Cabriel, Nicolo, Savio alla Mercanzia, 258.
Cadiz [Andalusia, Spain]:
-, news from, 326, 360.
-, alarm at foreign squadrons off, 3, 15; English and French ships convoyed to, 18.
-, Dutch warships going to, 18; fight of Tiger with Dutch privateer off, 231; Dutch version of, 246.
-, Narborough at, 326.
-, consulage at, 333.
-, English consul at. See Wescomb, Sir Martin.
-, governor of. See Cavallero, Diego.
Caesar. See Leopold, the emperor.
-, Senate inquires about trade with, 451; Levant Co. has consul at, 461.
Calais, Cales [Pas de Calais, France], 134, 168, 297, 497.
-, news from, 154.
-, plenipotentiaries leave for, 66; Monmouth embarks at, 78.
-, Mary of Modena travels by, 178, 180.
-, Ossory may cross to, 178; Spaar leaving for, 297; Burnett sails for, 375.
-, Italian cloth for England passed through, 189, 190.
Callendar, earl of. See Livingston, Alexander.
Cambrai [Nord, France]:
-, threatened by French forces, 410n; proposed cession, 451.
-, league of, 289.
Cambresis [France], proposed cession of, 451.
Cambridge, royal navy:
-, back for repairs, 58; in Narborough's squadron, 300n; incident with French frigates, 414.
Canary Islands, merchantmen expected from, 49.
Candia, island of, Crete:
-, Finch wishes to see, 153.
-, war of, 189, 418.
Candish. See Cavendish.
Canea, Crete, 480.
Canterbury, co. Kent, 155.
-, archbishop of. See Juxon, William; Sheldon, Gilbert.
Cape of Good Hope, 324.
Capliers, Capelliers, Zdenko, imperial commissary, 304.
Capponi, Caponi, Auditor, 159.
Caprara, Count Alberto, envoy of the Spanish Netherlands at the Hague:
-, asking money on behalf of elector Palatine, 304; complains of manner of Charles' procedure, 482.
-, creation of new, 411; made under stress, 412; France takes offence at, 458.
-, congregation of, makes difficulties about dispensation for Modena match, 125–6, 130, 149; action deplored, 132; Estrées condemns over subtlety of, 142; reasons for objections, 146; negotiations with, 151–2; likely to raise further difficulties, 164; dispensation referred to, 166.
-, names of:
Alfieri, Pauluzzi; Barberino, Carlo; Carpegna, Gaspard; Cibo, Alderan; Crescentio, Alessandro; Este, Rinaldo, cardinal of Este; Estrées, Caesar d'; Howard, Philip; Marescotti, Galeazzo; Mazarini, Giulio; Nithard, John Everard; Rocci, Bernardo; Spada, Fabrizio.
Carleton, Guy, bishop of Bristol:
-, stirs people against nonconformists, 326; Canterbury may be ordered to restrain, 327.
Carlisle, earl of. See Howard, Charles.
Carombery. See Hyde, Henry, viscount Cornbury.
Carpegna, Gaspard, Cardinal, papal Datary, at conference about dispensation, 157.
Carr, Sir R., letter of referred to, 101n.
Castel Rodrigo, marquis of. See Moura y Corte Real, Francesco de.
Castelnovo. See Neufchâtel.
Castle Berkley, East Indiaman, arrives home, 105n.
Castlehaven, earl of. See Touchet, James.
Catalonia, Spain, army in, supported by Louis, 76; Spanish money for, 190; war in, 344.
Caterina, Laura, daughter of the duke of York:
-, birth, 343, 346; christened, 347; death, 463; condolences upon, 464, 474.
Catherine of Braganza, queen of Great Britain, 154, 369, 458.
-, illness of, 13, 23; distress at king's neglect, 14; better but not expected to recover, 17, 21; relapse and recovery, 26.
-, marriage negotiations await issue of illness, 23; proposal to force king to divorce, 68–9.
-, Commons propose to dismiss priests of, 25, 233; Lords modify clause affecting, 31, 33; marriage contract of, 150, 362.
-, king resumes cohabiting with, after years, 124; going to Portsmouth to meet bride, 138.
-, capitulations granted at marriage of, 125, 148; offended by king's failure to protect her almoner, 138.
-, help wanted to get red hat for Prince Rinaldo, 126; going to meet Mary of Modena at Dover, 145.
-, Commons hint at repudiation of, 145; will soon appear upon the stage, 169.
-, religious liberty accorded to, 151; Mary of Modena to enjoy same, 151, 165–6.
-, Shaftesbury urged king to repupudiate and re-marry, 177, 183; move for repudiation of, 196.
-, method of marriage referred to, 181; ceremony with, 188.
-, visits Mary of Modena, 185–6; visits duchess of Modena, 186.
-, Prince Rinaldo hopes for nomination of, for red hat, 186.
-, employment of English priests questioned, 220, 229; Portuguese Franciscan friars in service of, 233.
-, going to Hampton Court, 257; receives Dutch ambassadors, 261; they take leave of, 305.
-, goes to Windsor, 261; coming to London for devotions, 268; staying there, 290; in retirement at Hampton Court, 299, 303; returns to London, 305.
-, distressed by king's infidelities, 305; indisposed, 351, 372, 374, 377, 422.
-, commends Alberti's efforts for Burnett, 306, 314; Alberti informs of sentence on him, 328; recognises desirability of transportation, 333.
-, Bergeik only sees privately, 344; receives envoy from Modena, 374.
-, privileges of chapel threatened, 357; wishes to have bishop appointed for English Catholics, 362; distressed about Catholics, 374–5.
-, parliament proposes to take up divorce of, 372.
-, remains in London, 377; wasting away, suspicion of poison, 382; ready for divorce, fear of poison, 392.
-, Catholics frequent chapel of, 387, 396.
-, prince of Neuburg received by, 410; Sarotti has audience of, 425, 440, 444.
-, goes to Windsor, 436; comes to London for Portiuncula indulgence, 443.
-, king allows Melo to become chamberlain of, to please, 443.
-, back in London, 455.
-, almoner of. See Howard, Philip; Maginn, Father Patrick.
-, chamberlain of. See Hyde, Henry, viscount Cornbury; Melo, Francesco de.
-, confessor of. See Rosario, Father Christopher del.
Catholic king. See Charles II, of Spain.
-, fear of king re-establishing, 308, 469; Orange foments jealousy of, 310.
-, improved position in Netherlands, 342.
-, Lauderdale and Danby inclined to attack, 376; motion on need to crush, 393.
Catholics, English Roman, Papists, 161, 338.
-, petition to exclude from act of indulgence, 19; look to king alone for their advantage, 20; Commons ready to extend indulgence to, 22.
-, Lords pass Test Act against, 24–5; Buckingham's jest about, 25.
-, hope king will not allow penal laws to be carried out, 25; king agrees to enforce laws against, 27–8.
-, king yielded about to obtain supply, and justifies himself, 29.
-, policy not zeal leads king to favour, 31; murmur at king's policy, 34.
-, Clifford attacked for partiality to, 33; desire to revive pursuivants against, 37, 40.
-, 40,000l. distributed by king to stop proceedings against, 35; long likely to protect after first ebullitions against, 37.
-, Venetian chapel thronged by, 35; Senate enjoins prudence about, 42.
-, priests and friars withdraw to houses of leading gentry among, 43.
-, office holders absent themselves from test, 40; unhappy position of, after Test Act, 69.
-, York supporting, 52; king likely to relieve, 53, 56; York sacrifices himself for good of, 71.
-, Alberti keeps chapel open for, 53; duchess of York may keep in her household, 125; attend chapels of foreign ambassadors, 174.
-, York could be chief support of, 145; France forced king to sacrifice by withdrawing indulgence, 175.
-, parliament proposes banishment from London, 169; gunpowder plot attributed to, 174.
-, Shaftesbury intended to ruin, 177; the chief victims of political situation, 182.
-, king may have to declare himself against, 178; his measures against, 179; intended to humour people, 183; expected success of, 185.
-, withdrawing, to avoid shock, 183; king's action against fails to placate zealots, 189; forbidden to enter St. James' park or palace, 193.
-, parliament to begin with attack on, 196; parliament thanks king for enforcing laws against, 200; king orders enforcement, 239.
-, alleged plot of to assassinate king and peers, 201; report of projected armed rising by, 205.
-, proposal to banish from London, 201; some take the oath but many refuse, 202.
-, estimated numbers in London, 201; king refuses money said to be subscribed by, 203.
-, Arlington accused of showing partiality to, 204; storm about to burst upon, 212; blame Colbert for withdrawal of indulgence, 234.
-, Commons consider new measures against, 205; reflections against in the Commons, 210; prorogation relieves, 233.
-, Lords discussing bill against, 216; new oath for, 220.
-, motion to prevent succession to the crown, 220–1.
-, foreigners to be protected from laws against, 229; waiting decision of Council in great anxiety, 262.
-, York commends protection of, to Fresno but blames him for promoting troubles in parliament, 234; put no trust in Fresno, 283.
-, busy covering property against penal laws, 257; discussion on, in Council, 261; unable to save property, 291.
-, king proposes severity with, but suspected, 262; intention to attack seems abandoned, 264; no inducement to persecute, 268.
-, a battle ground between king and parliament, 268; parliament only to pass mild act about, 279.
-, king allows to be attacked and persecuted by justices, 281, 291; London curious about bishops' proposals touching, 318.
-, no chapel would be open to, without foreign ministers, 303.
-, approve Alberti's attitude about Burnett, 306; advise getting him transported, 328, 332.
-, proposed proclamations, to be extended to cover, 318; but will be less favoured as king dare not relieve, 324; hopes of relief, 343.
-, bishops advise enforcement of laws against, 337, 354, 357; order for enforcing, 357, 359.
-, keeping in retirement, 343; attitude to order in Council, 359.
-, repercussions of order against, 362; general compassion for, 364.
-, queen wishes to have bishop appointed for, 362; she is distressed about, 374–5, 382; king would like to see bishop for, 429.
-, proposed union for persecution of, 363; parliament considers how to prevent increase of, 474–5.
-, think of petitioning parliament, 372; but decide to support king, 373.
-, king's device to protect property of, 381; respite for, 387.
-, frequent chapels of queen and ambassadors, 387, 396; Sarotti encouraged to provide for, 405.
-, reference to, in king's speech, 392–3.
-, proposed oath to prevent sitting in parliament, 393, 398, 401, 481, 489.
-, fear that promotion of English cardinal may prejudice, 411; pleased by, 429.
-, some parliamentarians bear ill will to, but no general feeling against, 418; bless Venice for chapel services, 420.
-, escape of St. Germain averted attack on, 487.
-, question of importation from Ireland, 229, 230.
-, great quantity bred and consumed, 474.
Cavallero, Diego, governor of Cadiz, indignation with Le Neve, imprisons English consul, 74n.
Cavanis, Iseppo, secretary to the Collegio, 468.
Cavendish, Candish, Henry, earl of Ogle, to command a regiment, 9.
-, William, Lord, member for Derbyshire, attacks Clifford for partiality to Catholics, 33; banished the Court, 431; committed for breach of privilege, 472; submits and released, 476.
Cecil, James, third earl of Salisbury, proposes that peers shall take oath of allegiance before taking their seats, 201; protests against new oath, 401.
Ceffalonia piccola. See Ithaca.
Cel. See Zelle.
Centurion, royal navy, Finch sails in, 55.
Cephalonia, Ionian island:
-, despatches dated at, 71, 123.
-, in difficulties from drop in currant trade, 123, 278; proposal to export by own ships, 278.
-, English may give up importing currants from, 296; English well treated at, 304.
-, consulage at, 332, 335; grievance of sureties to be found at, 444–5, 452, 490.
Ceremonies, master of the. See Cotterell, Sir Charles.
Chalons sur Marne, Chalons in Champagne [Marne, France], despatch dated at, 78.
chamberlain, the lord. See Bennet, Henry, earl of Arlington; Jermyn, Henry, earl of St. Albans.
-, the lord great. See Bertie, Robert, earl of Lindsey.
Chambers, the. See parliament.
chancellor, the lord. See Cooper, Anthony Ashley, earl of Shaftesbury; Hyde, Edward, earl of Clarendon.
chaplain to Venetian embassy, allowance for, 39.
Charleroi [Prov. Hainault, Belgium], 302.
-, reactions to attack on, 1, 5, 6, 8; king's declaration about, 65, 68.
Charles I, king of Great Britain:
-, Muscovy withdrew privileges of English merchants after beheading of, 32; son following same road as, 40; execution referred to, 191.
-, first duke of Buckingham embarrassed by cost of fleet, 35.
-, marriage treaty for Princess Henrietta, 125, 148.
-, commemoration of death of, 211.
-, Welsh recall services to, 338.
-, civil war followed consent not to prorogue parliament, 393.
-, as Prince of Wales, negotiations for marriage to Infanta, 125.
Charles II, king of Great Britain, 352.
-, mildness of, generated factions at the restoration, 73; marriage referred to, 181.
-, reception of duchess of Orleans by, 154; visit to Plymouth, 264n.
-, letter to doge about consulage, 253; doge's letter to, 290.
-, Van Beuningen caused to seek French alliance, 336.
-, opposition to dispensing power, 390.
-,-, would be disturbed by French attack on Flanders, 1; wishes to be forearmed for parliament, 2; likely to master everything, 4, 16; counts on getting supply easily, 9; will find it hard, 11.
-,-, Louis promises to act in concert with, 3; Colbert informs about Charleroi, 6; declaration about Charleroi, 65, 68.
-,-, rewards Duras, 5; raises 8 new regiments, 9.
-,-, Arlington presents Dodington to, 10; Arlington says determined about indulgence, 13.
-,-, speech at opening of parliament, 13, 14; Louis hopes to humble Dutch if well provided by parliament, 18.
-,-, prospect of re-marriage, by queen's death, 13; her distress at his treatment of her, 14.
-,-, decides that Rupert shall command fleet, 14, 17; unlikely to make York general in England, 23.
-,-, Commons take up question of indulgence with, 16, 19, 22; moved by reasons of state not of religion, 20.
-,-, Catholics look to alone, for their advantage, 20; hope that will not allow laws to be carried out, 25.
-,-, says chief of Dutch spies will be hanged, 20; approves of Spragge's arrangements, 29.
-,-, Spain expects to observe guarantee, 21; says Monterey and Fresno made up false report, 26.
-,-, gives way about indulgence, 22, 24, 27; likely to make final attempt with parliament, 23; parliament thanks for concession, 28; Arlington induced to yield, 310.
-,-, fears a new parliament would worsen position, 22, 25; York cannot induce to strike a blow, 25; York blames weakness, 29.
-,-, takes no interest in Vienna marriage negotiations, 23.
-,-, relies on promises of parliament leaders and hopes for supply, 28; Clifford offered to show way to get money without parliament, 33.
-,-, will not reassemble parliament except in extreme necessity, 28.
-,-, Colbert advised to give way, 28; French fear effect of parliament on, 30.
-,-, justifies yielding by need of money, and to avoid bloodshed, 29; blamed for deserting cause, 31, 34.
-,-, parliament may prevent helping Catholics, 31; weakness through inadequacy of money resources, 35.
-,-, policy not zeal led to favour Catholics, 31; bribed leaders of the Commons, 33, 35; does not know how to meet demands, 40.
-,-, service and prestige perishing, 31; injury suffered by authority, 37; affection for brother unchanged, 40.
-,-, selects persons for peace conference likely to follow wishes of French, 34; aims at humbling Dutch, 42.
-,-, provides equipment of fleet with own funds, 35; goes down river with Rupert, to test new shot, 41.
-,-, discovers disloyalty of Shaftesbury and complains of Arlington, 37; Lockhart has confidence of, 38.
-,-, sends eighty companies to the fleet to escape the test, 37; goes with York to inspect fleet, 142.
-,-, Austrian court wishes to avoid uncomfortable commital with, 39.
-,-, thinks he can outwit opposition by skill, 40; expected to abrogate all concessions at next meeting of parliament, 43.
-,-, will go to see French squadron, 42, 47, 49; goes to fleet at Rye, 51; holiday for birthday and restoration, 54.
-,-, returns to fleet to give final instructions, 47; orders attacks in hope of decisive victories, 51.
-,-, in urgent need of peace to attend to home affairs, 50; orders that test oath shall not be forced on privates, 51; gives Clifford permission to resign, 56.
-,-, expresses dissatisfaction with ministers, 52; believes attack on York only to embarrass government, 53.
-,-, inspects fleet and returns to London, 52; hires merchantmen for fleet, 53.
-,-, likely to relieve Catholics in autumn, 53; plan to retrieve position and get the better of parliament, 56, 69.
-,-, committed about Venetian consulage, 54.
-,-, equanimity about success of fleet, 54; laughs at Dutch inventions about battle, 58.
-,-, inclined to let York command landing, 55; emperor's letter to, about marriage, 59.
-,-, Godolphin talks of Spanish rupture with, 56; accuses Spain of breaking treaty of Aix, 64–5.
-,-, wishes Rupert to remain at sea, 58; visits fleet at the Nore, hastens sailing, 64.
-,-, anxiously awaiting result at Maastricht, 67; demands cautionary fortresses from Dutch, 70.
-,-, talk of compelling to divorce queen and many again, 68–9; emperor sends Gascoigne back with letters to, 170.
-,-, apologises for yielding to parliament, 69; weakness caused by inattention and excessive good nature, 72.
-,-, has no heart for great things and likely to desert York, 69; daily rewards those who least deserve it, 71.
-,-, visits camp twice, 71; goes to Gravesend to give Rupert instructions, 72; goes to fleet and orders embarcation of troops, 75.
-,-, resources dissipated, weakness from lack of money, 72; publishes edict against foreign silk, 77.
-,-, Dutch asked to pay indemnity to, 74; representations to about Sta. Giustina, 79.
-,-, thinks Rupert can force Dutch to fight in the open, 75; goes to inspect ships and troops, 79.
-,-, appoints Rupert and Schomberg to commands, exception taken to foreigners, 76; Buckingham objects to, but expects to balance and rule ministers, 77.
-,-, no one can rely on, 77; parliament expects to wrest management of money from, 83.
-,-, French show Monmouth great civility for sake of, 78; will not listen to peace proposals without France, 85.
-,-, sees fleet sail, returns to London, 83.
-,-, not compelled by urgent need to summon parliament, 83; not inclined to give up any of prerogatives, except for cash, 84.
-,-, makes Buckingham president of the North, 84; makes Paston viscount Yarmouth, 91.
-,-, lack of economy may reduce to extreme necessity, 84; irresolution damages prestige in France, 86.
-,-, considers peace near at hand, 85; Salinas to make offers to, if will make separate peace, 87–8.
-,-, possibility of Louis sending troops to help, 87; French think internal situation will compel to continue Dutch war, 88; French opinion of Schomberg's appointment, 89.
-,-, informed Colbert of all Salinas' negotiations, and promised loyalty to France, 88.
-,-, decision awaited in dispute between Rupert and Schomberg, 89, 94; will not judge between them, 91.
-,-, ill success of fleet damages prospects in parliament, 91; Rupert sends E. Indiaman to, 96.
-,-, talk of new queen for, to prevent York's offspring by Modena succeeding, 91.
-,-, spoke to Alberti about Sta. Giustina affair, 92, 101–3, 108; resented Venetian action, 94, 112.
-,-, unlikely to do anything to upset French alliance, 95; embarrassed by French connection, 100.
-,-, does not believe a general naval action has taken place, 96; has news of action (Texel), 98–9; orders Rupert to assemble fleet off English coast, 100.
-,-, great profits to from customs on ships arrived, 97; prize money may encourage disastrously to continue war, 106.
-,-, expected to avoid calling parliament, 97; wounded by bickerings between ministers, 106.
-,-, assists James over marriage articles, 97; cardinals want declaration from for Modena marriage, 125–6.
-,-, complaint made to about the Amity, 102–3; Venice hopes will order commanders to respect ports, 103; asks justice in Amity affair, 107.
-,-, surgeon of, captured by Dutch, 105; prize money reimburses for expenses of war, 108, 121.
-,-, tries to lull feeling against French, 106; French party fear may accept Dutch proposals, 114.
-,-, letters to doge about Zante affair, 110, 112, 253; and Amity, 111, 157, 184; doge's reply to, 113.
-,-, lives from day to day, unable to keep fleet supplied, 114; declares in favour of Estrées in Texel battle, 120.
-,-, Schomberg complains of, for sacrificing his servants, 115; recalls Schomberg with Yarmouth troops, 120.
-,-, would wish usual compliments paid to Venetian ministers, 115; Higgons takes leave of, 125.
-,-, parliament not expected to be in harmony with, 117; Buckingham reconciled with, 124.
-,-, Venetian case for Sta. Giustina represented to, 120, 138–9, 140.
-,-, means to persevere with French alliance, 121; Dutch try to force Spain to break with, 127; indignant at Spanish treaty with Dutch, 128.
-,-, stops Salinas coming to London, 121; goes to Windsor, 143.
-,-, allows Ossery to take the fleet out, 124; some say should keep fleet in Mediterranean to enforce rights, 139.
-,-, cohabiting with queen again, 124; reported dislike of Modena match and his brother, 129.
-,-, mediates with Louis for Genoese, 127; ministers disapprove of persisting with French alliance, 143.
-,-, wishes to instruct Lockhart about alliance, 133; tells Fresno intention to back France, 137.
-,-, influenced by meeting of parliament, 133; in panic at approach of, 138.
-,-, Fresno advises to accept Dutch terms, 138; says Venice only free power to negotiate peace, 144.
-,-, Father Patrick leaves for France as cannot count on support of, 138; ill served by ministers who advise surrender to parliament, 144.
-,-, grants force of 4,000 men for France, 144; ministers manœuvre to force to abandon France, 155.
-,-, suggestion to secure succession by re-marrying, 145; excellent relations with Grand Duke, 171.
-,-, returns to London, 154.
-,-, pope wishes Louis to intervene with, about religion, 151; provided in form of dispensation, 166.
-,-, friendly disposition to Venice, 153; suggested second letter about Zante affair, 170, 183, 195.
-,-, claims to have restrained Louis from attacking Spain, 154; chief object to persevere with French alliance, 163.
-,-, believes manipulation of parliament will work in his favour, 155; thought to have bribed opponents of marriage, 168.
-,-, does not wish a stir about chapel for Mary of Modena, 155; Peterborough had instructions from, about marriage, 165–6.
-,-, Commons petition to stop Modena match, 161, 169; says too late, 161; placates opposition, 167; further reply about match, 173.
-,-, gives general pardon to all his ministers, 162; fear of faring worse by dissolving parliament, 169.
-,-, puts up with everything to get money, peril of, 162; speech to Houses, asks for supply, 168; money voted for, 169.
-,-, encourages bride to come to London, 169; impatient for her arrival, 171.
-,-, stops Dutch trumpet with letter from States, 169; agrees to get money from French for the war, 175.
-,-, capture of Dutch fishing boats would bring welcome supplies to, 170; hope disappointed, 174.
-,-, consternation at attitude of parliament to Modena match, 173n; refuses to dissolve, decides to prorogue, 175.
-,-, parliament's demands of, 173; speech in reply, to Commons, id.
-,-, effort to separate from brother, 174, 177; York tells that policy a mistake, 176.
-,-, France compelled to sacrifice Catholics, 175; York asks for French money to deliver from parliament, 177.
-,-, lack of courage in dealing with situation, 176; reduced to condition by an improper distribution of favours, id.
-,-, eschews violence, considers disbanding troops, 177.
-,-, refuses to repudiate queen, 177; met York and bride at Greenwich, 181.
-,-, may have to declare himself against Catholics, 178; steps taken by, 178–9.
-,-, letter of States General to and answer, 179; efforts to detach from France, 185.
-,-, French fear of effect of parliament and Dutch offers on, 179; Ruvigny offers subsidy for renewal of alliance, 183.
-,-, religious question intended to divert from war to home affairs, 182; issued proclamation against Catholics to humour people, 183.
-,-, unwilling to risk crown for self, careless of future, 183; makes no move, York urges to accept French offer, 184.
-,-, Shaftesbury's advances to, 183; likely to yield to popular pressure, 185.
-,-, will get no money until he breaks with France, 185; aims at getting money by saddling parliament with onus of peace, 187.
-,-, frequently with Mary of Modena, 185.
-,-, despatches Higgons, to cultivate best relations with Venice, 186.
-,-, disorder in counsels of, distrusts ministers, who distrust him, 187.
-,-, Fresno sees and intimates Spain's obligation to Dutch, 187, 191; Spain hopeful of detaching from France, 190; reply to Fresno, 191–2.
-,-, Dutch hold back reply to, 188, 194.
-,-, says inexpedient to grant chapel to duchess of York, 189; forbids Catholics to enter park or palace of St. James, 193.
-,-, zeal for French alliance cooled, 191; summons to parliament hoping to gain popularity, 192.
-,-, would be unwise to dissolve parliament, 192; hopes to carry parliament against Dutch, 194.
-, 1674: 304.
-,-, must convince people before they give him money, 196.
-,-, parliament means to force to break with France, 196, 198.
-,-, suggestion to repudiate queen and re-marry, 196; fears Cornbury's party against York, 197.
-,-, goodness and forbearance of, 196; hopeful of quieting Scotland, 197; trying to reconcile Lauderdale and Hamilton, 200.
-,-, French rely on resisting parliament's effort to break alliance, 198; Ruvigny satisfied with good will of, 200.
-,-, speech to parliament, asks for supply, 198; speech produces little effect, 202.
-,-, Fresno presents queen regent's letter to, begins to count on peace with Spain, 199.
-,-, takes money in advance from farmers of duties, 199; must satisfy the country if wants money, 201.
-,-, fears evil consequences of attacks on ministers, 199; Buckingham disobliges by revealing secret, 201.
-,-, parliament thanks for enforcing laws against Catholics, 200; signs proclamation banishing Catholics from London, 201.
-,-, attitude of parliament to, about war, 202; unlikely to gain much by patience, 203.
-,-, Colbert's hint to, on leaving, 202–3; France needs help to balance Dutch at sea, 208.
-,-, Ruvigny to keep staunch to alliance, 203; French efforts to get to continue alliance, 204.
-,-, dares not accept French pensions, declines money offered by York and Catholics, 203.
-,-, contemplated petition to, to dismiss Arlington, 204; parliament petitions to proclaim fasts and prayers, 205.
-,-, parliament hold over affects ministers, 206; reply of to representations about encroachments of the Houses, 206.
-,-, hesitates to accept peace out of shame for breaking word to France, 207; wants parliament approval to justify betrayal of France, 211.
-,-, French efforts to keep constant to alliance, 209; French confidence in good will of, 209.
-,-, Spain deliberates over declarations of, 209.
-,-, informs parliament of peace offer and asks advice, 209, 210; Dutch terms would justify in refusing to treat separately, 210.
-,-, nothing said about providing with money, 210; does not expect money for war from parliament, 211, 216.
-,-, parliament pleased by dependence on, 211; parliament informs of vote for peace, 215.
-,-, may refer peace treaty to Cologne, 211: French think might act as mediator, 212.
-,-, Ruvigny remonstrates with. stops his memorial, 211; Lockhart represents necessity of peace to, at Paris, 212; tries to exonerate from blame, 217.
-,-, sees necessity of peace, accepts situation, 214, 217; induced by proposed marriage of Orange to niece, 215.
-,-, probable plans after peace, 216; asks for money to build ships, 220.
-,-, Commons vote disbanding of troops by, 216; petitioned to disband them, 219.
-,-, could not risk giving the impression that wished to continue the war merely to please France, 217; announces peace to parliament, 218.
-,-, concessions about peace and French alliance do not quiet people or allay suspicion, 219.
-,-, announces disbanding of troops and reduction of army, 220; revenue from wine duties, 222.
-,-, instructs Buckingham to sell office of Master of Horse, 220; did not decide between Buckingham and Arlington, 227.
-,-, Louis appreciates motives for yielding to pressure, 224; lives from hand to mouth, 232.
-,-, good intentions to France unchanged, 225; ready to procure peace for France, 231.
-,-, mistaken in thinking to rule without favourites, 228; still undecided, 228.
-,-, expected to do all that is asked for money, 228; nothing said in Commons about money for, 229.
-,-, cannot let off brother doing penance for mistaken policy, 228; need to stand by brother, 233.
-,-, Spain urged to make war on France jointly with, 231; assurances to France, 235, 238.
-,-, prorogues parliament, reasons for action, 232; has not the heart to dismiss a minister, 233; not satisfied about Jersey affair, 241.
-,-, Catholics accuse Fresno of placing in dilemma, 234; French alliance framed by, for own ends, 236.
-,-, Venetian, interest in offer of mediation, 234; mediation likely to be left to, 240.
-,-, France doubtful of steadfastness of, 235; still friendly to France, 240, 242; France confident in intentions to make peace, 242.
-,-, undecided about rewards and punishment, 236; finds it difficult to parry attacks of his subjects, 238; suspicion of Skelton, 248n.
-,-, afraid to punish leaders of factions, 239; nonconformists offer money to, to dissolve parliament, 243.
-,-, orders enforcement of laws against Catholics, 239.
-,-, will not recall English troops from France, 241; Fresno complains to about, 242.
-,-, Dutch efforts to conciliate, 241; Dutch becoming increasingly mistrustful of, 243.
-,-, going to Newmarket and Windsor, 241; goes to Newmarket for hunting, 246.
-,-, some members of parliament think that should no longer be straitened for money, 243; money offered to, to dissolve parliament, 253.
-,-, Lockhart speaks of efforts for peace, 244; recalls ambassadors from Cologne, 245.
-,-, question of mediation of, 244, 249; shuns the business, 247.
-,-, Spaniards accuse of partiality for France, 245; Lockhart shows intention to satisfy France, 247.
-,-, says no honour or faith in the Dutch, 246; Spain suspects of using France to serve Orange, 249.
-,-, Godolphin induces to interest himself in settlement, 248; Spanish reaction to offer of mediation, 251–2; queen's reply to, 256, 258.
-,-, returns to London for Holy week, 250; health impaired through disorders, 252.
-,-, efforts for release of Furstenberg, 250; letter to emperor about mediation, 260.
-,-, lacks courage, gives audience to Shaftesbury, 253; has Shaftesbury's name struck off Council, 262.
-,-, forbids subjects to enter foreign service, 254; issues proclamation against spreading false news, 257.
-,-, Fresno says may find parliament more tranquil, 254; expected to reassemble parliament, 257; Fresno forcing on, 261.
-,-, relieved aliens of extra duties during war, 255, 263; discusses question of Catholics with Council, 261; policy with Catholics, 262, 268, 270.
-,-, proposes to spend summer at Windsor, 257, 259; goes to see trial of yachts, 259; goes Windsor, 261.
-,-, Dutch ambassadors have audience of, 261; resents Orange's criticisms of government, 269.
-,-, Fresno passes civil office with, 261; Spaar says should maintain common interests of Spaniards and Dutch, 266.
-,-, Lauderdale retains confidence of 262, 264; reforms Council of Scotland, 262; makes Lauderdale an English peer, 267.
-,-, will not be separated from brother, 262; means to maintain authority, 264; reserves decisions until the last moment, 267.
-,-, hopes to get money from parliament, 263; question of attitude to parliament, 267.
-,-, not deeply interested in consulage, 263; not sufficiently economical to live on revenue, 268.
-,-, visit to Portsmouth to see ship, 262, 268, 270; returns to Windsor, 270.
-,-, Spain hopes will resist French aggression, 267; advised to renew offer of mediation, 267; may have too much distraction at home, 268.
-,-, dispensing power questioned, 271, 287–8; emperor's rejection of proposals felt deeply, 277.
-,-, letters of credence for Higgons, 274, 290; urged to detain Fresno, 277.
-,-, attends cabinet councils regularly, 274; Genoa thanks for good offices with France, 275.
-,-, absence from London believed deliberate, dissatisfaction at, 275, 303; decides to reassemble parliament, 279.
-,-, trying to get general peace before parliament meets, 275; meeting depends solely on will of, 277.
-,-, bent on good understanding with France, 275; French count on good will of, 276.
-,-, mediation only way to restore credit, 277.
-,-, sends troops to Scotland, 278; Scots complain of suppressing conventicles, 281.
-,-, representations to Spain, to support mediation, 278; Dutch have not accepted, 284.
-,-, York all powerful with, 279; allows Catholics to be persecuted by the justices, 281.
-,-, Orange offended by disrespectful remarks, 281; unwise as will need when peace made, 281.
-,-, proposes to send Modiford to Jamaica, 281; appoints Lord Vaughan as governor, 286.
-,-, amusing himself hunting, 282; exercising troops in attack and defence of a fort, 286.
-,-, reported in funds, parliament will not venture to attack, 283, 291; Spain counts on parliament compelling to declare for her, 288.
-,-, France anxious to see results of offer of mediation, 285; about to declare for Louis, amount of pension from, 288.
-,-, Spaar asks to appoint commissioners, 285; trying to keep mediation together, 297.
-,-, Dutch ambassadors promise to abide by settlement of commissioners, 286.
-,-, Albert appeals to, for chaplain, 287–8, 293; good will to Venice, 289, 291, 302; will protect chaplain, 293–4.
-,-, chief object to be rid of embarrassments of the war, 291; leaves his most important affairs to time and chance, 307–8.
-,-, makes Arlington chamberlain and Williamson secretary, 292; Williamson entirely dependent on, 295; Dutch try to embroil with subjects, 297.
-,-, Sylvius serves with Orange, with secret instructions, 295; Orange seeking reconciliation with, 300.
-,-, decides to prorogue parliament, 297; advised to do so by York, 298.
-,-, action about consulage at Venice, 299; prescribes flag for use by merchantmen, 301.
-,-, goes to Newmarket, 299; expected back in London, 302; long stay away solely for pleasure, 303.
-,-, Odijk gets proclamation about letters of marque from, 302; Dutch complain of partiality for France, 307.
-,-, favour to Burnett would compromise, 303; queen distressed by infidelities of, 305.
-,-, Algerians require to ransom slaves, 304.
-,-, offer of Presbyterians to, 307–8; difficulties from failure to control ministers, 309.
-,-, fear of absolutist and Catholic intentions, 308; bishops cannot understand encouragement of nonconformists, 312.
-,-, sends Arlington and Ossory to Hague to prevent understanding with France, 310.
-,-, proposals to give other revenues in lieu of customs, 310, 312; averse from strong remedies, 316.
-,-, Alberti speaks to, about trade with Venice, 313; and consulage at Venice, 332–5.
-,-, Lockhart's opinion of mediation by, 314.
-,-, attitude to succession question, 315; realises danger of placing himself in hands of a faction, 316; Presbyterians endangered by, through inconstancy, 317, 331.
-,-, convokes bishops to advise about religion, 317, 336; possible bargain with Presbyterians and Independents, 318–9.
-,-, custom to bring agitators to obedience by rewards, 318; parliament begs rewards of, dagger in hand, 319.
-,-, Leyonberg sees about Brandenburg's march, 319, 320.
-,-, Monterey not convinced of zeal to save Flanders, 320.
-,-, drunken declaration of affection for brother, 321; fear of renewed jealousy between, and brother, 324.
-,-, may suspect intelligence between French and Dutch, 322.
-,-, representation to about trade treaty with Dutch, 323; induces commissioners to conclude treaty, 324.
-,-, gives Guinea Co. monopoly of trade on W. African coast, 324; and Venice consulage, 333, 335, 351.
-,-, dare not act openly for relief of Catholics, 324; Alberti informs of sentence on Burnett, grants reprieve, 328; offers release, 333.
-,-, suggested intervention at Bristol, 326; proposed action with respect to nonconformists, 327, 331.
-,-, encourages Lauderdale and Danby to treat with bishops, 330.
-,-, decision about religion awaited, 337; nonconformists suspicious of, representations to, 342.
-,-, reply of Algerines to, 337; Welsh petition for share of Guinea trade, 338.
-,-, receives freedom of city, 337–8; Bergeik has audience of, 344; attends banquets to Tromp, 345, 356n; knights him, 361.
-,-, Alberti asks for release of chaplain, 338; assurances of, 343; pardons, 351; further action, 359.
-,-, French bias of, 340–1; pleased at Turenne's victory, 342; Spanish policy to constrain through parliament, 348.
-,-, attitude to Orange, 345; Orange claims money granted by, 351.
-,-, relations with nonconformists, 346, 348–9; Lambeth conference advises to enforce penal laws, 354, 357.
-,-, recalls and pardons Shaftesbury, 346; may make him vicar general, 349.
-,-, will not be persuaded to resume hostilities, 347; parliament grant would tempt to forget French alliance, 356.
-,-, policy to keep factions divided, 350; pitied because subjects rushing to ruin, 353.
-,-, van Beuninghen asks to propose place for congress, 352; Bergeik suggests London to, 356; rejects idea, 360.
-,-, Court party defends policy, 353; York accuses Lauderdale and Danby of compromising, 358.
-,-, informed of doge's election, 354–5; and Venetian consulage, 359, 364, 366, 371, 378.
-,-, Orange taxed with ingratitude to, 355; regrets Orange's attitude to Guelders offer, 361.
-,-, York induces to modify measures against Catholics and nonconformists, 358; lawyers criticise order, 362.
-,-, policy to keep parties divided, 358; suggested Orange shall assist to uphold authority, 361; York warns of danger of parties uniting, 366; his advice to, 367.
-,-, opinion about designs, 361; Catholics reproach for ingratitude, 364.
-,-, proposal to appoint Cardinal agreeable to, 362; supports Scottish judges against court of Session, 372.
-,-, Villahermosa will seek best understanding with, 365; Velasco has audience of, 369.
-,-, cultivates friendly relations with Orange, 365; Orange accepts Nijmegen to please, 376.
-,-, discusses place for congress and mediation with Ruvigny, 366; unlikely to bring about peace, 374.
-,-, resents satire, speech to parliament lampooned, 366; ready to sacrifice ministers to please people, 368.
-,-, policy about indulgence, 367; relations with brother, 371–2.
-,-, sending to Surinam, 371; asked to intervene between Swedes and Dutch, 378.
-,-, going to Newmarket, 371, 377; returning to London, 384, 386.
-,-, urged to prorogue parliament, 371; expected to assemble it, 375.
-,-, interest of Catholics to support, 373; secretly opposes union of Anglicans and Presbyterians, 376.
-,-, receives Modena envoy, 374; Shaftesbury's offers to, 376.
-,-, Spain confident of having on side, 376; French uncertain of, 383; Spain's efforts to draw over, 385.
-,-, cannot be obstinate with Dutch about India, 377.
-,-, appoints ministers for congress, 377; Spain ready to accept as mediator, 388–9.
-,-, Leyonberg asks leave to publish memorial to emperor, 380; asked to intervene for Brandenburg, 384; reply, 387.
-,-, offer to, for customs, 380.
-,-, device to save poor Catholics, 381; proposed oath pretended as out of respect to, 397.
-,-, nonconformists ready to cooperate with, 381; interest to be united with subjects, 384.
-,-, urged to declare for defence of Flanders, sharp comment, 385; Spanish suspicion of, 388.
-,-, in some apprehension about parliament, 387; Lauderdale and Danby represent, dangerous position to, 390.
-,-, sends to Orange, on recovery, 388–9, 400; queen prepared for divorce from, 392.
-,-, Bergeik recognises need to rely on France, 389.
-,-, possible course at reopening of parliament, 391; reopens and speech, 392, 394; delay about thanking, 393.
-,-, has not courage to dissolve parliament, 392; explains position to Ruvigny, 392n; proposed petition not to prorogue, 393; Ruvigny urged to dismiss, 397.
-,-, Commons ask to remove Lauderdale, 393, 401; may sacrifice him, 398.
-,-, patience with parliament, but threatens to dissolve for excess, 394; Lockhart says will send them home, if play pranks, 397.
-,-, Sarotti preparing for audience of, 396, 408; letter of despatched by Mocenigo, 400.
-,-, would dismiss parliament altogether, for loan from Louis, 397n; thinks will not mend matters by dissolution, 399.
-,-, commends bishops' attitude to new oath, 398, 401; said to have bribed nonconformists, 402.
-,-, petitioned to recall troops from France, reply, 398, 406; knows Bergeik did not promote this, 399; does not think of recalling, 403.
-,-, entreats brother not to desert him, 402; York encourages to be patient with parliament, 407; expects to obtain object, 409.
-,-, Ruvigny confers with about Flanders, 403; Ruvigny offered support against parlia- 404.
-,-, suggestion to annex customs' revenue permanently, 404.
-,-, exonerates Lauderdale about Scottish troops, 404; Commons consider reply about, 407; ask to dismiss him, 416.
-,-, offer to, to declare war on France, 404n; opinion about defence of Flanders, 405.
-,-, perseveres with friendship for France, 405; angry with Herbert for flag incident, 414n.
-,-, Spaar hopes for help to further country's plans, 406, 409; prince of Neuburg received by, 410.
-,-, promises to stop subjects entering French service, 406; modifies reply and says will recall some, 406–7; issues recall, 411.
-,-, may ask Venice for base against Tripolitans, 408; Sarotti's first audience of, 421–2.
-,-, suffers from decision of suits by Lords, 409; assumed to be present in court of Chancery, 417.
-,-, provoked by parliament, 412; treasurer counsels patience and then to adjourn, 413.
-,-, hope of gaining numerous party for, 413; remark on irregular proceedings in the Commons, 416.
-,-, plans to force to make war on France, 413; French hopes of satisfactory ending, 415.
-,-, Lockhart served with complete satisfaction, 414; likely to replace him soon, 415.
-,-, assurances to France, 419; prorogation relieves France of fear of pressure on, 424.
-,-, apparent union with Commons considered ominous, 419; prospects of a change, 419, 420; trying to find expedients, 421.
-,-, Alberti hopes for protection against creditors, 420n; gives Temple leave to return, 432.
-,-, Lords petition to remove lieutenant of the Tower, declines, 423; banishes two gentlemen from Court, 431.
-,-, sends for both Houses and addresses them, 423; prorogues parliament, 424.
-,-, going to Portsmouth and on to Windsor, 424; departure deferred, 426; may be given up, 428.
-,-, Louis forward to gratify while well disposed, 425; ministers consult with about flag incident and arming ships, 426.
-,-, Dutch hoped parliament would force to serve their interests, 426; efforts to secure supply for, from parliament, 432.
-,-, reply to Ronquillo about Messina and peace with France, 427–8; queen of Spain wishes informed about, attitude to Venetian mediation, 431.
-,-, pleased to correspond with Cardinal Howard, 429; prince of Neuburg entertains, 433.
-,-, would like a bishop appointed for Catholics, 429; on mourning for duke of Savoy, 439.
-,-, journey by sea to Portsmouth, 431; sees launch, 433; returns by sea, 434.
-,-, makes Northampton constable of the Tower, 432; goes to Windsor, 436–7; at Hampton Court and holds Council, 439.
-,-, Ronquillo speaks with about mediation, 434, 440; Ronquillo says has run away from business, 437; foreign ministers refrain from troubling, 438.
-,-, Van Beuningen urges to persuade Louis to peace, 434; France would like to urge Dutch to peace, 438.
-,-, Ruvigny neglects no opportunity of cultivating, 437; avoids business, 440.
-,-, shows Sarotti round Windsor, and takes him to Hampton Court, 440; Vaudemont avoids seeing, 443.
-,-, on guard against peace proposals of allies, 440; ready to grant convoy to Swedish ships, 446.
-,-, Ronquillo aware of financial straits, 441; free speaking against, 453.
-,-, difficulty in choosing ambassador for France, 441; Rome wants interest for reconciliation with France, 458.
-,-, deals with case of prize goods, 441–2; asks relief for merchants in Ionian Islands, 445.
-,-, has Melo made queen's chamberlain, to please her, 443; makes three natural sons dukes, 444.
-,-, goes into mourning for duke of Savoy, 443; in danger from bleeding, 450.
-,-, steps to put down revolt of weavers, 447; the first to have guards about, his person, 449, 450.
-,-, charges Stafford to induce Dutch to make peace with France, 450; alleged peace proposals of, 451.
-,-, goes to launch at Woolwich, 450; merchants induce to send reinforcements to Narborough, 453.
-,-, discusses reassembling of parliament, 452; holds Council about farming Irish revenues, 454.
-,-, returns to London, going to Newmarket for racing, 454–6.
-,-, Dutch want to exert himself for peace, 454; desired to arrange for preliminaries, 456; urges Orange for better understanding, 460.
-,-, Ronquillo speaks to about incident in Adriatic, 457.
-,-, Palatine's interests recommended to, as mediator, 459; urged to promote congress before parliament can interfere, 461.
-,-, alleged peace proposals an invention of Spaniards, 459, 463; invites powers to send their ministers to congress, 460, 462–3.
-,-, gets Louis not to press Furstenberg matter, 459; and to accept another place for congress, 460; France will be persuaded by, 462.
-,-, ready to send ministers to congress, 463; offers mediation to Sweden and Denmark, 464; his letters, 466; action resented by Ronquillo, 465.
-,-, opens parliament, speech, 466; vote of thanks to delayed, 467, 471.
-,-, anxious to serve Louis by procuring peace, 467; no fear of being forced to act otherwise, 468, 473, 477, 484; suspicion of designs touching France and religion, 469.
-,-, Sarotti delays office with, till republic's minister to congress appointed, 468.
-,-, ardour for congress diminished by preoccupation with parliament, 469; opponents carry the day about payment of debts, 471.
-,-, asks passports for Spaar, 469; slight to Ronquillo, 469, 470; speaks to him at last about passports and congress, 482, 484; Ronquillo's assurance to, 484–5.
-,-, Ronquillo criticises peace moves of, 470; seems less eager about peace, 473; efforts delayed by preoccupations, 477, 482.
-,-, thanked for offices for Furstemberg, 470.
-,-, mediated commercial treaty for Dutch, 470; suggestion to hand over episcopal revenues to, 476.
-,-, permits for Dutch and French ships not continued, 470.
-,-, Lords more inclined to satisfy but fear will sacrifice them, 472, 475; appropriation of money for fleet an affront to, 474; vote on appropriation goes in favour of, 478.
-,-, some in parliament would like to force dissolution on, 476, 482; friends of try to prevent disputes between the Houses, 481.
-,-, frequent consultations with ministers about parliament, 476; unwilling to dissolve as all his friends would lose their seats, 482.
-,-, asked to summon members to attendance by proclamation, 478; parliament to inquire into administration of all money granted to, 485.
-,-, desire for satisfaction of France regardless of own interests, 479; petition to recall troops from France, 488.
-,-, well disposed to forward congress, 479.
-,-, representations not to hold up congress because of Furstenberg, 484; understanding with Louis about, 488.
-,-, parliamentary grants greater than to any of his predecessors, 485; parliament proposes to deprive of disposition of revenue, 489.
-,-, takes up case of Luzancy against St. Germain, 486; address to about St. Germain, 489.
-,-, wrote to emperor about Furstenberg, 488; committed more deeply to Louis about, 494; fresh office with Ronquillo about, 497.
-,-, petitioned to prohibit French goods, 489.
-,-, influence of Louis over through Querouaille, 489; Spaniards suspect growing intimacy with France, 493.
-,-, quarrels between Houses may supply motive for dissolving parliament, 490; Lords propose to ask for dissolution, 491.
-,-, present daily in Lords, does not check free speaking, 490; goes to Lords and announces prorogation, 491–3; opinions about motives, 495.
-,-, orders plenipotentiaries to get ready to start, 492; will have no power but persuasion, 493.
-,-, complete confidence in Berkeley, 494; instructions to, 495.
-,-, sending Skelton to emperor and Sylvius to Hague about Furstenberg, 494.
-,-, sends to Brandenburg about mediation, 495; disposition for peace negotiations could not be greater, 498.
-,-, criticisms of conduct posted Up, 496.
-, natural sons of. See Beauclerk, Charles; Fitzroy, Henry, duke of Grafton; James, duke of Monmouth; Lennox, Charles; Palmer, Charles, duke of Southampton.
-, physician of. See Fresel.
Charles II, king of Spain, the Catholic king, 192, 434, 470.
-, ill of smallpox, 6; incident with Godolphin in the country, 67.
-, hope to marry princess of Modena to, 109n, 129.
-, England tried to preserve peace for, during minority, 154; Fresno fears that may lose rather than gain by rebellion in England, 202.
-, to define area for salute to British flag, 214; may be forced to capitulate to France, 267.
-, reasons for recalling Fresno, 269; Dutch know state of exchequer, 270.
-, English will try to regain, 278; England must get good terms for, 395.
-, ready for peace but wants suggestions about Furstenberg adopted, 428; suspicious of armistice, 448.
-, Ronquillo celebrates majority of, 477.
-, troops of, 373.
Charles XI, king of Sweden, 434.
-, Spain relies on guarantee of, 21; reference to guarantee, 42; will attack whoever breaks the treaties, 202.
-, orders representations at Vienna, 306; marching against Brandenburg, 319.
-, zeal for peace not cooled, 320; Charles offers mediation to, 464–5; his letter to, 466; reply to, 492.
-, troops of, 351n.
-, projected marriage, to princess of Denmark, 432.
-, Venetian mediation suggested for, 468.
Charles Emanuel II, duke of Savoy, 255.
-, receives Modena family incognito, 143; death, 433; mourning for, 439, 443–4.
Charles III, duke of Lorraine, 439.
-, Dutch insist on inclusion in peace, 194; must agree about mediation 249.
-, army of in the field, 250; may oppose French in Franche Comté, id.
-, Gelderland offered to, in lieu of Lorraine, 351.
-, natural son of. See Lorraine, Charles Henry of, prince of Vaudemont.
Charles Louis, Elector Palatine of the Rhine, 457, 459.
-, asking for money, 304; applauds king's efforts for peace, 463.
-, resents disturbance from Philippsburg, 460.
Charles Aemilius, son of Frederick William, elector of Brandenburg, 350.
Charles, royal yacht, for Jenkins and Spanheim, 498.
Charlotte Elizabeth, duchess of Orleans, visits Mary of Modena, 167; duchess of Modena did not return visit, 195.
Charlton, Sir Job:
-, chosen speaker of the Commons, 13–4.
-, directed to issue new writs for elections, 13n; Seymour succeeded, 168.
Chastelet, Hippolite, called Luzancy, attack of St. Germain on, 406.
Chatham, co. Kent, 26.
Chester, bishop of. See Pearson, John.
Chichester, bishop of. See Gunning, Peter.
Chieri. See Kieri.
Chiomberg. See Schomberg.
Christian V, king of Denmark, 446.
-, league of, with Dutch, 58; bound to help Brandenburg against Sweden, 315; Spanish and Dutch subsidy to, 395.
-, will carry out treaties with Dutch, 432; fear of drawing back, 435; decides on war against Sweden, 437.
-, curiosity about designs, 454; fear that congress may arrest victorious progress, 463.
-, Charles offers mediation to, 464–5; his letter to, 466; reply to, 492.
-, Venetian mediation suggested for, 468; attacks Demgarten, 477n.
Christian Albert, duke of Holstein Gottorp, allied with Denmark against Sweden, 437.
Chudleigh, co. Devon, Clifford's seat at, 162.
Church of England, Protestants:
-, opposed to admission of non-conformists to benefices, 243; York finds mistake in seeking support of, 316.
-, bishops realise steady diminution in numbers of, 312; king convokes bishops to advise about interests of, 317; Cornbury's zeal for, 318.
-, proposed union with Presbyterians to dominate Court, 363, 366, 375–6, 381.
-, king kept apart from non-conformists, at restoration, 367.
-, reason for opposition to indulgence, 367; disallow Oxford oath, 376.
-, disturbed by effect of penal laws on trade, 375; York says he will not alter established religion, 401.
-, proposals to prevent change in, without act of parliament, 474–5; estimated revenue of hierarchy of, 476.
-, See also bishops.
Churchill, Sir John, Commons order arrest, 415n.
Cibo, Alderan, Cardinal, 164.
-, Mocenigo sees about Modena affair, 146–7.
-, Altieri wishes matter to be conducted by, 146–7; suggestions put forward by, 147; discussion with, 148; further negotiations, 149.
-, remarks on paper presented by, 152; urges settlement of dispensation question, 157; blames manner in which conducted, 171.
cinnamon, Levant Co. imports, 461.
Clarendon, earl of. See Hyde, Edward; Hyde, Henry.
Claude Lamoral, prince of Ligne, refuses passport to M. Gaumont, 466.
Claudia Felicitas, daughter of the Archduke Ferdinand Charles of the Tyrol, the archduchess of Innsbruck, 362.
-, negotiations for marriage with York, 6; strained relations with empress, 24.
-, considered as wife for Charles, 14, 17; York loses hopes of, 50.
-, decision about York to be left to sole arbitrament of, 39; parliament did not oppose negotiations for, 169.
-, to marry the emperor, 39, 43, 59.
-, the nominee of Spain, 174; York has grudge against Spaniards over, 234.
-, marriage of. See under marriage.
Clement X, pope (Emlio Altieri):
-, exhortatory brief to princess of Modena, but difficulties about dispensation, 125–6.
-, withdraws brief on advice of congregation, 130; wants French king's guarantee, 147.
-, brief considered equivalent of dispensation, 131; said to have arranged marriage, 138.
-, duchess of Modena writes to inform of marriage, 131; enraged and refuses to receive letter, 132, 141; Estrées' representations to, reply of, 142.
-, expedients to pacify, 148, 150–2; insists on declaration from Louis, 149.
-, ill, 157, 164.
-, Barberino's petition to, for dispensation, 165; astonishment at punctiliousness over dispensation, 282.
-, burnt in effigy in London, 174, 178; and ballads against, 178.
-, could hardly send ministers to Breda, 322.
-, and promotion of Philip Howard, 414; bishop sounds alarm about, 416.
-, desire for reconciliation with Louis, 458.
-, appointment of nuncios extraordinary for congress by, 465, 497; emperor refers to France for place of congress, 482; objection to Nijmegen, 484.
-, mediation by. See under mediation.
Clements, Capt. John, commander of the Greyhound, 431.
-, Rupert has put in irons, 89, 90.
Clermont [Oise, France], Lockhart dies at, 414n.
Cleveland, yacht, king goes to trial of, 259n; Sarotti crosses by, 386.
Cleveland, countess of. See Villiers, Barbara.
Cleves [Rhenish Prussia, German Empire], Schomberg born at, 89; conference at, 382; not accepted for congress, 477.
Clifford, Thomas baron, lord high treasurer:
-, receives 200,000 lire from France, 17; pro French policy of, 227.
-, debate on indulgence, advises dissolution, 27; intends to retire to the country, 31.
-, Cavendish attacks for partiality to Catholics, 33; left in peace and money granted, 35.
-, wants to resign, 52–3; obtains king's leave to, 56; resigns, 69.
-, Arlington joined Shaftesbury to oust, 73; death, 162.
-, trade in, 8; to Indies, 369.
-, mart for, English, at Leghorn, 160; Levant Co. exports, 461.
-, France imposes double duty on Italian, 189.
-, bill concerning manufacture of, 490.
Clutterbuck, Sir Thomas, choice between Malta and Ithaca left to, 441n.
coaches, plate glass used for, from France, 272.
coal, parliament deals with supply of, 474.
Coder, Capt. Henry, of the Africana, 96, 115.
Colbert, Charles, de Croissy, French ambassador in England:
-, Arlington tells that attack on Flanders will be resented, 1; assurances to Charles, 3; representations to Charles about Charleroi, 6.
-, complains of York granting passports to Dutch, 4; complains of reserve shown, 26.
-, takes credit for reconciliation of king and parliament, 28; talks of returning to France, 65.
-, urges equipment of fleet, 40; writes to hasten coming of French squadron, 42.
-, reported difference with Fresno, 66; particulars of, 76.
-, report on demands on Dutch, 70; speaks of necessity of meeting imperialists, 71.
-, Italian comedy at house of, 76; Fresno complains that all that says taken for gospel, 121.
-, says France will do nothing save in concert with England, 80; Charles informs of all negotiations of Salinas and assures of loyalty, 88.
-, called to consultation about Estrées' conduct, 106.
-, Salinas stopped to remove suspicions of, 121.
-, bewildered by Spanish Dutch treaty, 128; says Charles not keeping bargain, but Louis an easy paymaster, 144.
-, Arlington deals with, about Genoa, 145; breaks appointment with duchess of Modena, 188.
-, not allowed to go home, 173; leaving at Christmas, 174; Ruvigny to succeed, 175.
-, York urges to get money to rescue king from parliament, 177; speeds his departure, unspeakable dread of next session, 178, 199; staying on, fear of parliament, 187.
-, pressing for leave to return, 179; blamed for Modena match, 182; proposes visit to duchess, 186; does not visit her, 194.
-, intimation to, of peace with Dutch, 185; fears breaking off of alliance with England, 191.
-, reply of Charles to Fresno the work of, 191; takes leave, 196; advice to Charles at departure, 202–3; expected at Paris, 204.
-, bears out Lockhart's explanations, 217.
-, prefers Arlington to Buckingham, 227.
-, Catholics blame for withdrawal of indulgence, 234; Burnett belonged to chapel of, 287.
-, Jean Baptiste, controleur general des finances, admiration for genius of, 105.
Colepepper. See Culpeper.
colliers, Scotch, Ruyter tries to intercept, 49.
Colmar [Alsace, France], victory of Turenne at, 342; inhabitants treated with cruelty, 364.
Cologne, Germany Empire, 71, 91, 194, 385.
-, despatch dated at, 379.
-, news from, 70, 205.
-, express from, 85.
-, seizure of Furstemburg at, 234, 244–5, 347, 365, 470; claim for return of French money seized at, 286–7, 299.
-, congress at, 68, 75, 78, 315.
-, commissioners appointed for, 33; Louis objects to, 36.
-, Sunderland delays starting for, 66; Arlington complains of delay of Spanish and imperial ministers in going to, 67.
-, impeded by absence of ministers, 87–8; Dutch offers at, 106.
-, little done at, 121; progress not desired, 122.
-, English efforts for peace at, 208; king will refer to, in parliament, 211.
-, French do not wish to dissociate themselves from negotiations, 212.
-, passports chief difficulty at, 212; instructions to French at, 231.
-, violence practised at breaks up congress, 244–5, 286; English ambassadors returning from, 254, 257; Barclay ambassador at, 441.
-, archbishop elector of. See Maximilian Henry, of Bavaria.
comedies, at Modena, 135; at Court, 371.
commissioners. Dutch, about India trade, English appointed to treat with, 270–1; in no hurry to begin, 279; ambassadors promise to confirm what they settle, 286; slow progress of resented, 291; near a rupture, 323; treaty agreed upon, 324; yacht for, 386.
Commons, House of, Lower House, 371.
-,-, resists king's attempt, to fill vacant seats, 13; takes up question of indulgence, 16, 19, 22, 24.
-,-, king determined to reform abuses in, 13; king relies on promises of lenders of, 28.
-,-, proposed grant to king, 14; discusses raising money to pay king's debts, 16–7; money question stranded, 20.
-,-, Lords commend king's reply to, 24; Test bill settled, 33.
-,-, sends up Test bill to Lords, 24, 31; king decides to yield to, 27–8.
-,-, many of nobility disillusioned with, sigh for a republic, 32; Cavendish attacks Clifford in, 33.
-,-, votes money for the war, 33; king could use fleet to get money from, 41.
-,-, king bribed leaders in, 33, 35; Coventry reveals secret of king's weakness to, 37.
-,-, York says too much conceded to, 40; compliance with Test Act a bad start for facing, 69.
-,-, members begin to suggest repudiation of queen and king's remarrying, 145.
-,-, summoned to Lords, opening debates, 161; king annoyed with chancellor over, id.
-,-, Modena family upset by news of opposition, 167; king's reply to about Modena match, 169.
-,-, king sends for and asks for supply, 168; money voted but method to be discussed, 169.
-,-, discussion about Speaker, 168; decision about supply, 173.
-,-, petitions king to stop marriage and banish priests, 169; demands of the king, 173; his speech in reply to, id.; opinions of Council about demands, 174.
-,-, adjourned, 199; thanks king for enforcing laws against Catholics, 200.
-,-, attacks Lauderdale, 200; and Buckingham, 200–1; Arlington appears before, to answer Buckingham, 201; his successful defence, 204.
-,-, establishing right to summon peers, 201; Buckingham proposes to appeal to, 205.
-,-, leaves religious question to call ministers to account, 202; uses money power to force dismisal of ministers, 206.
-,-, discusses new methods of dealing with Catholics, 205; devising oath to be taken by Catholics, 220.
-,-, York urges restraining presumption of, king's reply, 206.
-,-, more rancorous against York than against impeached ministers, 206; no longer inclining to impeachments, 210.
-,-, prestige increased by status of members, 206; motion in to prevent corruption, 215, 220.
-,-, examining causes of the war, 209; votes disbanding of troops raised since 1663, 216.
-,-, move in to acquit Buckingham, 216; Buckingham's charges against Arlington in, 233.
-,-, petitions king to banish Buckingham and Lauderdale, 216, 220; Higgons a member of, 230.
-,-, petitions for disbanding of troops, 219, 220; nothing said about money grant, 229.
-,-, ignores king's request for money to build ships, 220; shocked by Speaker's revelation of unpreparedness for war, 220n.
-,-, votes for fetching duke of Norfolk to England, 223; discusses liberty of the subject bill, 229.
-,-, king prorogues to stop further action against crown, 232; attack on Lauderdale, 262, 401, 404, 416; Lauderdale has English peerage, as protection against, 267; York does not desire revenge through, 391.
-,-, Court fears Fresno's intrigues in, 269; Ruvigny feared would insist on declaration for Spain, 297.
-,-, Lords join in opposition to Court, 348.
-,-, move by malcontent gentry of, 363.
-,-, listens to king's speech, objections to, 392–3; seems to desire reconciliation with court, 402.
-,-, resumes attack on Lauderdale, but leaves Danby alone, 393, 398; Danby impeached in, 402; charges dismissed, 404.
-,-, proposals against prorogation and for crushing popery, 393; Lindsey proposes new oath for members, 397.
-,-, no demonstration against Catholics, 398, 401.
-,-, petitions king to recall subjects serving in France, 398, 404, 411, 413; fear that may proceed further, 399; debate on reply, 406; concession to, 407.
-,-, Pepys examined by, about fleet, 402; provision for fleet, 404.
-,-, bill against placemen thrown out, 403; passes bill against illegal imprisonment, 404; scene in over question of French service, 406.
-,-, proposal to leaders to exempt York from test, 407.
-,-, dispute with Lords about appeals, 409; disputes with Lords over privilege, 412; bent on humbling the Lords, 419.
-,-, supply obstructed in, 409.
-,-, members desired to remain in London, 409; orders count of members, 412.
-,-, orders arrest of common serjeant and four barristers, 415, 417, 422; appeal to king, 416.
-,-, king's remark on irregular proceedings of, 416; king's apparent union with considered ominous, 419; pleased by king's support, 423.
-,-, thanks lieutenant of Tower, resolution condemning those who assist Lords, 423; reaction of Lords to, 424; king appoints constable, to stop encroachment, 431–2.
-,-, king shows sentiment at disorders in, by excluding two members from Court, 431.
-,-, lawyers arrested by, released, precedents examined, to destroy jurisdiction of, 432.
-,-, Ronquillo hopes to find friends in, 437; members begin to arrive in London, 463.
-,-, in Lords for king's speech, 466; vote of thanks for delayed, 467, 471.
-,-, question of summons to raised, 467; appoints committees for business, 471.
-,-, Ronquillo declines members' offer, 467.
-,-, refuses supply for debts, 471; votes money for ships, 473–4; amount limited, 481.
-,-, considers appropriation of money for fleet, 471; decision to examine state of country, 471–2.
-,-, Lords fear king will sacrifice them to please, 472; Lords resent encroachments, consult records, 475; question right to commit Howard, 476.
-,-, has Cavendish committed for breach of privilege, 472; he submits to, 476; Howard released by, 486.
-,-, various activities of, 474–5, 481, 486, 490; inquiry concerning scandalous books, 475; prolonged sittings, 476, 480–1.
-,-, takes up question of subjects serving France, 475, 478; presses point, 481; trying to get Lords to concur, 485.
-,-, test to purge members of taint of bribery, 478, 481; demands control of expenditure, 489.
-,-, dispute with Lords about appeals, 481–2, 489, 491.
-,-, vote for rebuilding Northampton, 486; proposal for regulating elections to, 490.
-,-, informed of St. Germain's attack on Luzancy, 486n; action taken upon, 487, 489.
-,-, many members remain in London, excessive freedom of speech, 496.
-, Speaker of. See Charlton, Sir Job; Seymour, Edward.
-, See also parliament.
Compton, James, earl of Northampton, to command a regiment, 9n; appointed constable of the Tower, 432, 449.
Concord, Concordia, merchantman.
-, at Leghorn, 12; reported pursued by Dutch privateer, 207; nothing more said about, 230, 233.
-, brings news of 1 Barbados revolt, 451n.
-, captain of, statement of, 208, 213.
Condé, prince of. See Bourbon, Louis II de.
congress, the peace, talk of fresh place for, 41.
Conismary. See Schomberg.
-, Finch starts for, 55; Finch enters, 247.
-, Levant Co. pays ambassador at, 461.
consulage, at Venice. See under Venice.
-, English, at Aleppo. See Lannoy.
-, English, at Alexandretta. See Broughton, George.
-, English, at Cadiz. See Wescomb, Sir Martin.
-, English, at Leghorn. See Skynner, Ephraim.
-, English, at Tripoli. See Bradly, Arthur.
-, English, at Venice. See Hailes, George; Jones, Giles.
-, English, at Zante. See Harby, Sir Clement.
-, Spanish, in London. See Fonseca, Manuel de.
-, Venetian, at Aleppo. See Bembo, Marco.
Contarini, Alvise, Savio alla Mercanzia, 496.
-, Domenico, doge of Venice:
letter of Charles to about Sta. Giustina and Amity, 100–1; reply to, 113; Charles might write again to, 170.
letters of credence for Higgons to, 274; death, 354n.
-, Imperial, commander of Venetian galley, 61.
-, Vettor, Savio alla Mercanzia, 8, 44.
Conti, prince of. See Bourbon, Armand de.
-, princess of. See Martinozzi, Anne Marie daughter of Girolamo.
Contich [Prov. Antwerp, Belgium], 73, 76.
conventicles, suppression recommended, 357; order for, 357, 359, 368.
convoy, 184, 441, 453.
-, to Cadiz, 18.
-, to Zante, 60, 63–4, 79, 184.
-, to Adriatic, 207.
-, afforded by king without charge, 461.
Cooper, Antony Ashley, earl of Shaftesbury, lord chancellor:
-, Commons deny right to fill vacant seats, 13; speech at opening of parliament, 14.
-, debate on indulgence, advises caution, 27; king discovers disloyalty, complains that king abandoned him, 37; Arlington linked himself with, 73.
-, all officials and pensioners take test before, 40; speech on Osborne taking the oath as treasurer, 74.
-, and peace with Dutch, 101.
-, king angry with over attack on brother's match, 161; speech at opening of parliament, 168.
-, York sends for and abuses, 175; king dismisses, 176; no one expects any good from removal, 176.
-, meant to ruin Catholics, self-styled martyr of Protestantism, 178; Buckingham's charges against, 201.
-, impudent efforts to recover favour, 183; continues to advocate king's re-marriage, 189.
-, says York must sit on dukes' bench in Lords, 206; supports motion for exclusion of Catholics from the throne, 220–1.
-, pro French policy of, 227.
-, aspires to succeed Arlington, 228; king convinced of treasonable intentions of, 232; king gives audience to, 253.
-, struck off Council roll, 262; recalled and pardoned, 346; non-conformist dealings with, 349.
-, ministers' fear of, 346, 349.
-, talk of making vicar general, 349; offers to York, 378; relations with him, 382; humbles himself to York, 391; protests against new oath, 401.
Copenhagen, Denmark, alliance signed at, 58n.
Corfu, island of, 457.
Cornbury, Corombery, viscount. See Hyde, Henry.
Corner, Nicolo, Savio alla Mercanzia, 227, 258, 278.
Corniani, Giovanni Giacomo, Venetian Secretary at Florence:
-, despatches to the Senate, 10, 12, 18, 77, 81, 84, 119, 132, 152, 158, 171, 189.
-, instructions to, 80, 157.
-, Finch speaks to about Zante incident, 153, 184.
Coruña, Corugna [Galicia, Spain], 18.
Cotterell, Sir Charles, master of the Ceremonies, 417.
-, takes Sarotti to audiences, 421–2, 425.
cotton and cotton thread, Levant Co. imports, 461.
-,-, discusses York's marriage, 9.
-,-, held about act of indulgence, 19; discusses dissolution, 27.
-,-, decision about consulage at Venice, 26n, 45–6, 54, 253, 299; not greatly interested in, 263.
-,-, proposal for truce with Dutch rejected in, 40; decides that fleet shall put to sea, 72.
-,-, Zante affair laid before, 86, 101, 115, 139, 170; discussed in, 92; affair of Amity before, 102.
-,-, peace with Dutch and break with Spain urged in, 101; confounded by Spanish-Dutch treaty, 128; perplexed about course to take, 137.
-,-, held at York's instance, discusses question of dissolution, 174; decides to assemble parliament, 187.
-,-, Buckingham reveals secrets of, 200; suggested dismissal of disloyal from, 236; Shaftesbury dismissed from, 262.
-,-, and service with foreign powers, 254.
-,-, Catholics discussed in, 261–2; action proposed, 268; and Burnett's case, 291, 293.
-,-, to be held at Windsor, 261; sits at Hampton Court, 264, 268.
-,-, favours non-committal attitude, 269; discussing peace treaties, 295.
-,-, decision in to prorogue parliament, 297.
-,-, question of penal law referred to, 357; order for enforcement, 357, 359, 363, 368; how settled in, 359.
-,-, question of India trade before, 374.
-,-, Irish Catholic merchant appeals to, 375; king holds about Irish revenues, 454.
-,-, king holds at Hampton Court, 439; appeal to on case of prize goods, 442.
-,-, expedients for raising money discussed in, 495; about administration, to save money, 498.
Council of Trade, Board of Trade, 12.
-, and consulage at Venice, 36, 45–6, 332, 334, 343, 354; inquiry concerning trade with France, 314.
Courcillon, Louis de, the Abbé Dangeau, mission to Rome, 119, 125, 132.
-, Philip de, marquis de Dangeau, Ancio, Angio, 110, 119.
to go to Modena about York match, 95; persuades duchess to consent, 109, 119.
to forward negotiations with Parma if Modena fails, 119.
suspicion of mission to Mantua, 119, 120, 133; promises king will find dowry for Modena princess, 124; at marriage ceremony, 135.
persuades duchess to agree to match, 129, 131; sets out to inform Louis of success, 131, 134.
at Milan, 134; obtained hortatory brief from pope, 138; assurances given by, about religion, 165.
leaving for France, expects handsome present, 189; disappointed, 193.
Courtin, Curtin, Honoré, French ambassador to the Cologne congress, awaiting instructions, 251; to confer with Tot, 255.
Coventry, Henry, secretary of state, 254, 364, 381.
-, examines Dutch spies, 11n; at discussion on indulgence, 27.
-, king dissuaded from appointing commissioner at Cologne, 33n.
-, presents king's reply about York's marriage, 169.
-, commissioner for the peace, 218; commissioner to treat with Spaar, 286.
-, will not interfere for Alberti's chaplain, 288; attends to affairs of Venice, 308.
-, in bed with gout, 308, 313, 321; and consulage at Venice, 329, 331–2, 338, 343, 347, 351, 354, 359, 366, 371, 378.
-, and the chaplain, 333.
-, at Lambeth conference, 354, 358n; supports enforcement of penal laws, 357.
-, Sir John, 37.
-, Thomas, first lord, the lord keeper, 37n.
-, Walter, merchant, 46.
-, Sir William, reveals king's weakness to Commons, 37; motion about bribery, 215n; remark on bill against placemen, 403.
Crequy, Charles de, prince of Poix, 122.
-, Marguerite, daughter of, suggested as bride for York, 122, 129.
Crescentio, Alessandro, promoted cardinal, 411.
Crewe, Nathaniel, bishop of Oxford, pronounces marriage of duke of York, 181.
-, -, bishop of Durham, reply about penal laws, 337n; christened York's daughter, 347.
Crivelli, Count, envoy from Mantua, arrives and received, 374; leaving, 377.
Cromwell, Oliver, comparison with integrity and efficiency in time of, 271; Lockhart ambassador for, 414.
-, Thomas, made vicar general by Henry VIII, 349.
Culpeper, Colepepper, Thomas lord, commissioner to treat with Dutch, 270, 271n.
-, trade in, 4, 62, 107, 230, 243, 251, 253.
-, permit to lade on English ship of war at Zante, 81.
-, Dodington suggested removing trade from Zante, 102; and to get them from the Morea, 115, 253.
-, Cephalonia in difficulties from fall in trade, 123; lack of ships to purchase, 156, 285; ships going to lade, 184.
-, Alberti to stimulate trade in, 156; his efforts, 184; duties on never changed, 237.
-, Dodington's representations about, 222; prorogation stops action about, 233.
-, those of Morea inferior, 253.
-, Alberti speaks to Higgons about, 253; English would find it difficult to live without, 296.
-, suggested export by ship of islands, 278; Venetian desire to promote trade, 285, 304.
-, English merchants dissatisfaction over, 296; Alberti's dealings about, 313.
-, recommendation about duty on, 455.
Curtin. See Courtin.
Custom House, burns smuggled hats and gloves, 221.
-, proposal to give king other revenues for, 310, 312; increased offer to king for, 380.
-, proposal to devote revenue to fleet, 404, 489.
Cyprus, island of, Levant Co. pays consul at, 461.