Milan
1460

Sponsor

Institute of Historical Research

Publication

Author

Allen B. Hinds (editor)

Year published

1912

Pages

21-37

Annotate

Comment on this article | View annotations
Double click anywhere on the text to add an annotation in-line

Citation Show another format:

'Milan: 1460', Calendar of State Papers and Manuscripts in the Archives and Collections of Milan: 1385-1618 (1912), pp. 21-37. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=92247 Date accessed: 22 November 2014.


Highlight

(Min 3 characters)

1460

1460.
March 22.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
31. Francesco Copino, Bishop of Terni, Papal Legate to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
Some days ago I wrote to your Lordship in haste a brief abstract of English affairs. I now enclose copies of the letters received thence, from which your Lordship will see what has taken place up to the 5th inst. and, by an addition in my own hand on the back of one of the copies, what people are saying and thinking just now. Although we have no actual certitude, it is believed, nevertheless, that the one newly chosen together with Warwick will perform marvels. If your Lordship will consider what has taken place, what I have written and what the lords here have written hence, if only the Church provided that sign, required by the reputation of so great a realm and by such great matters, begun by me and almost brought to perfection, it would be a light thing to effect the greatest and most noteworthy achievements ever heard of in these parts for five hundred years, if God wills it so, and now is the time if ever (et benche non se n'abbi anche vera notitia, si crede nondimeno che questo novo electo insieme cum Varuico faranno cose maravigliose. Et se V I. S. considera le cose passate e quanto ho scripto et quanto hanno scripto questi Signori de questa parte, se qui se trovasse un segno della chiesa quale rechiedela reputatione di tanto reame et di cosi gran cose comenciate per me et deducte quasi ad perfectione, sarebbe leggier cosa ad far li maggior et piu degni facti che siano uditi da 500 anni in queste parti, se a Dio piacera che si facci, la provedera che ancor e tempo piu che mai.)
I am leaving for a while because it is necessary and also by Warwick's advice. I expect to return any day according to the encouragement received from thence, and we have no doubt of success if we have help thence. Otherwise it would be better to take up other provinces and other activities, where, perhaps, I might do some good.
I am waiting to hear what Messer Antonio has done and what is the opinion of your Lordship, as wherever I may be I am yours.
Bruges, the 22nd March, 1460.
[Italian.]
March 22.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
32. Francesco Copino, Bishop of Terni to Cecco di Calabria, Secretary to the Duke of Milan, at Milan.
We are writing to his Lordship about the events of England, and we think they will please him. Owing to our great occupations we are writing in furious haste. I am also writing the same things to his lordship by the present messenger. You will see all, so I need not say more. I commend myself to his Lordship and to you. If from those parts they supply fire to the bombard I will make the report resound beyond England, and it will be enough for me if I am believed after the event, however late. Farewell in the Lord, and, as I said, recommend me to his Lordship, to whom you know my devotion, and wherever I may be I am always his.
Bruges, the 22nd March, 1460.
P.S.—In order that his lordship and you may see something of the good times that we have for the Church, we send you enclosed a copy of our sea-passage, which we wrote in England, when we were in those parts (perchel Sig. et voi vedate qualcosa de' nostri bon tempi che havemo per la chiesa, vi mandamo inclusa la copia del nostro passo di mare che scrivemo in Anglia quando fumo in pa … (fn. 1) ).
[Italian.]
May 5.
Potenze
Estere.
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
33. Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan to Doctor Otto de Carreto, his Ambassador at the Papal Court.
Master John Lax, ambassador of the King of England, has come to this Court. In addition to the royal affairs with which he has to deal here, he seems anxious to do something for his own affairs, and would like us to commend him to you. As he seems a man of great worth, we desire you to render him every assistance consistent with honour and honesty.
Milan, the 5th May, 1460.
[Latin.]
May 6.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
34. Otto de Carreto, Milanese Ambassador at the Papal Court, to Francesco SforzA, Duke of Milan.
The ambassador of the Duke of Burgundy hears that a certain English lord, (fn. 2) enemy of the King of England, who had gone to Cales with a great following of other Englishmen, has returned to England and taken a great part of it, and it is hoped that he will deprive the king of that lordship and that the said lord is a very great friend of the aforesaid duke.
Siena, the 6th May, 1460.
[Italian.]
June 15.
Carteggio
Generale.
Milan
Archives.
35. Otto de Carreto, Agostino de Rosso and Giovanni de Caymo, Milanese Ambassadors at the Papal Court, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
We have all three been to the pope twice. His Holiness seemed very pleased at what we said to him. With regard to keeping up a good friendship with the Dauphin, the Duke of Burgundy and also with the King of England, without making any further demonstration in order not to irritate the French, his Holiness commended the idea and said it was well. In speaking to me, Otto, he said the King of France was very old and infirm and so we ought to be on good terms with the Dauphin.
The Baths of Puzzuolo, the 15th June, 1460.
[Italian.]
[1460.]
June 28.
Diplomie
Dispacci
Sovrani.
Milan
Archives.
36. James II., King of Scotland to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
Serenissime princeps fraterquc amantissime: treugis inter nos et Regem Anglie junctis certis rationabilibus decausis nos moventibus Renunciavimus perpenden. insuper divisionem inter Regem Anglie et Ducem Eboraci in Regno Anglie exortam. Ad humilem requisicionem prefati Inclitissimi ducis eboraci Intelligen. clarum jus quod habet ad coronam et dyadema Anglie sibi nostra auxilia in prosecutione querele prefate contra Regem Anglie promisimus et in brevi dirigente Altissimo nostra potencia bellica Regnum prefatum in succursum prefati Illustrissimi Ducis in querela prefata aggredi intendimus. Quare vestram precelsam serenitatem Requiremus attente quantus in prosecutione querele prefate nobis et duci prefato vestros favores et gratas consolationes impendere velitis de confidencia specialissima quam gerimus in eadem clarissima serenitate fraternitatique amantissima memorata quam in cunctis feliciter pro agendis dirigat Altissimus.
Ex Edinburgo 28 Junii. James.
[Copy.]
1460.
July 4.
Potenze
Estere. Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
37. Francesco Coppino, Bishop of Terni, Apostolic Legate to Henry VI., King of England.
Published on the 4th July in full convocation of the clergy of England and at St. Paul's Cross, and sent forthwith to the king by an envoy of his household. (fn. 3)
To the sacred majesty of England by the legate upon union and peace of lords and princes.
From Bruges and Calais I wrote to your Serenity some time ago how your Majesty's servants at Calais appealed to me to interpose to bring about peace and remove civil discords in your realm. Subsequently, when they understood that I had a commission and order from the Holy See, they assured me by their letters, whereof I forwarded a copy to your Majesty at the time as well as to the most reverend Lord Chancellor, so that they might notify all the other lords through him, that they were disposed to such conditions of peace as doubtless they hoped, with my intervention, would please your Majesty. I wrote to your Majesty that, constrained by this honest petition, I might come to you to hear the conditions of peace, so that I might subsequently report them to your Majesty, or report by letter. I besought your Majesty to give them your earnest consideration, so that with God's help a happy issue might result.
But afterwards, on coming to Calais, owing to recent events I found almost everything in turmoil, and those nobles all ready to cross to England, declaring that they could not wait any longer in the existing state of affairs. Nevertheless, after I had conferred with them and exhorted them to peace and obedience, they gave me a written pledge that they were disposed to devotion and obedience to your Majesty, and to do all in their power for the conservation and augmentation of your honour and the good of your realm. But they desired to come to your Majesty and to be received into their former state and favour, from which they declare they have been ousted by the craft of their opponents, and begged me to cross the sea with them to interpose my efforts and prevent bloodshed, assuring me that they would do anything honourable and just that I should approve for the honour and estate of your Highness and the welfare of your realm, especially certain things contained in documents under their own seals and oaths, which they handed over, and which I am confident your Serenity would approve after viewing them with a tranquil and open mind, as they tend to the honour and glory of your lordship, the public exaltation of the realm and the honour and advantage of princes and lords. I repeat that if a place and security are provided for communicating tranquilly I feel sure that all the scandals which I foresaw, and which now seem imminent, may be composed and cease, to the praise of God, the glory of your Majesty and the advantage of the whole realm. Induced by this hope and seeing danger in delay, I crossed with them, there being no other way. Their business, passage and progress were more speedy than they themselves had at first anticipated or hoped on account of the people flocking to them from a remarkable eagerness for their arrival and for the reunion of the whole realm. For these reasons I could not hasten my journey to your Highness, as I lacked time, and also and because of the hindrances and dangers on the way from the concourse of various people. However, they crossed the sea on Thursday and went straight on till they reached London.
When I wanted to go from that place to your Majesty to fulfil my office as faithful shepherd, nuncio and mediator, I encountered many difficulties and dangers which directly threatened my welfare, chiefly through the wrangling, murmuring and designs of some who professed themselves devoted to your Majesty and are not. These blasphemed for many days against God and the truth and against the welfare of your estate, and even wished to lay blame upon me and upon my holy and pious operations. They do this because they are the enemies of peace. But by God's help I hope that in a little your Serenity will recognise and experience my pure sincerity, loyalty and devotion and will praise the Lord in my works when you see your state put in order and your eyes are opened and you see the truth, the darkness of falsehood being dissipated, and recognise my sincere intentions and the pious disposition of the Roman pontiff for the honour of God and your state.
This being the case, most serene prince, as I cannot now come in person owing to the manifest peril to me and mine, I write this letter out of devotion and in fulfilment of my duty. I beg you for the love of God, for the devotion you have always shown, which served for pious and holy things to the extent of its powers, and out of the pity and compassion you should have for your people and citizens and your duty, to prevent so much bloodshed, now so imminent. You can prevent this if you will, and if you do not you will be guilty in the sight of God in that awful day of judgment in which I also shall stand and require of your hand the English blood, if it be spilt. Let your Serenity provide swiftly, before arms are taken up, that I may communicate safely with you about the ways and means to avoid these evils and arrange a union. This is certainly not impossible nor even very difficult if your Serenity will allow yourself to be persuaded and informed with an open mind and judgment. Do not listen if any one says that you have just cause to fight against your subjects who came, etc., as if you wish you can do everything as justly and honourably without a battle as you could by victory in one. Moreover, victory in war is always dangerous and doubtful, as experience repeatedly shows, and as it rests in God's hand alone your Serenity cannot hope for it if you elect to fight contrary to His command when you could conquer in another way. They offer obedience and loyalty to your Majesty, provided they can state their cause in safety. They say they cannot do this unless they come strongly armed, as is notorious, but they will abstain from using their arms if they have facilities for an audience. In short, it is necessary for them to have recourse to arms, as otherwise they cannot obtain justice against their enemies.
Therefore let a safe way be found for your Serenity to hear and communicate with those who are not partisans or suspect in the matter of truth and justice, and I doubt not but that everything will be put straight, to the advantage of all your dominions. If after that experiment your Majesty does not consider the matter thus, you may then justly take up arms, but to do so before, especially after the mediation of a legate and apostolic nuncio would be nefarious, impious, unjust and contrary to the honour, wish and command of God. The means of communicating safely will be found if your Serenity will put aside those who are thus suspect and listen to moderate and neutral men such as all may trust. It is necessary for all this to be done quickly, as the case does not permit delay, and offences, murder and the infinite shedding of Christian blood are prepared. These will rise to the sight of God and cry out against those who hindered remedies, to whom I have referred above.
In order that there may be no excuse before God and man, I repeat that your servants who came from Calais expresssed their readiness to do everything for the welfare and honour of your Crown and the unity and peace of your realm, which I approve, and I offer that I will propose and attempt all those things which seem honourable to your Majesty if you keep an open mind and remove suspicion. Thus the matter is in safe keeping in the hand of your Serenity and myself if we like. I also offer myself, if your Serenity desires, otherwise I shall excuse myself before God and the Holy Apostolic See and all the English people, and I shall send a copy of the present letter, that I did not have to fulfil the office of a true apostle and mediator, and I shall be free from blame whatever others may do or operate.
Your Serenity has long seen me and known my proceedings, and I appeal to your conscience to testify if I have been true, faithful, straightforward and devout. Although some slanderers may say that I was in Calais and communicated with them, and that therefore I am suspect, with other things, yet your Serenity knows well that for almost a year and a half I was with you in your kingdom in constant converse, doing the work of God and of the Christian religion by commission of the Apostolic See with integrity and purity of faith, and with them I was nothing but a mean, as it is necessary in my office to communicate with both parties to bring about agreement, and such was my commission from the Apostolic See. Nature demands, and there is no other way, that your Serenity shall open the eyes of your mind. Those who resist are clerks and ministers of the devil. Those who do not want peace do not desire the union, welfare and integrity of your realm.
I have often written and spoken to your Majesty, calling to mind the Gospel words, A kingdom divided against itself cannot stand. The same thing has been frequently foretold by word and by writing touching the danger and ruin of your state unless you turn to God and ways of piety; your Majesty knows the way. Behold, God scourges them, chastises them that they may arise, come to their senses, be converted and live. But if they close their ears like deaf vipers, woe to them and also to your Majesty, I say it with sorrow, unless you provide peace when you can. You can do so now if you hearken to me and understand that I am the messenger of God, the apostolic messenger, not seeking my own, as your Majesty has long known and all your Council my integrity and fidelity and my attachment to your Crown. If you will not listen to what is right and true I am guiltless before Almighty God and the Holy Apostolic See and all the community, both cleric and lay, by the evidence of this letter, which I have had published, and I have also sent it by a faithful messenger of your Majesty's household, and so I am guiltless of the blood of your people if it is shed through the fault or negligence of yourself or others, when this could be prevented in the way I have shown. I expect a speedy reply, because the danger is imminent and does not brook delay. May God Almighty bless and enlighten your Majesty for the peace and safety of your people. I commend myself to your Majesty.
London, the 4th July, 1460.
[Note in margin.] This letter was sent by the legate when he decided to cross to England with the Earl of Warwick and other lords who were at Calais, and although it is old, yet the copy is made to set forth the proceedings of the legate and his honesty, as an answer to the calumnies of his adversaries.
[Latin; copy.]
[1460.]
July.
Potenze
Estere.
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
38. Copy of News from England by letters from Bruges of the 7th and 15th of July, and from London of the 7th and 10th of July.
The first letter from Bruges of the 7th relates that the Earls of Warwick, Salisbury and March, and other lords and knights passed from Calais and took Sandwich, and then went on to London, where they were received by the people of the place. With them was Messer Francesco Chopini, the papal legate, with about 20,000 persons. This happened on Wednesday, and they remained until Saturday, when all left and went towards the king, except the Earl of Salisbury, who remained here. The Archbishop of Canterbury went with them and the Bishop of Exeter (Sestri) and his followers and all their power; and so they set out. The king's legate is said to be sixty miles away from here, with a very large force. They also say that the Duke of York will descend upon the country with a large number of troops, as well as the King of Scotland with quite 30,000. That king has given one of his daughters to wife to a son of the Duke of York.
When the king heard of Warwick's arrival, he betook himself to a valley between two mountains, a strong place. But Fortune, who throughout showed herself favourable to Warwick, willed that it should rain so heavily that they were forced to come out of that place and encounter Warwick. Without a serious fight or much slaughter, Warwick very soon had the king in his power. He forthwith put to death the Duke of Buckingham, one of the great lords of that country, and the Lords of Beaumont (Biemonte), Egremont (Gremonte) and Shrewsbury (Corosberi), all great lords. This happened last Friday, and to-day he should be in London, the king having come from Warwick (venuto il Re di dicto Varuichs). In that place are several other lords, and thither also the Duke of York will go soon and all their friends, and they will gather for mutual support and appoint new offices and arrange the government of the country. This will remain in the hands of Warwick. It is not thought that he will stay his hand, but will put to death all those who have acted against him. It is also thought that they will make a son of the Duke of York king, and that they will pass over the king's son, as they are beginning already to say that he is not the king's son. Similarly the queen also runs great danger. The Lord de Molinse and other lords are in the Tower of London, who have not yet surrendered, but in the end they will have to surrender either to love or force. (fn. 4)
Thus one may say that to-day everything is in Warwick's power and the war at an end, and that he has done marvellous things. God grant him grace to keep the country in peace and union!
The Duke of Somerset has scarce a party to follow him; the treasurer, Lord dilcerre, (fn. 5) when he heard that Warwick had arrived near London, went on board a Genoese ship with many others, and it is thought that he will have himself taken to France, because they say that he has a safe-conduct from the King of France, with whom they had great dealings. It is thought that a truce would have ensued between them; all in order to hurt the lord here [the Duke of Burgundy], who can hardly have received more welcome tidings than that of Warwick's arrival as related above. This will give the King of France matter for reflection, that before much time has passed the English may land troops in Normandy and Gascony to recover the lost. This might easily happen, as the people are discontented with the lordship of France, as since they returned to that lordship one may say that they are utterly undone (il che dara da pensare al Re di Franza, che non dovera passare guari tempo che li Englesi metterano gente in Normandia et in Guascogna per reaquistare il perduto et legiermente potrebbe reuscire, siando i populi mal contenti de la signoria di Franza che poy tornarono sotto tal signoria si po'dire in tutto disfacti).
You shall hear more in a day or two.
[Italian.]
1460.
Aug. 6.
Sezione
Storica.
Autografi
Vescovi.
Milan
Archives.
39. Francesco Coppini, Bishop of Terni, Papal Legate to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
Although I am very remote from your lordship, nevertheless my changeless loyalty constrains me and makes me solicitous about your estate. In the meantime I have committed to Messer Antonio della Torre, my gossip and most faithful friend, to impart to your Excellency what I and he have planned and contrived. If your Excellency considers the matter practicable, as it seems to us here, owing to the disposition of affairs here, which in great part are in my hands, your Excellency might send a messenger to his Holiness, for the affair merits this, so that we at the least may have his secret consent in the manner and form that Messer Antonio will explain. Once we have this, you may leave the rest to me, and without further expense I will make you see noteworthy things, which will please you. Although it seems a great matter and at first sight appears a dream, yet God, who says, Ego dormio et cor meum vigilat, has designed to operate in this kingdom through my hand greater and more difficult things than those of which I speak, as Messer Antonio will be able to tell, as he has seen everything. In this matter, most illustrious prince, what has to be done must be done quickly, as your Excellency knows that the despatch and substance of great affairs consist in large part in diligence and alertness (et parendo ad vestra excellentia cosa pattibile come pare ad noi per la dispositione delle cose di qua, le quali in gran parte sono in mano mia, poteva la ex. V. mandar uno messo ad la Santita di Nostro Signore, che cosi merita la cosa, accio che abbiamo lo consentimento almanco secreto di sua Santita cum quello modo et forma che decto Messer Antonio esplictera et questo havuto, lassate dipoi lo pensieri ad me che sanza altra spesa vi faro vedere cose degne et che vi sarano grate et benche sia cosa grande et prima facie para un sogno, nondimeno Dio che dice ego dormio et cor meum vigilat, se e degnato operare in questo Reame per mia mano maggior et piu difficil cose che non e quella di che parlo, come puo refirir decto Messer Antonio che tutto ha visto. Et in questa cosa Illus. principe, quel che si de' fare vuole esser presto, che nella diligentia et prestezza consiste gran parte delle expeditioni et substantia delle gran cose).
I offer my sincerity to your Excellency in all that I can; take it as from one most faithful and devoted, who, if he can, will never again put it to the reckoning for the estate of his Holiness, by whom I believe myself to be faithfully loved.
Canterbury, the 6th August, 1460.
Later, because Messer Antonio cannot come, I send to your Excellency enclosed a brief note of the things which have taken place here through my efforts. Then, by another letter which will be presented by Messer Ciccho, your Lordship will learn my plan, which I intended to impart by Messer Antonio. When your Lordship has heard it you will keep it secret, and if you approve you will carry it out. Lastly, seeing that this noble king and the princes here, who by my hand have recovered the state, a marvellous and most noteworthy thing, are writing to the Holy Father and the College in favour and for the honour of my person, will your Lordship be so good as to write something to your ambassador Messer Otto (fn. 6) —a few lines will suffice —so that he may assist my affair, according to your intention.
I enclose a short note for Messer Ciccho, which I beg may be consigned to him.
Dated as the above.
The enclosed note is a copy of a letter written by the lords here, kinsmen of his Majesty, who have recovered the state by my means, to your Excellency in the belief that Messer Antonio de la Torre would be able to go. As he is a good Milanese and enjoys their confidence, they committed several other things to him, but as it is not possible for him to go so soon as the situation requires, but is staying on, and they are sending a courier, who should reach the Court from Bruges in 14 days, your Excellency will be able in great measure to learn from their letter enclosed the present state of the affairs of the realm and of mine, and will be able to assist them.
Messer Ciccho will relate the rest, as he will have seen my letter.
[Italian.]
Aug. 6.
Sezione
Storica.
Autografi
Vescovi.
Milan
Archives.
40. [Written in sympathetic ink between the lines of the above letter.]
If the lords here, the kinsmen of the king, who through my hands have won back the state, had some incitement they would go to France with a considerable force to vindicate the claims of this kingdom (Questi Signori parenti del re che per mia mano hanno racquistato lo stato se fussino alquanto solicitati anderebbono in Francia con gente assai per acquistare le ragione de questo reame).
They would like to see honours conferred upon me, as that would produce a good impression, especially among the people. If this is obtained they believe that in a month they could collect 100,000 men, without effort, because I collected so many in a week, when I delivered them in my house these last days, through the great authority of the Church and also of my legation (vorrono le mie favore … tutto che puo che vale, maxime appresso li populi et credono … se il vero che havendolo raccozerebbono in uno mese cento mila homini senza spese, che tanti ne raccozai in 8 di quando li rimissi in casa a di passati per l'auctorita grande della Chiesa et anche della mia legatione).
If I had two things, first, a secret licence from the pope giving me power to operate secretly in this state, and secondly, the dignity that the king and the lords here again ask for me, I believe that in a few months, I could do so much that the … of Naples would be forgotten, and this would suffice, as very great things would ensue, as well for [the advantage of] the Church as of your Lordship, of Italy and for the assistance of King Fernando (fn. 7) (se io avessi due cose; l'una, la licentia dal papa de poter adoperar copertamente in questo stato et l'altra la dignita che questo re et questi signori remandono per me, crederei fare in pochi mesi tanto che si dimenticherebbe … de Napoli, et basti questo. … seguirebbe assai gran cose si de qua per … della Chiesa … sig … de costa per aiuto del re Fernando).
Although these things may appear too great for my strength, they are less than the power of God, who by my hand has performed greater deeds here, as you can perceive by this change in the state and other great things which are prepared. I know that favour will not be wanting (benche queste cose paiano piu grande che le mie forze, sono minore che la potenza de Dio, che per mia mano ha operato magior fei qui, come porete intendere per questa mutatione de stato et altre cose grande che sono apparechiate so di certo non mancha favore).
Your Lordship will be good enough to keep this matter secret and operate as you think best. You will let me have your answer in the cipher which I have with your lordship. I can assure you that in a few days I hope a marriage alliance will be concluded between the Duke of Burgundy and these lords, kinsmen of the king here, which will be very apropos for the matter above (certificandovi che spero in pochi di se concludera parentado tral duca de Borgogna et questi Signori parenti de questo re, et sara bene ad proposito al facto di sopra).
I cannot tell everything in this letter; you must have patience as well as confidence that there will be no lack of courage for great affairs or of loyalty and steadfastness in carrying them through, only provided we are favoured with opinions and letters, which cost but little. I shall be glad to hear that this letter has reached your hands, and that you have made out this writing between the lines. Your Excellency can write by means of Pigello.
[Italian; holograph.]
Aug. 15.
Sezione
Storica.
Autografi
Vescovi.
Milan
Archives.
41. Francesco Coppino, Bishop of Terni, Apostolic Legate to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan. (fn. 8)
The bearer is Messer Antonio della Torre, esquire and servant of the King of England, and his envoy to the pope. He is also sent by the prelates and lords of England on business concerning the commonwealth of this noble realm and good state newly reformed by me with the help of God and his Holiness. He is most devoted to you and a trusty friend of mine; I have therefore commissioned him to acquaint you with several things concerning your duchy, about which we have often conferred together. Please give him credence. If you think fit to write to the Papal Court, or to give him any commission there about my business, I shall esteem it an especial favour. Your Excellency must, however, decide upon acting or not as you think best, but keep me and my loyalty in mind, and if God gives his favour, I hope that some great thing will happen. Your Excellency and every one will see by the results.
Canterbury, the 15th of August, 1460.
Postscript.—A few days ago Master John Lax, envoy of the king here, wrote of the honour shown to him by you. When I mentioned this to the king, he was very pleased, and we talked together of you and of your rare qualities. I think the king would do anything to please you. I also thank you for giving the said Lax a good reception for my sake.
[Italian.]
Sept. 5.
Potenze
Estere.
Roma.
Milan
Archives.
42. Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan to Doctor Otto de Carreto, his Ambassador to the Supreme Pontiff.
We have recently received a letter in cipher from Monsignor the Bishop of Terani, Apostolic legate in England, of which we have only been able to make out what you will see by the enclosed owing to the bad writing. With it he sent the copy of another to be brought by a messenger who is to come here from the lords there, kinsmen of the King of England, as you will see by the copy which we enclose. We desire to find out if the messenger has come, and if he has, to obtain the original from him, send it to us and make every effort to learn as much from him as possible, to discover if he has come in a straightforward manner. If he has not come, you will find out if the legate has written anything here, as he writes that he has written by a courier; and if it is thought that this messenger will arrive, advising us of everything by your letters.
Then, considering that these affairs demand nothing beyond letters and words, it would seem that his Holiness should open his ears to them and let them understand his inclination to satisfy their demands, seeing that it costs no more, and is so advantageous as it will be to the estate of Holy Church and to all Italy, as his Holiness may understand better from us (appresso, considerando che a queste cose non domandono altro che lettere et parole, ne pareria che la Santita de' nostro Signore, gli volesse aprire le orecchie et fargli su bon pensiero et satisfare ad le loro domande non costando altramente et essendo tanto utile quanto sera ad lo stato de Santa Chiesa et ad tucta Italia como sua Santita intendi meglio de noy).
With respect to the advancement of Mons. de Terani, we have to say that we shall rejoice at any advantage, glory or advancement for him, because we really love him much and also gather that he loves us; besides he is a prelate of merit. But, considering that this is a thing which must be done with deliberation, we do not want to hurt him when intending to help. In the meantime we desire you to behave in this matter with the discretion you know how to use, giving him all the help and favour you can employ, but taking care not to injure him when intending to help, as we have said.
Milan, the 5th September, 1460.
[Signed] I. Chicus.
[Italian.]
Sept. ….
Potenze
Estere.
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
43. [Antonio della Torre] to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
Illustrissime et Serenissime princeps:
Post humilem oratoris et servatoris e Seren. recommandationem premissis seriosis gratiarum actionibus pro beneficiis susceptis in progressu meo per V. Seren. dominia cum potius eas operibus quam verbis refferre merito duxerim, significo Serenitati Vestre Illustrissimum dominum meum Regem bene valere, inclitos quoque principes et dominos Ricardum ducem Eboracensem, Eduardum ejus filium primogenitum Comitem Marchie, Richardum Comitem Saresburiensem, Richardum Comitem Warnwici et Willelmum dominum de Facomberge dicti Comitis Saresburiensis fratrem in Suam gratiam magno cum populi et subditorum suorum applausu summaque congratulatione sucepisse, per quam rem Regnum illud ad omnia ea agenda et prosequenda que illius jura, statum et honorem concernunt, restitutum, compositum et reintegratum sapientibus visum est, et spes est immo preparatoria sunt ad arma in eorum hostes movenda proxima futura estate. Enim vero Illustr. Princeps cum sciam Seren. tuam juxta pristinum morem Mediolanensem domus eidem Seren. Domino meo Regi affectam, cujus rei innovatio non parum fructus afferre poterit, pro mea devotione comuni in hac re memoriam facio, ut eadam Seren. tua preveniat hunc Seren. Regem litteris visitatoriis super antiqua consuetudine et amicitia congratulatoriis, super hac Regni sui jam parta prout ex meis accepit litteris, felicitate, litteras quoque ipsas ad me mittat, quas per bonum modum dirigam ad eundum Seren. dominum meum Regem. Et si ad dominos predictos vel singulariter vel in comuni litteras congratulatorias scribere dignabitur prefata Serenitas, non poterit nisi pergratum esse. Sic enim sentio, invictissime princeps, statum illum ita formatum esse ut si in multa tempore haud dubie duraturus, maxime cum integer Regni populus, de eo non immerito contentetur. Reverendissimus pater et dominus meus D. Episcopus Interamnensis Legatus apostolicus eidem Seren. tue devotus, magnam gratiam apud prefatum seren. D. Regem in hiis operibus adeptus est ingentibus virtutibus et meritis suis et est apud S.D.N. per eandem Seren. ad majora commendatus dixi aliqua oretenus prestanti D. Augustino ejusdem Serentis. oratori, cui fidem habere dignetur prefata Illustrissima D. tua, cui meam parvitatem ad omnia obsequia paratissimum offero et devotissime commendo.
Senis … (fn. 9) to Septembris 1460.
[Signed]: … (fn. 9) orator et servulus, servitor Regius.
Sept. 13.
Potenze
Estere.
Roma.
Milan
Archives.
44. Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan to Otto de Carreto, his Ambassador at Rome.
The ambassador of the King of England writes to us as you will see by his letter enclosed. We have sent the enclosed answer, thanking him and referring him to you in the matters that you will remember, to wit, to write to the king there and the other lords and barons sending congratulations etc. However, we wish everything to be communicated to his Holiness and the whole affair to be conducted according to his opinion and judgment, so that everything may be done jointly and in consultation with him. You will also find out the requirements of the ambassador and the effect of what he has to do, and afterwards confer with his Holiness upon what is to be done. We think that such writing cannot but be useful, but everything must be done according to the wishes and opinions of his Holiness, and you will at once advise us of what occurs.
Milan, the 13th September, 1460.
[Signed] J. Cichus.
[Italian; draft.]
Oct. 15.
Potenze
Estere.
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
45. Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan to Francesco Copino, Bishop of Terni, Apostolic Legate in the kingdom of England.
We wrote the other day to your Lordship how Messer Antonio de la Torre had left for his Holiness and had not come this way. We now advise you that he has been despatched by his Holiness, and, returning straight, has travelled this way and spoken at length to us of the affairs of that kingdom and what has been done and operated by you, clearly showing your magnanimity and worth in such high affairs through experience. We have received great pleasure from this, because it all turns to the advantage of Italy and to your glory and praise. We have honoured and caressed Messer Antonio, though not as we should have desired owing to the shortness of the time of his departure. He seems an honest and worthy man and as much attached to your Lordship as you could desire. He spoke at great length at Court and to us in your honour, and we do not think he could have said more. He is actively employed about your promotion to the Cardinalate and to that church, as in every other matter. We need say no more, as you will receive from him further particulars, except that we beg your Lordship to credit what he says on our behalf as if we spoke ourself.
Be pleased to send as soon as possible the messenger D. Antonio will tell you of. We ask you to direct him to take this way, so that we may represent your actions in the best light before his Holiness.
We also remind and beg you to bend all your talents and industry to arrange the affairs of that kingdom so as to act against the French and as soon as possible, because that will be a means to relieve the affairs of the kingdom of Naples, the state of the Church, our own and all Italy. Persevere as you have begun, as that will mean your own advancement, for which we will labour with all our might, because we believe that what we do for you we are doing for ourselves and our children. Use all diligence and zeal and send news very frequently.
Milan, the 15th October, 1460.
[Italian; draft.]
Oct. 25.
Potenze
Estere.
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
46. [Cecco di Calabria, Secretary of the Duke of Milan] to Francesco Coppino, Bishop of Terni, Apostolic Legate.
The other day I wrote to your Lordship that D. Antonio de la Torre had gone to his Holiness, but did not come this way, though they had written opportunely to Dom. Otto. Returning straight, D. Antonio saw his Lordship here, who showed him great honour, and indeed he is an honest and worthy man entirely devoted to your Lordship. At this Court and with my most illustrious master he has spoken at large in your praise and also about your promotion to the Cardinalship; so that, notwithstanding the other day he wrote that it seemed to irritate his Holiness somewhat to ask for such promotion by that way, yet D. Otto has written that they will manage the affair in a way he suggested to D. Antonio, to wit: if the King of England says he wishes a cardinal of the English nation, his Holiness and the College of Cardinals will grant it; and when this point is obtained, let the king return thanks, as is fitting, and say he would like your Lordship nominated. In this case your affair would go well, so send your messenger quickly and try this way, as it is a promising one, and command me, because I shall always be ready, and I shall rejoice in your glory and exaltation as much as you can yourself.
Milan, the 25th October, 1460.
[Italian; draft.]
Nov. 6.
Potenze
Estere.
Roma.
Milan
Archives.
47. Agostino Rosso, Milanese Ambassador at Rome, Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
Dom. Antonio, ambassador of the King of England, has warned his Holiness not to trust too implicitly that Dom. John Lex, as I advised your Lordship, but his Holiness replied that the said John has received letters of credence and embassies since the renovation of the state of England. Nevertheless he will not place further confidence in him before he hears from the king and from those who rule at present. He believes, however, that this one will do as others generally do nowadays, and acclaim the victors, and though at first he sided with the others he will now side with those in power.
Rome, the 6th November, 1460.
[Italian.]
Dec. 10.
Potenze
Estere.
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
48. Henry VI., King of England to Pope Pius II. (fn. 10)
Filiali recommendacione premissa cum osculis beatorum pedum, sanctissime pater, dilectus Nuncius et Amiger noster Anthonius de Turri superioribus diebus ad Sanctitatem Vestram destinatus, rediens multum letificavit cor nostrum propter singularem caritatem S. Vestre erga nos et statum hujus nostri Regni, de quo perhibuit testimonium; et quamvis per continuata erga nos beneficia id esset nobis certissimum, tamen Jocundum fuit etiam per testimonium ejusdem Anthonii cognovisse, qui ab eadem Sanctitate gratiosissime Retulit se fuisse susceptum et pro hiis et aliis beneficiis ut eadem Sanctitate susceptis agimus Sanctitati V. Ingentissimas gratias Supplicantes ut insolita paterna caritate erga nos continuare dignetur Et quoniam plura indies curesque Sanct. Vestre reservanda tamque piissimo patri que ad statum ecclesie et hujus nostri Regni bonum publicum pertinent. Remittimus eundum Anthonium ad E. Sanct. Vestram de intentione nostra et occurrentibus plenissime informatum Et supplicamus ut illum benigne audire et exaudire dignetur In hiis que parte nostra reserabit Et specialmenter super hiis que de persona Reverendissimi patris Episcopi Interamnen. S. V. legati explicabit Pro cujus fidelitate et egregiis meritis continue augetur apud nos erga Illum benevolentia. Et considerantes quod In Regno nostro multa bona operatum est et plura operari potest si adjuvabitur, Ideo illius promocione et exaltatione S. V. sicut alias fecimus ita nunc quoque iterum atque iterum commendamus nos autem in quantum in nobis est fecimus partem nostram habilitando ejus persona nobis acceptissima Non obstantibus consuetudinibus Regni nostri de voluntate etiam et consilio dominorum sicut ex relatione ejusdem Anthonii S. Vra. Intelligere poterit. Cui dignetur plenam fidem adhibere Et nos et statum nostrum devotissime suscipere commendatos.
Ex Lond. decima Decembr. 1460.
[Italian; copy.]
Dec. 10.
Sezione
Storica.
Autografi,
Arcivescovi.
Milan
Archives.
49. Thomas, Archbishop of Canterbury, George, Bishop of Exeter, Chancellor of England, Richard, Earl of Warwick, Henry Bourgchier, Treasurer of England, and John Berners to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
Ex relacione Specialis et generosi viri domini Antonii de Turri Regie Majestatis nostre nuncii et armigeri Intelleximus de honorificencia et gratitudine illi exhibita pro reverencia serenissime Regie Majestatis et etiam respectu nostro ac etiam de favore sibi prestito in Romana curia apud pontificem maximum pro nostris votis et honestis desideriis impetrandis Et de singulari caritate ac benevolencia quam ad nos et statum nostrum Excellentia Vestra gerit pro quibus rebus prefate Ex. V. cumulatissime regraciamur. Et quoniam multa sunt nobis cordi que Dom. V. jam cupimus revelari Ideo eundem dom. Anthonium duximus remittendum ad S. D. N. papam et vestram Excellentiam de intencione ac desideriis nostris plenissime informatum. Quo circa rogamus Excellentiam Vestram ut ilium more suo solito graciose suscipiat et audiat et plenam illi fidem adhibeat et per eundem respondere dignetur. Speramus in domino et in virtute Reverendissimi Dom. legati apostolici apud nos existentis cujus status cum nostris fortunis est conjunctus quod rerum nostrarum successus erit gloriosus, sicut idem Dom. Anthonius lator presentium explicabit. Valeat Ex. Vestra ad cujus beneplacita parati sumus.
Datum London, x. Decembris mcccclx.
[Signed] Thomas, archieps. Cantuarien.
Georgius, Exon. episcopus, Anglie canc.
R. Warrewyk.
H. Bourgchier, Thesaur. Anglie.
J. Berners.
Dec. 10.
Sezione
Storica.
Autografi,
Vescovi.
Milan
Archives.
50. Francesco Coppino, Bishop of Terni, Papal Legate, to Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan.
By the return of M. Antonio della Torre I learn of your Excellency's efforts on my behalf, which has only kindled my zeal for you, though it cannot increase my devotion. It will certainly bear great fruit, but to make sure of it I am prepared to devote my possessions and personal safety. I have strong hopes if God gives victory to our affairs, as seems likely, and the heavens also render aid, that before the next summer has passed I shall make you hear in Italy no lesser deeds than those of last August, which will please you and prove honourable and useful to the state of the Church and your own as well as to all Italy. As I have no cipher, I have entrusted M. Antonio with all these affairs, whom I beg your Excellency to receive as if he were myself. I recommend myself to you and to your illustrious consort, asking for her prayers. Do not fear, my lord, because God and Justice are for us, and we are not lacking in courage if the Court does not cause our fall and loss (et ad nuy non mancha lanimo si de la corte ne ce facto caschare et perdere). But, in short, reputation is the thing that does everything here.
London, the 10th December 1460.
Postscript.—The cordial reception of your lordship has greatly warmed the spirits of the lords here, who are naturally cold, and your consolations, which respond to what I have often said to your lordship. The bearer of this will tell you at length what I say and plan in order to do some noteworthy thing for the preservation of your goods (con salvomento della robba) and honour. I have seen the letters of your lordship and Messer Ciccho, and this practically contains my reply. The bearer will give the details, with which he is perfectly acquainted. He is inflamed with zeal, like all the rest of us.
[Note at the end.—]Afterwards detained until the 4th January, 1461.
[Italian.]
Dec. 24.
Potenze
Estere.
Francia.
Milan
Archives.
51. From the Instructions of Prospero Camulio, Ambassador of the Duke of Milan, about to go to the Dauphin, etc.
To the Duke of York you will say practically the same as we told you to say to the Duke of Burgundy about remembering the ancient friendship and our disposition. To the Earl of Warwick you will commend his worth and valour and say that it will always gratify us to do his pleasure. You will impart to him and the others our negotiations with Mons. the dauphin, telling them in this so much as his Serenity directs you, for the purpose of disposing him to follow things up well, because ibi pendent multa.
You will tell the legate that we cannot say how pleased we are at his operations and the wise prudence he has shown in these affairs, for which not only we and King Ferrando are indebted, but all Italy of those who wish to live well. You will question him closely and carefully about the feeling of England and in what condition things are there; also whether they are going to cross or no, and upon what grounds, etc., and you will advise us carefully of everything (al legato diray como nuy siamo contenti quanto dire se possa de la opera et bona prudentia il ha operato in quelle cose, de la quale se gli trova non solamente Re Ferrando et nuy obligati, sed tutta Italia de quelli che habiano voglia de ben vivere: et qui gli domandaray strectamente con bone attencione del grado de Inghilterra et in che stato siano quelle cose, et se sonno per passare, aut non, et con che fondamento etc., et de tutto ne darai aviso diligenter).
About going to England you will do what seems good to Monsignor the dauphin, taking from his Highness the line that you will follow. When you are there you will go first to the legate and take the necessary information from him, and with this guidance you will present yourself to the king and the other princes, as has been said above.
Milan, the 24th December, 1460.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 Torn.
2 The Earl of Warwick.
3 Venetian Calendar, vol. i, No. 357.
4 Robert Hungerford, 2nd Lord de Moleyns and Lord Scales were commissioned to hold London for the king. They were joined in the Tower by Lords Lovel, de la Warr and de Vescy. Ramsay: Lancaster and York, ii, page 226. They surrendered on Friday, the 18th July. Ibid., page 229.
5 Thomas Butler, Earl of Wiltshire, reappointed Treasurer on the 30th October, 1458. Stubbs: Constitutional History, iii, page 183.
6 Otto de Carreto, the Duke of Milan's ambassador to the pope.
7 Ferdinand, King of Naples, a natural son of Alfonso of Aragon. John of Calabria attacked this kingdom in October, 1459, advancing the rival claims of the house of Anjou. Pius II., incited by the Duke of Milan, supported Ferdinand. See Sismondi: Hist. des Republiques Italiennes, cap. lxxvii.
8 Venetian Calendar, vol. i, No. 358.
9 Torn.
10 Venetian Calendar, vol. i, No. 359, in translation.

Annotations

65 jacob.ellis - (Tuesday 31 Mar 2009 10:52:40)
Entry number 36 margin, "for Diplomie read Diplomi".
Corrigenda to this volume
66 jacob.ellis - (Tuesday 31 Mar 2009 11:09:05)
Entry number 48, third word: "for Amiger read Armiger"
Corrigenda to this volume.


<--Previous:
Milan:
1459
Next:-->
Milan:
1461