions between the king and his brother so that in the midst of all this turmoil the royalists may be deprived of the means of rendering assistance to the French in any sort of way while the Spaniards promise to hasten to the support of the duke's party whenever there is need.
Madrid, the 7th August, 1675.
[Italian.]
Aug. 9.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
536. Paolo Sarotti, Venetian Resident in England, to the Doge and Senate.
As I have been frequenting the Court at Windsor these last days, waiting on the king, and even following him to Amtoncourt I will inform your Serenity of what has happened to me. I reached the castle towards evening while the king was still away at the chase. I betook myself to the apartment of the queen who received me with the utmost graciousness. She detained me a long while with various questions and made me speak to her in Spanish and English, until the king came. He seemed very pleased to see me and taking me to a window he pointed out the fine situation of the place, overlooking a wide stretch of country. He was good enough to give me an account of some memorable events which happened there between the armies in the time of the late disturbances. He asked me if I had seen Amptoncourt and promised to take me there. Accordingly when his Majesty went there the day before yesterday upon the business I will relate, I accompanied him. There I found the ambassador of Holland and at Windsor I have met the other foreign ambassadors and ministers. They all told me that they are standing idle because not only the king but his most intimate counsellors, scattered in various places of the neighbourhood, eschewed business.
In spite of this I succeeded in finding out that Rovigni with the ambassador of Sweden, on the one side, and Ronchiglio with Vanbeuningen on the other with the envoys of Brandenburg and Denmark are holding frequent conferences. In these they are concerting the means for proceeding jointly in making petitions and representations to the king about current affairs in order to dispose him for those offices which they wish to have made in the interest of peace. To this end the Spaniard insists together with his allied colleagues, on bringing pressure to bear upon his Majesty to make proposals for an adjustment to France and Sweden. They make the same suggestion to him when they have an opportunity for conversation, which they contrive to turn to serve their purpose. But the king is on his guard and remains on the defensive, being impressed by Rovigni and the Swede, as well as by his own ministers that these are devices to lead him to commit himself and then to oblige him to keep it up and render France more odious to the parliament and people of England. So he fences and keeps putting things off without saying anything definite, believing, perhaps, that the events of war in the present campaign and the confusion and stringency in Holland may cause a change in the aspect of affairs.
Ronquillo, however, takes pains to let everyone know, and he said as much to me, that he is enjoying the fresh air in peace without any business; that he has not made any proposal and will only give ear if he is spoken to. He says that he duly passed on to Spain the reply recently received from the king, whose tenor I reported. He does not hope for any move on this side except per force and when parliament resumes its sittings. But I have learned from another quarter that owing to the scarcity of money, which he knows that his Majesty experiences, Ronquillo has given a hint to one of the most confidential of the ministers about some plan for supplying him with some from Spain under the pretext that it might be employed upon a good armament of ships with which he might bring about various useful results, including the king's own interests and aims with the parliament. Subsequently Ronquillo. wishing to create the impression that the report of any such proposal on his part was groundless, goes about saying that the king of England has need of millions; that his own king at present has not got them while the present needs of the crown of Spain are manifold.
That the courier received by Rovigni merely brought what I intimated to your Excellencies is confirmed by what may be gathered from his conversation. Yesterday evening the envoy of Savoy was expected at Windsor and to-day the prince of Vaudemont, who arrived here three days ago. He is entertained by Ronchiglio, who came to receive him the day before yesterday.
Having renewed my efforts to find out what their plans may be in their differences with the Tripolines and where they propose to send the English ships and provide for what they may need from time to time for overhauling and maintenance, I have discovered that they have chosen the island of Malta. (fn. 2) Thither they will send the ships of war which are divided and scattered for convoys of merchantmen and for other requirements in various seas and ports, to unite together and go against the Tripolines and compel them by force to a suitable adjustment.
Over the choice of a new ambassador for France the king has cast his eye upon more than one individual, (fn. 3) but the present shortage of money and the difficulty of finding an assignment for the one who has to sustain the charge makes everyone fight shy of it. It is believed however that Lord Bareley will accept it, a very rich gentleman who has previously been employed by the king at other Courts and who was plenipotentiary at the congress of Cologne.
A case discussed at Amptoncourt, which the king has just heard, is considered remarkable and I will give a brief account of it. Two years ago four Dutch ships from the East Indies were captured by the English. All the goods were confiscated for the benefit of the king and his Majesty had them sold immediately to some foreign merchants at a very good price. (fn. 4) The merchants of the India Company took exception to this, alleging that the cargo of these ships consisted of goods of which they have their magazines full and if they got into the hands of others they would cause notable prejudice to the company by being sold at a low price. Accordingly they petitioned his Majesty to cancel the contract with the merchants and to receive practically double the purchase money, which was offered by the company. The king soon informed the merchants who, not caring to advance so large a sum or thinking fit to oppose so much greater an advantage for the king, agreed to withdraw from the contract and to place themselves entirely in his Majesty's hands. They asked him to take into consideration the profit which they would lose on the goods and the loss they would suffer in the money taken in exchange and already paid out for the purchase. Accordingly the king graciously awarded them compensation by a gift of 40,000 crowns. Subsequently a dispute arose between the interested parties about the agreements made between them and being taken to the courts it came up on appeal to the royal Council, with the king intervening, and the hearing was taken at Amptoncourt for the convenience of the parties.
Signor Alberti submits to the public wishes set forth in the ducali of the 17th July and blesses the compassion shown by your Excellencies in expressing the public satisfaction wit^i his services. He spares no pains to wind up his affairs in the shortest possible time, hoping that he will be able again to sacrifice an advance in his fortunes and continue the remainder of his days under the rule of your Serenity. In the mean time he is tied here by necessity and is not staying in London from choice. Though he is most ready to submit to the more precise instructions of the Senate he does not believe that he will be required by a sudden withdrawal to expose all the interests of his household to irreparable ruin though recognising that, after God, his life and property belong to your Excellencies. Such are the sentiments and the very words which he expressed to me personally.
London, the 9th August, 1675.
[Italian.]
Aug. 10.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
537. To the Resident in England.
Approval of his operations. One of the most important points is that of the mediation for the peace. In this connection you made a proper reply to the Spanish minister Ronquillo. When need arises you should be guided by the same ideas, discountenancing any report which casts doubt on the acceptance by the Catholic government of our mediation, since, if it is accepted by all the princes interested the republic is ready to devote itself with all its energy for the attainment of such a boon. We have already sent instructions to our ministers resident at the Courts to make known this disposition of ours.
Ayes, 176. Noes, 3. Neutral, 0.
[Italian.]
Aug. 16.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
538. Paolo Sarotti, Venetian Resident in England, to the Doge and Senate.
I have received this week together the ducali of the 20 and 25 ult. On Saturday the queen came here with her ladies and a few gentlemen of her Court who profess the Catholic religion to perform acts of piety in the three feasts of the Portiuncula (fn. 5) ; after which she returned to Windsor. I went on those days to wait upon her together with the ambassador of Portugal who came with her Majesty. He has been decorated by her with the very considerable reward she has given him by making him her great chamberlain. This is the first position of honour, confidence and advantage conferred upon him, after being vacant for four months. It was done with the king's permission, who wished to please her, in opposition, besides other obstacles, to the requests of many great English Catholic gentlemen and peers of the realm, most highly deserving of the crown and of his Majesty, some of whom he favoured. Although this is considered at Court as due wholly to the authority of the queen, they dissimulate because she is beloved by all, though it does not please any of the natives. People are waiting with curiosity to see if he will also retain the ministry and prerogatives of ambassador. It is thought that his master will have no objection to gratify the queen, his sister, during the good correspondence between Portugal and this crown, (fn. 6)
The prince of Vaudemont did not go to see the king as was expected. He put before civility and curiosity not to speak of the interests of his House, the vanity of his claim to cover before their Majesties here, as a grandee of Spain, which they would not accord to him. Neither have they admitted any of the expedients suggested by the ingenuity of Ronquillo. All the same they promptly granted him a royal yacht to take him where he wishes. After a stay of four days here, incognito without receiving a visit, he has embarked with the intention of going to Zeeland and thence to the Spanish army in Flanders. With him came the count of Bedmar, who is also going to take up the post he has obtained.
Immediately after the arrival of the envoy of Savoy (fn. 7) at Windsor, where he was received with the usual formalities, the king and the other royal personages went into mourning and so did the foreign ministers and all the Court. I presented myself to the queen with him.
I forgot to inform your Serenity a week ago that on the days when 1 was at Court the king declared three of his natural sons dukes and peers of the realm. He had one by the duchess of Cleveland, the second by her of Portsmouth and the third by Madame Guinn. (fn. 8) This has increased to no small extent the murmurs of the ill affected because of the great sums of gold which his Majesty is constantly consuming to satisfy his numerous favourites and in providing for his children what is needed for their maintenance in a becoming manner.
These last days they have held a muster and review of the city militia who are in truth magnificent troops, numerous, very well armed and disciplined.
London, the 16th August, 1675.
[Italian.]
Aug. 17.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
539. That the following be sent this evening to be read to the English envoy by a notary extraordinary of the ducal chancery:
We have hearkened with favour and considered with due regard the representations made by you to us concerning the interests of the English merchants at the islands of Zante and Cephalonia. Our intentions, by the orders which have always been given and the regulations in force have had for object in equal degrees to remove prejudice to our duties, to facilitate the greatest concourse for trade and to prevent destruction but rather to afford every convenience for the benefit of the English nation.
With regard to the pledges, we are giving the necessary orders in order to obtain the necessary light and information. In the mean time, in accordance with our sentiments already expressed, we are writing to the Proveditore General da Mar directing him to see that these same merchants receive the best possible treatment. You may feel assured of the special affection with which we regard the subjects of the British crown and of the desire which we feel to be able to afford you every satisfaction in accordance with the esteem which we feel and which your merits deserve.
Ayes, 113. Noes, 2. Neutral, 2.
[Italian.]
Aug. 17.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
540. To the Proveditore General da Mar.
We enclose a memorial presented by the English envoy together with the answer given him by the Senate. We charge you to inform yourself about these pledges, since when they were introduce and for what reasons. The Senate further wishes you to take notice of their wish that these merchants shall receive no prejudice or injury but shall have just treatment.
Ayes, 113. Noes, 2. Neutral, 2.
[Italian.]
Aug. 17.
Senato,
Secreta.
Deliberazioni,
Corti.
Venetian
Archives.
541. To the Resident in England.
Acknowledge receipt of his letters and enclose copies of a memorial presented by the English envoy, of the Senate's reply to him and of a letter sent to the Proveditore General da Mar.
Ayes, 113. Noes, 2. Neutral, 2.
[Italian.]
Aug. 17.
Collegio
Secreta.
Esposizioni
Principi.
Venetian
Archives.
Enclosure.
542. The envoy extraordinary of England came into the Collegio and spoke as follows: I have come here to represent the interests of the English merchants in the islands of Zante and Cephalonia. They seem to me to have justice on their side and I hope that your Serenity and the republic in the interest of mutual trade, will decide for their relief. He then handed to me, the secretary, the attached memorial, which I read. The doge replied that he was always welcome and they would wish to satisfy his requests. He could be certain of two things, that particular attention would be paid everywhere to what may maintain and increase trade and that orders have been sent to the Levant Islands for the best possible treatment of traders and the English merchants. With regard to the pledges the Signory was without information on the subject. They would take the matter up and let him know afterwards what has happened.
[Italian.]
Enclosure.543. The Memorial.
The Levant Company of London has urgently set before me an affair touching the English traders in the islands of Zante and Cephalonia who are notably aggrieved by a security which has to be signed by the merchant to whom each ship is consigned immediately it arrives. This is for a sum of 1,000 reals, but what really matters is that in the event of any smuggling, no matter by whom and even without the knowledge of the merchant, he is liable on the formation of a process, to give complete satisfaction for the crime, which might be committed by an enemy of his. It is many months since I have renewed representations about this matter but I did not wish to bring it before your Serenity before I was exactly informed about the facts by the merchants at Zante themselves. I am now bound by orders from my king who has expressly commanded me to do my utmost for the relief of his subjects and the flourishing of trade. I therefore ask your Serenity that this security may be totally abolished and that those who offend against the duties at Zante and Cephalonia shall be subject to the ordinary penalties in use in the rest of the republic's dominions and in the other marts of the world frequented by merchants. I have no doubt that when your Serenity and this Collegio have duly considered the matter you will remove this very sensible grievance, in order that the abundance of trade may increase and for the advantage of the subjects of your Serenity as well as of that of his Majesty's.
[Italian.]
Aug. 18.
Collegio
Secreta.
Esposizioni
Principi.
Venetian
Archives.
544. I, Tommaso Rudio, went to the house of the English envoy to read to him the office decided on the 17th inst. He revived me very kindly and had a copy taken by his secretary. He said he had hesitated several months about passing the office, when pressed by his merchants, before he had obtained full and definite information. He was gratified by the gracious message from the Senate feeling sure that when information arrived from the public representatives some expedient would be found less harassing than that of the surety. He had no wish to do anything prejudicial to the public rights but that the Signory should exercise its usual instincts of pity and magnanimity.
[Italian.]
Aug. 21.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
545. Ascanio Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
The fact that the Dutch minister has not been seen to oppose the resolutions taken by the British king to yield to the requests of the Swedish minister Spaar to cause some merchant ships of his nation to be accompanied by an English squadron gives rise to the impression that this is not without instructions from the States to seek opportunities for relieving them from the committment against Sweden. The envoy of Denmark does not disagree with this and he is procrastinating in concert with the Dutchman so that his king may not be thought to be against the declaration. All these ministers are doing all they possibly can to see some progress made towards getting the general peace under way.
The project which Temple is bringing to Orange is made in concert with these ministers, but Ronchillo has not had any hand in it. The fact is that from seeing Temple still loitering at the Hague without proceeding to the army of the prince of Orange, where he has orders to communicate the project, people are convinced that they do not wish to take any step before they know the intentions of the emperor and Spain thereupon. England is insisting very strongly to carry this point which is considered solely from its being able to facilitate the boon of peace, and it will be vigorously supported by Holland also.
Paris, the 21st August, 1675.
[Italian.]
Aug. 23.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Inghilterra.
Venetian
Archives.
546. Paolo Sarotti, Venetian Resident in England, to the Doge and Senate.
In the absence of other important events to impart to your Serenity I have disturbance in London which, though slight at present, might occasion a great revolt. Some time since there was introduced by French weavers and afterwards by English ones a certain type of loom for making ribbons, fillets, trimmings and the like with so much facility that a single person in a day weaves more than can be made in a week with the ordinary and common looms. Only a few of such machines were made when the invention was first introduced, because there were few operatives who had the means to incur the expense, which amounts to 50 doubles each. The advantage, however, which came to be more and more recognised gave birth to the desire and stimulated many to contrive the means to raise money to procure themselves so great an advantage. This has caused an abundance of such commodities and consequently a reduction in the price. Thus the poor men who with their wives worked with the ordinary looms and who always had great difficulty in procuring the abundance of food and the comfort (lusso) which is customary here and enjoyed even by the lowest of the populace, after having made numerous petitions to the magistrates to prohibit the new machines, which multiplied daily, and all in vain, because the judges considered that it would be prejudicial to the liberty of the people, to trade and the public convenience, they banded together and agreed among themselves to go to the houses of their rivals and forcibly to remove, break up and burn their new looms. This they did in the present week, and with success in some places where they found the owners away, but in others they met with a resistance so stout that divers were killed and injured. The perquisitions and violence continued for a day and a night before they could be stopped by the mayor and aldermen of London, whose business it is. (fn. 9)
So soon as the king heard of it some companies of horse and foot of the royal guards were joined by his order with the city militia. These now, for four days and at all hours have been going hither and thither to put down the insolence of these rioters, who have been joined by other vagabonds and blackguards in order to rob and profit by the disturbance. It is estimated that so far there are more than a thousand of them, divided into many small bands, without arms of any kind. But as they are well acquainted with the houses in the city and suburbs where their competitors dwell, they go by night secretly to surprise them, so that the soldiers are unable to prevent all their attempts. It has not been possible to take more than a few of them prisoner, as they enter by the roofs of the houses when they cannot get in by the door. They get out by the windows and most of them withdraw to the country and the woods by day. It is not easy to find and identify them by night in this enormous city with its numerous and ample suburbs and adjacent villages, where they work with both the old and the new looms. Nevertheless the royal guards and the militia continue their efforts and the king has ordered a proclamation to be issued, of which I enclose a copy. (fn. 10)
The decision to issue this proclamation was not so much because of the rioting of these poor folk as from the danger of its providing an opportunity for other unquiet spirits and malcontents to come together and that these wretched, unarmed and half desperate people might be supplied with money and arms by those ill affected to the Court, and that under their name other conventicles would be formed and a genuine revolt as there are many evil humours, both old and new in this vast body. It is generally believed that they will not easily be induced to return to their houses, because they can easily foresee that the most contumacious will be arrested and punished. No pardon is promised in the proclamation because their excesses are designedly passed over and dissimulated, under the pretence of knowing nothing about the violence used, which is punishable by death according to the laws. Many of the citizens here, remembering the beginning and the manner of the late revolution, are apprehensive that more of the populace, stirred up by evil men, may also raise other kinds of pretensions or demands under colour of the public good, but as the king is provided with good troops and with other preventions for every emergency, it is believed that he will reduce them all to obedience by force, if he does not find himself short of money to pay the soldiers.
The beginning of this week has been very hot and not one of the royal ministers or courtiers has come here from the Court. I expect to go back there next week.
London, the 23rd August, 1675.
[Italian.]
Aug. 28.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
547. Ascanio Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
The Dutch plenipotentiaries have been persuaded by Temple to go to the conference with the prince of Orange and it is possible that he may follow them. But the fact that Temple, who had orders to go in person, has held back, makes it apparent that the proposals made do not meet with such complete acceptance. The allied powers are not in favour of a long truce. With this objection in their minds they are discussing the present proposals of England and no intelligent person can imagine that they will be easy unless they are changed by other conditions which would be capable of assuring Caesar and the Catholic from the apprehension they entertain that subtle ways are being contrived to render the suspension of arms more difficult for them than the continuation of the war.
Fontanablo, the 28th August, 1675.
[Italian.]
Aug. 30.
Senato,
Secreta.
Dispacci,
Francia.
Venetian
Archives.
548. Paolo Sarotti, Venetian Resident in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Owing to ill health I have not been able to go to the Court this week as I intended. The envoy of Savoy arrived thence a week ago to-day and on the next continued his journey to Italy. With him went Sir Greenwile, one of the gentlemen of the king's chamber, sent by their Majesties in response to the courtesy. He proposes, for his own satisfaction, to go on to Venice, his sister being the wife of the royal envoy Hyggons. (fn. 11) I have furnished him with letters to friends at Turin, Milan and the towns of your Serenity's dominion which he wishes to see. I do not forget to make the most of these tokens of regard with his brother, the earl of Bath, the king's privy groom and have also expressed to him the high opinion entertained of his brother-in-law Hyggons, as commanded by your Excellencies.
The weavers continue their rioting, some away in the country and some lurking in the suburbs. They do. not molest their rivals, as they are no longer able to do so because certain companies of the city militia and of the king's guards continue to guard the places most suspect and exposed. They are having it put about by their friends and adherents that they mean to wait for the meeting of parliament in order to make their appeal to it.
We also hear of some boatmen who demand the suppression of the hackney coaches because at various places of passage, both by water and by land, they take away the earnings of the ferry boats, which they claim to be a more ancient use. The English hatters have also made a move against the French ones, as well as some other artisans in order to drive away from London all the workmen who are not natives or subjects of these realms. One day there was a rumour that they were going to massacre all the French, who have introduced various manufactures and who work for less than the English. It was believed that justice would make an example of those few rioters whom they have succeeded in arresting, but as there is no proof that they are the ones who brought things to a head and who committed the acts of violence reported, and as, in accordance with the strictly observed laws of the realm, they cannot be subjected to torture to make them confess the truth and their accomplices, they cannot be punished by anything but detention, as they have not incurred the penalty of rebellion by the acts first committed though they will be considered contumacious if they persist in disobeying the royal proclamation.
Some of his Majesty's ministers, who were in the country and far away from the Court, have come to London, and by mild measures and various precautions they are trying to prevent worse disorder. As there was suspicion of the loyalty of the lieutenant of the Tower, (fn. 12) he has been deprived of his post, although Lord Northampton was appointed as his superior, as I wrote. In addition, as the sergeant major of the city militia (fn. 13) was found to have been somewhat tardy in carrying out his instructions against the rioters, they have sent him to prison. There are two reasons for confidence that there will be no great risings. One is that the substantial citizens, who are numerous and mostly very wealthy, will have nothing to do with the promotion of any, having suffered too much in the last. The other is that this king is the first who has introduced guards about his person and has such a good body of troops at his disposal that by paying close attention to any beginning of a tumult it is hoped that it will be easy to prevent it spreading. As usual there are other opinions on the subject.
London, the 30th August, 1075.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 Charles Henry of Lorraine, natural son of Charles III, the dispossessed duke of Lorraine.
2 In a letter of 10 May from Samuel Pepys to Sir Thomas Clutterbuck at Leghorn, it was left to the latter to decide between Malta and Little Cophalonia (Ithaca) as a base. Navy Records Society, Catalogue of Pepysian MSS., Vol. III page 48.
3 “Il (i.e. Charles) est resolu de suivre un avis que Mld. Arlinton lui a donné d'envoyer a Votre Maj. Dom Francesco de Melos. ambassadeur de Portugal, n'ayant aucun de ses sujets en qu'il puisse se coufier, afin que cet envoyé, qui connait bien l'etat de ses royaumes, vous fasse vine naive peinture de l'humeur de ses peuples et du malhereux etat ou il sera si V.M. n'y remedie.” Ruvigny to the king, 22 July, 1675. P.R.O. Paris Transcripts.
4 The goods were from the Dutch East Indiamen Papenburgh, Europa, Wappen van Kamveer and Oliphant, and were sold to Edward Nelthorp, merchant, in October 1673. Cal. Treasury Books, Vol. IV, page 408. See also pp. 96, 97 above.
5 In honour of St. Francis of Assisi an indulgence was granted by Pope Honorius III to those who visited the Portiuncula, near Assisi between the vigils of 1 and 2 August. The privilege was extended by Pope Urban VIII in 1043 to the churches of the third order regular of St. Francis. Vacant and Mangenot: Dict. de Theologie Catholique, 2603–4. 2610.
6 The warrant for admitting Dom Francesco de Melo to be lord chamberlain to the queen is dated 10 August, o.s. Cal. S.P. Dom., 1675 6, page 203. According to Salvetti the king was absolutely opposed to his discharging the functions of both offices: “il re non voglia amettere in modo alcuno die continui col carattere d'ambasciatore dicendo che gli atti dei officii siano inconsistenti per havere le loro dipendenze et qualificazioni da corone et interessi differenti.” Salvetti on 23 August, Brit, Mus. Add. MSS. 27962 V. fol. 415. The previous holder of the office was Henry Hyde, viscount Cornbury, who became earl of Clarendon in the preceding year, by his father's death.
7 The Count of St. Maurice, who arrived on the 5th August. Relations Veritable, Brussels, Aug. 14, 1675.
8 Charles Palmer or Fitzroy was created duke of Southampton on 10 September and Henry Fitzroy was created duke of Grafton on 11th September. Both were sons of the duchess of Cleveland, and recognised by Charles as his sons. Charles Lennox, son of the duchess of Portsmouth was created duke of Richmond on 9 August and duke of Lennox on 9 September. Charles Beauclerk, son of Eleanor Gwynne was not created duke of St. Albans until 10 January, 1683–4. The particulars are from G.E.C. Complete Peerage.
9 The rioting began on Sunday, 18 August, n.s., in Spitalfields, where the rioters broke the machines, and also took place in Southwark. The disorders lasted until Wednesday. The magistrates were considered to have been very remiss. Cal. S.P. Dom., 1675–6, pp. 250, 252–7. Relations Veritables, Brussels, 28 Aug., 1675.
10 Proclamation of 11 August for the suppression of riots. Steele: Tudor and Stuart Proclamations, Vol. I, page 438, No. 3615.
11 Bernard Grenville arrived at Venice from Turin on 11th October, n.s. Hailes to Williamson. S.P. Venice, Vol. LIII, fol. 104.
12 Sir John Robinson.
13 Major Thomas Beckford.