Milan
1492

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

Year published

1912

Pages

283-291

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'Milan: 1492', Calendar of State Papers and Manuscripts in the Archives and Collections of Milan: 1385-1618 (1912), pp. 283-291. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=92274 Date accessed: 23 November 2014.


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1492

1492.
Jan. 4.
Potenze
Estere.
Francia.
Milan
Archives.
451. Herasmo Brascha, Milanese Ambassador in France, to Gian Galeazzo Sforza, Duke of Milan.
I do not think they can hope for any results from the negotiations of Scotland, unless M. d'Aubigny infuses life into them on his arrival; but he has not yet returned from Picardy, though they hope he will come to Paris. I would rather speak to his Majesty without him, chiefly because of his ill will towards your Excellency. The news of the death of the Earl of Badouel, the Scottish ambassador, is confirmed.
Tours, the 4th January, 1492.
[Italian.]
Jan. 10.
Potenze
Estere.
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
452. Henry VII, King of England, to Ludovico Maria Sforza, Regent of Milan. (fn. 1)
Were we not of opinion that the extent of the tyranny of the French and their wicked lust for aggrandising themselves and subjugating others is manifest and well known to you, we should endeavour to demonstrate it at full length; but we consider the fact so evident to all peoples and nations that there is no need for further demonstration, though how much it is not only to our interest, but to that of yourself and other Christian princes, especially those nearest, to repress such a thirst and greed for domination, we leave to your judgment, the French being so intent on increasing their dominions by every manner of crime, and day by day they are more on the alert to trip up neighbouring princes. Unless such insatiable cupidity be removed from our midst it is much to be feared that much mischief will result therefrom to the whole Christian Commonwealth. Everyone knows by what right they harassed the Duchess and Duchy of Britanny by protracted and grievous war, and at last brought it into their power. The art and craft they employed to induce Ghent and several other towns of Flanders to revolt from the King of the Romans are a matter of notoriety. Who is unaware of the snares they are preparing so that they may bring all Flanders under thier yoke? If we wished to give you examples nearer home, we might remind you with what perfidy they circumvented and supplanted the princes of Savoy, though we think this is no secret to any Christian prince. To such an extent does this insolent licence wander in every direction and move hither and thither with impunity, at will. We pass over in silence the mischief the French are contriving against us and the snares they are spreading, as we have decided to avenge our injuries not by words but by arms.
For the rest, as in this present year, we are about to undertake a war against these French, together with the King of the Romans and the King and Queen of Spain, our allies, with the blessing of the Most High, and intend to carry our banners against them in person, we pray your Highness by the ties of kinship and affection, by which we are mutually united, to join us in this just and necessary war, and to help us with all your might, as it is certainly not to your interest that a neighbouring enemy should become so strong, especially one who is so greedy of empire that the entire globe would not satisfy him. He threatens your duchy not less than the other principalities near him, and advances a claim to the duchy for the Duke of Orleans. (fn. 2) Accordingly, for our part, we are about to prepare a very strong and valiant army, so that this great task which we are taking up may be completed without the expenditure of too much time or long continued war. We hope that this expedition may not only be prosperously begun, but also carried to a successful termination, which will turn to our own advantage as well as that of the duke and all other Christian princes.
After mature deliberation, we have communiacted all the matters which concern our common advantage to the ducal commissioner, Benedicto Spinula, citizen and merchant of Genoa, in whose fidelity we have full confidence, asking him to impart to your Highness all the things which we have communicated to him. We therefore ask your Highness to give full credence to all that this Benedicto may communicate in his letters on our behalf, and all the matters which he may report to the duke for us. We shall be greatly obliged if your Highness will inform us of what you decide in this matter. We wish you the best of good fortune, and believe us to be not only most friendly but most devoted.
From our Palace of Sheen, the 10th January, 1491.
[Latin; copy.]
Jan. 15.
Potenze
Estere.
Francia.
Milan
Archives.
453. Herasmo Brascha, Milanese Ambassador in France, to the Duke of Milan.
M. D'Aubigny tells me that the news of the death of the Earl of Badoel was not true, though he was in great danger, and he returned safely to Scotland.
Orleans, the 15th January, 1492.
[Italian.]
Jan. 15.
Potenze
Estere.
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
454. From the Letters of Benedicto Spinula to the Duke of Bari.
By another I wrote to your lordship of the king's intention and his request to the duke, to which his Majesty desires a very speedy reply. I therefore beg you to have the present messenger despatched with all speed, so that his Majesty may know I have shown all diligence. Although I may not presume to advise your Sublimity, yet such is my affection to the ducal state that I cannot refrain from giving my opinion. I think, then, that you should take advantage of this and cherish the friendship of this most noble and powerful king, especially as he personally has a great regard for the duke and is anxious to please him. He is a most loyal prince and absolutely faithful to his promises, and he has the power and the will to do very great things. Though very remote from our country yet he can be very useful to the ducal state as, please God, your lordship will soon see what he can do by his treasure and loans; and at your desire the king would arrange that in the future he will never make a treaty with the French without special mention of the duke and duchy, and including them. I beg your Excellency to take this in good part and decide as you please.
London, the 15th January, 1492.
[Italian; copy.]
Jan. 15.
Potenze
Estere.
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
455. Benedetto Spinula to the Duke of Bari.
The king continues to make the greatest preparations for war with the French, and from what I gather he hopes that some of the leading Frenchmen will help him when they see clearly the effect of the war. I will inform your lordship of what happens.
Last year, by command of his lordship, I spent a little money upon the letters obtained from the king here about the reprisals, which letters were sent by Cagnola, the courier. This money has never been made good to M. Neapoliono Spinula. I beg your Excellency to see that it is paid.
London, the 15th January, 1492.
[Italian; copy.]
Jan. 15.
Potenze
Estere.
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
456. Last Sheet of Despatch of Spinula to [Duke of Milan].
The king here attends to nothing but preparation for the war. He has spent so much that he cannot possibly abandon the expedition, which they are resolved to begin in the month of April next.
His Majesty has ordered me to send these articles to your Sublimity in whom he has great confidence from his knowledge of your ability and prudence in the government and preservation of your state.
London, the 15th January, 1492.
[Italian; copy.]
Feb. 26.
Potenze
Estere.
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
457. Ludovico Maria Sforza, Regent of Milan, to Henry VII, King of England.
Legi Majestatis Vestre litteras et ea simul intellexi que Benedictus Spinula scripsit ut non solum causas mihi ostenderet quibus contra Gallos assumere arma Majestas Vestra decrevit verum etiam declararet egregiam ipsius erga Ulustrissimum principem meum ac me voluntatem et studium de iis que in novo bello facere nos Majestas Vestra cuperet cum ad Benedictum Spinulam satis per me rescribatur ut quem ipsa ad declarandum nobis animum suum delegit habeat etiam eorum declaratorem que fieri a nobis possunt, superest ut a me solum de his mentio fiat que mutuum animum ab Illustrissimo principe meo et a me Majestatem Vestram habere testentur Eam vero uterque nostrum singuli studio colit et observat: Quia ad amplitudinem regna Anglici accedunt singules virtutes quibus Majestas Vestra predita mentem non inferiorem regia dignitate gerit: Additur etiam affinitatis serio res et mutue necessitudinis ratio cui neque tempus neque locorum distantiam de viribus suis aliquid detraxisse vehementer Gaudeo: itaque quod ad principem meum neque attinet non letor solum ab prestantissimo Regi nos amari sed et Majestati Vestre gratulari debeo quod in amoris sui communicatione feliciter ei contingat ut in amore gratos et conservande benevolentie principes eque ac ipsam studiosos ac cupides nacta sit quos se esse posterum in amore retenturam sperare potest quia neque temere amicitias inire et initas aut a majoribus traditas constanter servare solemus.
[Draft.]
Feb. 26.
Potenze
Estere.
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
458. Ludovico Maria Sforza, Regent of Milan, to Henry VII, King of England.
Facit Majestas Vestra rem clarissimo rege dignam et a necessitudine quam nobis cum ea majores nostri relinquerunt non alienam ut non solum nostri memoria servet verum etiam rebus nostris pro mutua benevolentia nostra consultum esse cupiat. Gratissima igitur nobis ea fuerunt que de hac re Majestas Vestra scripsit at que ei etiam gratias agimus quod neque interva lo locorum neque temporis lapsu patiatur ea necessitudine oblivionem indioci quam nos quoque non servavimus solum hactenus sed in posterum quoque constanter inter nos mane e cupimus hoc nos animo erga Majestatem Vestram sumus eadem etiam semper quam cum in nobis est esse non desinemus Ita enim majores vincula utrique nostrum relicta exigunt ita etiam erga potentissimum atque tandem clarissimum a benevolenti principe fiere equum est. Ceterim ad ea que ipsius Majestatis nomine significavit Benedictus Spinula scribit Illustrissimus Dom. Lucus patruus parens et locum tenens noster hon. Quo in statu res nostre sunt quodve aut Majestas Vestra sperare deceat aut nos agere honeste possumus. Itaque ab eo declarabantur Maj. Vestra que respondere nunc possumus que de benevolentia et animo nostro ubi sine dignitatis injuria licet neque plura neque majora qui a nobis sibi de alio polliceri posset.
[Draft.]
Feb. 26.
Potenze
Estere.
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
459. Ludovico Maria Sforza, Regent of Milan, to Benedicto Spinula, Milanese Agent in England.
Your courier has arrived with the utmost diligence and was presented us with the king's letters and your own written by his Majesty's commission. His coming has much gratified us, because we see the friendly way in which his Majesty writes, and we have felt the pleasure aroused by the testimony given by your most excellent king, whom we esteem most highly. The letter assures us of his cordial affection for the duke and myself. Although we are returning our thanks by the enclosed letters, yet we desire you also to thank his Majesty, assuring him that we not only respond to him gratefully, but have a singular esteem for him, as a most powerful sovereign and lord adorned with the highest qualities, whom our predecessors left us bound to love and venerate, without the additional reason of the alliance contracted.
After presenting our letters and making the remarks indicated above, you will inform his Majesty that we have quite understood the matter which he committed to you, of which you write. Besides his own interests we have observed the part where he bears witness to his friendship for the duke, he and his state and ours. For this you will thank him as warmly as you can, making him understand that there are few with whom he will find a better disposition of more friendliness than with us. With regard to the rupture against the Most Christian King, to which he invites us, as well as the sum which he asks from us for this in order to provide more efficaciously and with more vigour for the continuation of the war, you will say that we regret that his Majesty is compelled to take up arms again and renew the war, which seemed to be extinguished. Apart from our charge, we would pay as much heed to his Majesty's requirements and suggestions, aye, even to his pleasures, as to those of a most wise father and to our own affairs. But as it is our natural method to proceed with open countenance and not to palliate our actions, we will not disguise from his Majesty or leave him unaware that, acknowledging the state of Genoa in fee of the King of France, with whom we are in the close relationship that he knows, the said Most Christian King sent a most solemn embassy last year to recognise the fee in us, and then of his own accord did what by our position we were obliged to ask, and what we had already asked for by some ambassadors. Then, this last January, by another solemn embassy he sent here to renew, and did renew the league we had made with him by our past lords, with an obligation which passed on to their heirs and successors. These two obligations forbid us not only to make war on the said king, but also, wherever we can, bind us not to consent to anything which may injure his Majesty's affairs.
For these reasons we feel sure that his Majesty will excuse us for not doing as he desires, since on the one hand we have the obligation of loyalty and homage, and on the other the ties of kindred, and we believe that he would take it ill if we showed ourselves insincere and failed in what the act of homage and the obligation of the league require of us, and as the institutions of our ancestors demand that we shall do.
In other matters wherein the duke and we can gratify his Majesty and show him the greatness of the love which we bear him, he may rest assured that there is no prince or kinsman who will more quickly or more gladly satisfy his wishes than ourselves.
You will therefore go to his Majesty and tell him what we write here, making sure that he fully understands our good will and the grave and urgent reasons which forbid us to entertain his request, because we have no doubt if he fully understands he will not only accept our excuses in good part, but would even blame us if we acted otherwise, for among his countless other virtues, we know that he is most particular about keeping faith, as being a matter of great moment, especially between princes, and thinks that nothing better becomes their generosity than the observance of their promises.
Viglevano, the 26th February, 1492.
[Italian; draft.]
[1492.]
Sezione
Storica.
Autografi.
Archivescovi.
Milan
Archives.
460. Robert Blacader, Archbishop of Glasgow, to Dom. Erasmo Brascha. (fn. 3)
Nobilissime orator domine Erasme dignissime: Rogo facite me humiliter Illustrissimis dominis ducibus Mediolanen. et de Bar commendatum cum omni famulatu et obsequio meo, et dicetis Illustrissimo Domino meo duci de Bar de relacione mea facta Christianissimo Regi de Illustrissima domo Mediolanen. et de Illustrissimo et Reverendissimo domino meo speciali Domino Cardinali Ascanio. Insuper dicetis dicto domino meo illustrissimo et prudentissimo quod responsum nec domine Oubenze nec ego habuimus de materia communicata inter dominationem suam illustrissimam et meam pervitatem, sed speramus omni die accipere nova quibus Intellectis statim dominus Oubenz et ego significabimus prefato domino meo illustrissimo et potentissimo.
Rogabitis etiam Dominum meum Illust. Dom. Ducem de Bar ut dignetur effectuose scribere Illustrissimo et Rev. dom. meo Cardinali Ascanio ut sua prudentissima cura dignetur procurare et juvare cum effectu erectionem ecclesie Metropolitane Glasguensis in primacialem et legaciam natam, instar ecclesie Eboracensis in Anglia, qua in re Serenissimo D.N. et D. sue Rev. et Rev. Dom. Beneventano scribit Christianissimus Rex Velit ergo sit cordialiter Ill. Dom. meus dux res supradictas et alias res meas Ill. et humanissimo domino meo suo germano commendare, ut intelligat dom. sua Reverendissima commendaciones dom. mei Ill. ducis in rebus meis non esse vulgares sed quod ex animo procedunt Et certe Dom. sua Ill. pro me faciendo opera dabit pro suo servo et capellano et hic in Curia Regis Christianissimi credo me moram facturum ad tres vel quatuor menses et si quid valeam dicere vel efficere ad honorem dignissimi Ill. Dom. mei dom. Ducis de Bar aut Dom. mei Ill. et Rev. Cardinalis faciam certe summa cum diligencia sicut pro Ser. et Excellentissimo principe ac Rege meo Et me D.V. nobilissime tanquam patri multum honorando commendo. Scribite dignetur michi quid insuper dict. sperabo et quid velit Ill. Dom. meus Dom. Dux de Bar, in prefato efficere pro suo servitore et capellano quia ista negotia sunt de intentione Ser. Regis mei et pro honore sui inclitissimi Regni.
[Signed:] Vester filius Robertus Archiep. Glasguen.
1492.
May 21.
Potenze
Estere.
Inghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
461. Bartholomeus Chalcus, Ducal Secretary, to Ludovico Maria Sforza, Duke of Bari. (fn. 4)
The host of the Well (Pozo) of this city came to me to-day and informed me that yesterday an ambassador of the King of England sent to Rome arrived at his inn. He is called the Bishop of Durham and has 25 horses with him. I did not think it fit to visit him in the name of your lordship, because I had not heard of his having any commission from his master to visit your lordship, and chiefly to avoid giving some token that something might come of such a visit, which might give umbrage to the King of France, and also because I had no instructions from your lordship. To-morrow morning this ambassador is leaving to pursue his journey.
Milan, the 21st May, 1492.
[Italian.]
June.
Potenze
Estere,
Francia.
Milan
Archives.
462. Carlo Barbiano, Milanese Ambassador in France, to Gian Galeazzo Sforza, Duke of Milan.
We hear for certain by messengers from England that the king there has made great preparations of ships and men and other necessary things for war, to pass to France. They fear it will be in eight or ten days. Owing to this announcement his Majesty has decided to send back the Duke of Orleans to Normandy.
Paris, the — (fn. 5) June, 1492.
[Italian.]
Sept. 10.
Potenze
Estere.
lnghilterra.
Milan
Archives.
463. Dominico Rar to his Brother.
The King of England, driven on by his people, has prepared a very large force both by sea and land. He has decided to cross for the satisfaction of his subjects to fight the French host, which we hear is preparing with great energy. I imagine, unless God interposes, that you will hear of as much bloodshed and slaughter of Christians as the world has known for a thousand years. In the direction of Burgundy is Maximilian, King of the Romans, with a great army. He is making marches for the pacification of Flanders. He has concluded peace with Ghent, and is said to have received a large quantity of money from that place. All here contribute gladly to the war both in money and life and all with one voice exclaim that they cannot fail, with God's help, because they have right on their side. All with one accord cry for vengeance on the French, owing to the injury which the empire has received from the refusal and Maximilian in his wife and daughter. The Duke of Saxony, since the peace at Ghent, has besieged Leschins both by sea and land, in which place is Monr. Philip, strongly fortified, and as it is a place that can offer a strong resistance the duke has decided to erect various bastions, set a very strong guard and reduce it by famine, indeed it is impossible to take it otherwise. But from what I have learned from Philip's own father, Lord of il Revestea, who lives at Mentilorgo in a magnificent castle, when I went to visit him with some of our merchants, his son Philip will come to terms and will make a good peace with Maximilian. Nevertheless, the effects are not good. May God permit the best; we shall look on at the feast and I will send you word day by day of what happens.
Our captain has recently received an express command from the King of England asking him to give our galleys for his requirements. Our captain informed the king that this was not in his power. They are making every effort to induce him to give them up, and I greatly fear that the king will take them to lade his munitions. If this happens as I expect, it will prolong our voyage. God grant that it be for the best. The King of England has gone to Chavodobla (fn. 6) to proceed to Calais and was to start on the 6th inst. You shall be advised of what happens.
Your brother,
Dominico Rar.
London, the 10th September, 1492.
[Italian.]
Oct. 18.
Potenze
Estere.
Germania.
Milan
Archives.
464. From Antwerp.
The King of England crossed on the 2nd of this month to Calais with about 20,000 men and at this moment is encamped at Boulogne on the confines of Britanny (sic). If the King of the Romans does what he says, the French may have their hands full.
[Italian.]
Dec. 12.
Potenze
Estere.
Germania.
Milan
Archives.
465. Nicolo Dinecharo[?] to Ludovico Sforza, Duke of Bari.
Of this son of King Edward of England I do not know what to say. His Majesty will always be careful not to disturb the peace, in order not to violate his faith. The secretary of England has left. Our king is seeking to make an agreement and the means will not be wanting. The King of England being in a state of suspicion will bring it about more easily.
Monsig. Duvaloni with the other ambassadors of the Archduke will follow the king to Augsburg. The King of England and the son of King Edward will go before.
Vienna, the 12th December, 1492.
[Italian.]
Dec. 14.
Potenze
Estere.
Roma.
Milan
Archives.
466. Stephanus Taberna to Gian Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan.
The King of England has ordered his ambassador resident here to give the obedience to the pope, and accordingly he was admitted to-day in the public Consistory by his Holiness and made his speech.
Rome, the 14th December, 1492.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 Venetian Calendar, vol. i, no. 617.
2 Mr. Rawdon Brown omits this clause to the end of the paragraph.
3 Robert Blacader was sent on a mission abroad to find a wife for the King of Scotland. He reached France in September, 1491, and arrived in Milan at the end of the following month. (See pages 279, 282 above.) This letter was probably written on his return home about the beginning of 1492. The see of Glasgow was made an archbishopric on the 9th January, 1492. Eubel: Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, whereas Blacader was only Bishop of Glasgow when he started on his mission. It should be noted, however, that by an act of the Scottish parliament of the 26th January, 1489, Glasgow was made an archbishopric with privileges similar to those enjoyed by the archbishopric of York. Acts of the Parliaments of Scotland, vol. ii, page 213.
4 Venetian Calendar, vol. i, no. 619.
5 Torn.
6 Henry was at Canterbury on the 10th September, 1492. Rymer: Fædera, vol. v, pt. iv, page 46.

Annotations

81 jacob.ellis - (Tuesday 31 Mar 2009 14:06:49)
Entry number 452 paragraph one, for 'Flanders under thier yoke?' read "Flanders under their yoke?".
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