Milan
1489

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1912

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248-253

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'Milan: 1489', Calendar of State Papers and Manuscripts in the Archives and Collections of Milan: 1385-1618 (1912), pp. 248-253. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=92271 Date accessed: 21 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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1489

1489.
March 10.
Potenze
Estere.
Francia.
Milan
Archives.
379. Bartolommeo Chalco, Ducal Secretary, to Gian Galeazzo Sforza, Duke of Milan.
The King of England on the 10th February took St. Omer; 3,500 English entered the gates at the third hour of the night shouting “Burgundy and England.” The French sent a large force against them but it availed them little. The courier who brought the letters from Antwerp was present and also a Venetian merchant. These say that the people of England, that is to say nobles, clergy and commons, have granted an aid of 300,000l. sterling, or more than a million ducats for three years to the king, above his ordinary revenue. They did this so that he might make war on France.
Milan, the 15th March, 1489.
[Italian.]
March 12.
Potenze
Estere.
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
380. John Reinald, Eucharius Albich and John Skiby, executors of the will of Richard Heron, to Giovanni Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan.
As executors of Richard's will claim payment of 70,000 gold florins due him. As proof is asked, will do what his Highness justly requires. Have therefore sent him exemplification of all the documents, but do not know if he received them. Have therefore sent John de Sancto Martino, a merchant, to him, who will set forth their rights. Beg humbly for the satisfaction of their claims, promising to produce the original documents at the proper place, which admit of no suspicion.
Lyons, the 12th March, 1489.
[Latin.]
April 4.
Potenze
Estere.
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
381. Letter of the Duke of Milan to John Reynaldi, Euchario Albich and John Schibi, executors of the will of Richard Heron.
Acknowledges letters dated at Lyons the 12th March last, and those delivered by John de Sancto Michaele about the debt they claim in the name of Lucia Visconti. The matter did not seem worthy of attention after the lapse of so many years in which no claim has been made, but caused the documents to be examined, from which concludes that no claim exists, for two reasons, the alleged will of Lucia, the basis of the whole affair, is not forthcoming (non constat); and there is no cession to them because the document produced has not the clauses and formalities required by law. A petitioner should come to Milan and proceed according to the laws there, and if they choose to follow this course, full justice will be shown to them.
Dated at Viglevano, the 4th April, 1489.
[Signed:] Chri. Bullatus.
[Latin; draft.]
April 15.
Potenze
Estere.
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
382. Letter of Bartolommeo Chalcus to D. Christoforo Bullato.
Sorry he is ill as the merchants for Lyons say the time is drawing near for the fair, and ask that provision be made for their safety. Asks him to send arrangements for this, understood to be in his hands.
Ex castro porte Jovis, 15th April, 1489.
[Italian.]
April 15.
Potenze
Estere.
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
383. Letter of Bartolommeo Chalcus to D. Christoforo Bullato. Has seen the order made by the councillors in the matter of the dowry; expects it will produce good results and prevent loss to the merchants, who, however, are pressing for more. Has no instructions, so refers to him.
Ex castro porte Jovis, Milan, 15th April, 1489.
[Italian.]
April 15.
Potenze
Estere.
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
384. Christoforo Bullatus to D. Bartolommeo Chalco.
Yesterday evening a reply for the merchants was ordained to the alleged executors, which enclosed. M. Jo. Angelo and M. Francisco Bernardino instructed to arrange with Paulo or Petro de Casate to see if any composition can be arranged with the executors, but it must be for a small sum. Owing to the letters drawn up by the Council feel sure no steps will be taken against the merchants at this Easter fair. However, letters of recommendation can be sent to Savoy, the duke's council and Lyons. If his Highness sees fit will have these sent.
Ex domo, the 15th April, 1489.
[Italian.]
April 16.
Potenze
Estere
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
385. Christofforo Bullatus to Jo. Andrea Cagnola and Branda Castilione, Councillors.
Requests dispatch of the letters, they will see, or urged by M. Bartolommeo.
Ex domo, the 16th April, 1489.
[Italian.]
April 19.
Potenze
Estere.
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
386. The Council of Savoy to the duke of Milan.
Have never heard of the matter referred to in his letter and know of nothing against his merchants. Will show them every favour, and preserve them from all harm, so they need not fear to carry on their trade.
Turin, on the day of the Resurrection, 19th April, 1489.
[Latin.]
April 16.
Potenze
Estere.
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
387. Letter to the King of France, in the name of the Duke of Milan, requesting that nothing to the detriment of Milanese subjects be permitted at the request of John Skiby and the executors.
Viglevano, the 16th April, 1489.
Similar letters were sent, mutatis mutandis to the Councils of Chambery, Turin and Grenoble, the Council of Toulouse, the Officials of Lyons and Languedoc and the Governors of Burgundy, Picardy and Flanders.
[Latin; draft.]
April 25.
Potenze
Estere.
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
388. The Council of Savoy of Chambery to the Duke of Milan.
Assurance that they will not permit or inflict any reprisals.
Chambery, the 25th April, 1489.
[Latin.]
May 25.
Potenze
Estere.
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
389. John Reynald and John Skiby, executors of the will of Richard Heron, to Giovanni Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan.
In reply to objections about Lucia's will and validity of the cession to them. There is no prescription against them. Richard Heron repeatedly presented his claim to Duke Galeazzo by the Abbot of Abingdon, (fn. 1) who then took the order of the King of England to that prince and afterwards transmitted to the King of England some Barbary horses and pieces of cloth of gold. Since that affair Milanese merchants have not ventured to come to England except with the king's safe conduct and leave, which were rarely granted. There is no ambiguity about the matter. His merchants trading in Flanders and elsewhere know all about it. The will is proved by authentic letters properly exemplified. The cession is perfectly in order according to the law of England. The question of right does not admit of dispute. Accordingly press their petition for payment. If this is refused, the emperor, to whom they have appealed, has granted them letters of reprisal; and they will pursue their reprisals throughout the world until their claim is satisfied.
Geneva, the 25th May, 1489.
[Latin.]
June 12.
Potenze
Estere.
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
390. The Duke of Milan to John Reynaldi and John Schibi.
The original will must be produced. Unlikely that their common law is the exact opposite of Roman law. There is no proper deed for the cession of the claim to them, merely an assertion that the cession took place, which is not sufficient in law. As regards the threatened reprisals, it is customary for due warning to be given in such cases.
Dated at Pavia, the 12th June, 1489.
[Latin; draft.]
June 28.
Potenze
Estere.
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
391. Henry VII, King of England, to Gian Galeazzo Sforza, Duke of Milan. (fn. 2)
Intelleximus tam ex litteris Vestre Celsitudinis quam etiam ex nonnullis subditorum nostrorum Celsitudinem Vestrum vehementer appetere ut mutua inter nos jungeretur amicitia vetusque illa conjunctio quem inter predecessores utriusque nostrum longissimo tempore fuit observata a nobis successoribus nonmodo confirmaretur verum etiam magis ac magis ampliaretur et exaugeretur. Gavisi sumus profecto hoc Vestre Sublimitatis desyderio utpote pio et ab optimo animo profiscente at que etiam uterque nostrum non solum conducibili sed etiam probabili et prope debito. Quid enim magis ratione convenit aut vite honestati quaque ut priscus amor et vetus benevolentia potissimum inter principes conservetur semper ad posteros quod transeat et pro viribus fiat immortalis. Quanquam autem Vestre Celsitudinis amantissimi simus amplissimique vestri status felicitatis incolumitatisque et glorie cupidissimi officii tamen nostre esse putavimus ut ad Vestram Sublimitatem litteras nostras daremus hujusce animi nostri indices et testes locupletissimas. Has igitur fratri Johani Antonio subdito nostro fidelissimo et nostrorum laudum preconi viro provido et nobis admodo grato de cujus prudentia et maturitate plurimum confidimus ad Vestram Sublimitatem deferendas dedimus. Quod si aliud quicquid specialius fedus inter nos percutiendum Vestra Claritas optaverit non pigeat nobis per nuncios quos ad id duxerit esse idoneos illud renunciare. Dabimus protecto operam at que pro viribus contendemus pro antiqua inter hoc regnum nostrum et istum ducatum amicitia atque etiam pro singulari Vestre Celsitudinis fama que passim vulgatur et per ora hominum volitat ac paterne laudis emula fertur ut Vestre Celsitudinis desyderio quam supra quam credibile sit et colimus et plurimi facimus in omnibus morem geramus.
Ex regia nostra Windesore die xxviii Junii, MCCCCLXXXVIIII.
[On parchment.]
[1489.]
Oct. —.
Potenze
Estere.
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
392. Giovanni Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan, etc. to Henry, King of England, etc. (fn. 3)
Your Majesty will have learned by our letters delivered by Benedetto Spinula of the safe arrival with us of Master Gio. Antonio Carbonarii, to whom we have gladly listened in what he brought in your Majesty's name. We thank your Majesty warmly and refuse to be surpassed by you in affection. The two noble dogs which we desired from your island have arrived safely and nothing could please us better. For this also we return hearty thanks; but as we cannot adequately express ourselves by letters, we are sending Francesco Pagano, to whom we beg your Majesty to give ample confidence as if we ourselves spoke.
[Latin; parchment; seal missing.]
1489.
Nov. 12.
Potenze
Estere.
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
393. Secret Instructions to Francisco Paganus, about to go to the King of England.
You are to confirm the existing friendly feeling, to treat for an understanding and league, and to contract some marriage alliance. We understand that his Majesty has four sisters-in-law of tender years, and we should desire an alliance with one of them. But beforehand we must learn the quality of the lady. You will tactfully find out about the manner of their birth, if they have any personal defect, how they have been brought up and the quality of their intellect, and if you see that they are fitted for the match, with satisfaction to our taste, and have proved that they are of the blood royal, we shall be glad for you to come to particulars and give his Majesty to understand that we have heard he is willing to confirm his goodwill by a league or marriage alliance, and as we believe he has four sisters-in-law of the royal blood (fn. 4) we should be to confirm our friendship by a marriage with one of them, and we wish you to ask for this in our name. We think that the demonstration made by his Majesty requires us to proceed sincerely with him. When we have learned his will we can select the person whom to marry. You will then ask about the conditions of the dowry, sending us word so that we may know what line to take.
This accomplished, it will give you a chance to speak to the king another time, telling him that our Milanese merchants complain that while they trade freely with all the nations of the world, they are molested in his Majesty's dominions alone and that under the pretext of the dowry of a Madona Lucia, who married in England, although there is no memory of that debt here, and those at whose instance our merchants are molested are not of that kingdom but have bought this action for profit, and as we desire to be at one with his Majesty, it is not fitting that the subjects of one should suffer wrong in the state of the other. We therefore beg him to take away these reprisals from the Milanese and not allow so ancient a matter, in which we find no foundation and which will benefit none of his subjects nor his realm to cause any discord between us, and if the claim is authentic and the claimants will come and lay their case duly before us, we will see that justice is done speedily.
You will not bring up this question of the reprisals immediately after the other, because that would diminish the reputation of the embassy, and might even make his Majesty believe that we had sent you to him to treat of other matters as much as for the first, and therefore you will let eight or ten days elapse after you have set forth all the other matters contained in your instructions, and then take an opportunity of seeing his Majesty and tell him you have a commission to speak about the reprisals, and if you see fit, you can pretend, after the expiry of ten days, that a courier has reached you with letters instructing you to speak of these reprisals. We learn this to your prudence. So that you may have arguments against those who say that the reprisals were rightly granted, we give you a copy of our case which you can set forth when need arises.
[Italian; draft.]
[1489.]
Dec. 10.
Potenze
Estere.
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
394. Gian. Galeazzo Sforza, Duke of Milan, to Francesco Pagnano, his Ambassador in England.
We are advised by our community of Genoa that the Florentines are making efforts with that most serene king that no wool shall be taken out of England for Italy unless it is all discharged at Pisa. If this were allowed, it would not only seriously damage the trade and convenience of our city of Genoa, but it would also cause great detriment to our people of Milan and other towns of our dominions, which could not obtain from Pisa, except at great expense and inconvenience, the wool which is easily brought to them from Genoa, owing to its nearness. You will see the importance of the matter, and this has moved us to write to his Majesty and beg him not to show that he looks less kindly upon the Genoese than heretofore, since they have returned to our obedience. We are also writing to my Lord of Canterbury, the Lord Chancellor of the said king. For this reason we think it right to inform you also, because when you fully understand all about the matter from the Genoese merchants, who have the burden of the affair in that island, you will speak about it to his Majesty and commend to him most earnestly the interests of the Genoese, telling him how much they are bound up with the interests of our other towns and assuring his Majesty that it will afford us exceptional pleasure, besides the favour which he will obtain therefrom; it being understood that by the offer and … which is proposed to him he will not choose to depart from his customary graciousness, in affording freely the use of this wool, according as he (cognoscendosi che per offerta e … che li sii proposto non vogli manchare de la consueta benignitade … ettendo liberamente l'uso de queste lane secundo ch'ella …).
Viglevano, the 10th December.
[Italian; draft, torn at the end.]
In the margin: fiat unum exemplum mittendum in Genuam.

Footnotes

1 There seems to be no record of the conferment of the Garter on Galeazzo Sforza, but John Sant, abbot of Abingdon, was one of the ambassadors sent to Rome in 1479.
2 An abbreviated translation in Venetian Calendar, vol. i, no. 554.
3 Venetian Calendar, vol. i, no. 947.
4 The four surviving sisters of Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV, were Cecilia, Anne, Bridget and Katherine. Sandford: A Genealogical History of the Kings of England, pages 395–7.


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