Pii IV. Epp. ad.
Princ. vol. ii.
2125 (xxxi. 10)
|86. Pope Pius IV to Mary, Queen Do wager of the French.|
Apprising her that Hippolytus [d'Este], Cardinal of Ferrara, is despatched as legate to the Court of the Most Christian King, and will visit her and give her the Apostolic blessing, seeing that her devotion to the Catholic faith and the Holy See is well known to the Pope, who doubts not that she will ever persevere therein.
1 July, 1561 Rome Latin. Copies. (fn. 1)
1039. f. 289.
|87. News Letter.|
“Queen Mary will depart for Scotland at the end of this month. Her uncles, the Grand Prior and the Marquis de Beuf [d'Elbeuf], with M. d'Anville [de Damville], will accompany her.”
12 July, 1561. Paris. Italian. Copy.
vol. cl. f. 83.
|88. Charles Borromeo, Cardinal [Archbishop of Milan] to the Legates at Trent.|
“I have apprised Cardinal Morone of your desire to see Cardinal Pole's opuscule entitled Quaestiunculae de Concilio. He replies that he does not remember that he possesses it, but that he will cause search to be made; and should it be found, he will have it sent to me. Upon receipt of it, I will send it to you, either with this letter or the next.”
Postscript.—“Cardinal Pole's little book has been found among Cardinal Morone's papers. It shall be copied and sent to you in the next packet.”
19 July, 1561. Rome. Italian. Copy.
1039. f. 293.
|89. News Letter.|
“His Majesty has informed the nuncio that, to his thinking, there is no need to do more at present in regard to the Queen of England's refusal to admit the nuncio Martinengo; but that when the Council is ended, he will not fail, if need be, to take arms for Holy Church, not only against the Queen but against all other recalcitrants.
“The fleet from the Indies, which has brought a great deal of silver, fell in with some corsairs said to be French, who had even put into the port of Seville, where the bodies of twenty of these robbers have since been seen hanging at the yardarms. An English ship was also taken, but as it was not certain that it was a corsair, no more was done. It seems that one of the ships, aboard which were the registers of the bullion belonging to persons in the other ships, foundered. It is understood that another fleet, yet more richly laden with gold and silver, is on its way from Peru.”
24 July, 1561. The Catholic Court. Italian. Copy.
5798 (lxii. 58).
|90. John Francis Commendone, Nuncio in Lower Germany] to [Hercules Gonzaga,] Cardinal of Mantua.|
Announcing that the King of Denmark has refused to admit him, being determined to have no relations with the Papacy.
He has little hope that the King will even grant him a passport for transit through his dominions to Sweden, so as to enable him to attempt so much of his mission as relates to that country.
28 July, 1561. Lübeck. Italian. Copy.
5798 (lxii. 58).
|91. Same to [Charles] Borromeo, Cardinal [Archbishop of Milan].|
“I understand that some copies of a book against the Council have been printed in Wittenberg. There are no such copies here, nor yet in the neighbourhood. I have sent to Herford for one, and the messenger should have arrived there yesterday, if he made, as I trust he did, all haste. I have seen a similar book printed some months ago in Zürich, Switzerland, the author, Henry Bullinger.” (fn. 2)
29 July, 1561. Lübeck. Italian. Copy.
|Ibid. f. 102d.||92. The Same to The Same.|
“We have as yet no answer from this King [of Sweden], nor any news of him save that yesterday there arrived here from England a Swedish gentleman, just come from that island, where he had been employed about the business of the Queen's marriage, and, as I understand, he returns without hope. Nevertheless another has passed through this place to-day on his way to England upon the same errand. They say that the King seems more than ever set upon accomplishing this his desire, and that he purposes after the coronation to go to the west coast of Norway, whence, should occasion serve, he would take ship for England.”
12 August, 1561. Lübeck. Italian. Copy.
|93. [Zacharias] Delfino, [Bishop of Lesina, Nuncio to the Emperor] to the Same.|
“The Protestant Princes of Germany, seeing that we are now setting to work in earnest about the Council, have recourse to exorcisms so potent to bring about at least an agreement in this, that their divisions may not be manifest, that they have persuaded the Nürnbergers to subscribe the new Confession of Augsburg, which a few months ago they refused to do. I hear that they will bring the city of Augsburg to consent to do the same, which as yet they have not done, which is very displeasing to the Emperor. I am assured that the Queen of England will subscribe this Confession, which accords with what I wrote I had heard from Dr. Sexheldian (fn. 3) in Mainz; that lady being disposed to fall in with that which will command the assent and consent of the most numerous and powerful princes and cities of Germany. Besides which there is no doubt that the King of Sweden, in accordance likewise with what I wrote on the authority of the said Sexheldian, will do the same. And so by reason of the intrigues of these kingdoms and provinces, to wit, Denmark, Scotland, England and the States of the Protestant Princes, with France, the judicious fear that we may suddenly, even in full Council, hear some startling news, it being manifest that, as soon as the Council becomes a serious question, every heretic will deem that that question involves his own life and fortune.”
15 August, 1561. Vienna. Italian. Copy.
|94. [Sebastian Gualtieri,] Bishop of Viterbo, Nuncio in France to [Charles] Borromeo, Cardinal [Archbishop of Milan].|
“The Queen of Scotland has set sail, and the Cardinal of Lorraine holds out hope that the result will be concord and a good understanding between her and the Queen of England.
“The English ambassador has said never a word more about Martinengo's affair.
“It is understood that the Queen of Scotland cedes to the Queen of England her pretensions in regard to that kingdom; and that the Queen of England declares the Queen of Scotland her heir in case of her death without issue.” (fn. 4)
21 August, 1561. St. Cloud. Decipher. Italian.
|Ibid. f. 85d.||95. The Same to the Same.|
“The Spanish ambassador has had another audience of the Queen [Mother]. He represents his discourse as solely of the Edict, which is neither published nor observed, of the slight progress made by the Assembly at Poissy, and of the licence of the heretics, and particularly of Theodore Beza.” (fn. 5)
25 August, 1561. [Paris.] Decipher. Italian.
|Ibid.||96. The Same to the Same.|
“The Cardinal of Lorraine has disputed with the said Theodore in the Queen [Mother]'s presence, and thereby given great offence to the Catholics. Everyone says that he had the better of the fellow.”
26 August, 1561. [Paris.] Decipher. Italian.
|97. [Sebastian Gualtieri,] Bishop of Viterbo, Nuncio in France to [Charles] Borromeo, Cardinal [Archbishop of Milan].|
“The Cardinal of Lorraine has given him a full account of his disputation with Theodore [Beza]. He makes out that he was constrained thereto by the Queen, that he said nothing save in public, and that he withdrew as soon as he could.”
28 August, 1561. [Paris.] Decipher. Italian.
|Ibid. f. 89.||98. The Same to the Same.|
… “The Duke of Guise has told him that the Queens of Scotland and England have come to terms, if not actually made the treaty definitive, and he supposed that the only reason why it is not published is that it would afford a sorry sort of satisfaction to the Queen of England, who caused it to be made with artifice so as to excuse her for withdrawing her braggart opposition.”
30 August, 1561. Saint Cloud. Decipher. Italian.
5798 (lxii. 58).
|99. John Francis Commendone, [Nuncio in Lower Germany] to the Same.|
“At last the messenger from Sweden has arrived with the King's answer, which I send with this, and I should already be jogging if the Emperor's gentleman had been here. I have sent to Mecklenburg to summon him, and hope that he will be here to-morrow. As to the Queen of England, I cannot believe that she would do so little honour to the King as to forbid anybody to join him there; but as in her answer to Mgr. Martinengo she excluded from the realm in the most general terms all agents of his Holiness, it will be necessary for me first to learn her mind, and send someone post from Antwerp to London as on an errand to the King. If he gets leave to go, it is well, if not, the exclusion will not be of our doing. Further, if the Queen should consent, I am considering whether perchance his Holiness might not deem it expedient that in view of what may happen, though we do not expect it, I should be furnished with yet another brief for the Queen, and some others unaddressed, two or three for prelates, the same number for lords, and two for persons of inferior rank. If his Holiness should see fit to send them, they should be sent speedily.”
1 September, 1561. Lübeck. Italian. Copy.
Enclosed in the above:—
Lett. di Princ.e
5798 (lxii. 58).
|Eric XIV, King of Sweden, to [John Francis Commendone,] Legate.|
Acquainting him that he has hitherto been unable to arrange a meeting with him by reason of his own incertitude as to when he should start for England, but that, being now resolved to set sail with the first fair wind, he is prepared, if the legate is disposed to follow him to England, to give him audience there as soon as he is apprised of his arrival. In the meantime he sends him a safe-conduct.
24 August, 1561. Elfsborg. Latin. Orig. and Copy.
5798 (lxii. 58).
|100. John Francis Commendone, [Nuncio in Lower Germany] to [Charles] Borromeo, Cardinal [Archbishop of Milan]. (fn. 6) |
Summary of the aims and achievements of the Protestant Princes of Germany at and since the Second Congress of Herford.
Resolved, to raise an army for purposes of defence and offence against the Catholic Powers. Suggestion made by Count Schwarzenburg to the Elector [Augustus] of Saxony, that by means of the Elector's brother-in-law, the King [Frederic II] of Denmark, the Protestant Princes might secure themselves against the Council, and even put down the Catholics without overt action on their part by merely giving the King of Denmark a free hand, Denmark being no part of the Empire, and the King not bound by the last Peace. This suggestion being welcomed by the Elector in his own interest, the King and Count met at Segeberg in Holstein, the upshot of their deliberations, which occupied several days, being as follows: 1. The King to send an ambassador to Moscovy to treat for peaceable possession by the King's brother [Magnus] of Osilia [Ösel] and Curonia [Courland] in Livonia, not merely in his brother's interest, but mainly to provide the King with another base from which to attack Sweden. An ambassador was sent, but has not yet returned. 2. Overtures to be made for a match between the King and the sister of the Duke of Lorraine. This business was undertaken by Count Schwarzenburg himself, but without success, owing to the opposition of the Duchess dowager (fn. 7) . It is now understood that the King is bent on marrying the Queen of Scotland. 3. An army of about 3,000 horse and 32,000 foot to be raised and equipped. This has been done, and the commands have been distributed. I have seen the list, including even the names of the captains. 4. Ways to be devised for conciliating many princes and cities of Germany and the Preachers. This is said to have been the reason of my exclusion from Denmark, the King, on the discovery of my legation, being advised to declare himself openly as the protector of their Gospel and the foe of the Apostolic See. 5. To find a way of bringing many Protestant Princes together so as to settle the business in concert with them, to which end it was first proposed that the King should be present at the wedding of the daughter of his uncle Count Antony of Oldenburg, but as the Princes would not accept the invitation, they adjourned the business until the nuptials of the King's sister with the Duke of Lüneburg. Meanwhile Count Schwarzenburg arranged with the help of the King of Denmark's mother (fn. 8) , a match, between the Prince of Orange and the only daughter of Duke Maurice, Elector of Saxony, reckoning that most of the Protestant Princes, being closely allied in blood with the House of Saxony, must needs be present at the wedding. Thereby, however, he gave great offence to the Landgrave of Hesse, between whose house and that of Nassau there is a feud of long standing. The Landgrave refused to go to Leipzig, and his example was followed by the Elector Palatine, Duke Wolf[g]ang, [of Zweibrücken,] the Duke of Württemberg and other Princes. Indeed I understand that in opposition to Count Schwarzenburg and the King of Denmark the Landgrave has proposed to employ the Protestant forces in aid of Livonia, and, taking advantage of the distracted state of Turkey, of Hungary also; and it is said that some of the Princes of the Rhineland and Upper Germany are of the same mind. The King of Denmark therefore deemed it inexpedient to go to Leipzig, the more so as the King of Sweden was arming: nay, he forthwith hastily returned to the frontier. Count Schwarzenburg, however, is still instant with him to concentrate himself upon Germany and make war as soon as possible, while others advise him not to let slip so good an opportunity of conquering Sweden, which done he would be the better able to conduct the German campaign; and betwixt these conflicting counsels he has not yet, as far as we know, made his choice. Nor is this unreasonable. For he will gain by waiting until he have tidings of the King of Sweden's arrival in England, and how he has fared with the Queen, and indeed until the nearer approach of winter may prevent his return with his forces; nor in the meanwhile is Denmark losing time, winter being the least inconvenient season in which to make the attack, since the frozen rivers and lakes are then most easily passed and the camp stores most easily conveyed. And as to German affairs, it is proper that the King should endeavour to appease the Landgrave [of Hesse] and the other Princes, both to prevent the complete frustration of the plans already formed, and also to conciliate the Franconian League, which otherwise might oppose him. Nor does this mean a long delay, but only to the end of the present month, by which time the King is to be at Zihel [Celle] in the Duchy of Lüneburg, where, I suppose, their resolution will be taken whether to act, or no, and how.
We now understand that from Leipzig many lords will go direct to Lüneburg, and that the Rhinegrave, i.e. Count of the Rhine, [John Philip von Dhaun, Count of Salm,] who for many years has been in the service of France, and is said to be now a dependant of the King of Navarre, is on his way from Leipzig to Denmark. Considering his dependence, it seems to me a matter worth pondering, that this Rhinegrave should go meddling with such matters, the more so as I understand there is here in Lübeck a secretary of the King of Navarre, who keeps very private. Some days ago two Frenchmen, finding the door of the house in which I reside open, entered and asked if I were there, and when I was to leave, and if I was to go to Denmark or no, and one of them added that they had come rather early; they then departed, saying they would return, but did not. I suspect that this secretary is awaiting here the arrival of the Rhinegrave from Leipzig, and that, besides that his duty to the King of Navarre requires him to maintain his incognito, the King of Denmark has something to do with his keeping so close, since that King, having, it is said, set his heart upon marrying the Queen of Scotland, a niece of the House of Guise, would be bound to dissemble as far as possible his friendship with the King of Navarre. I also suspect that the King of Navarre and the King of Denmark are plotting something against the Low Countries, though it will remain in suspense until Sweden is recovered. The policy attributed to the Landgrave [of Hesse], of defending Livonia and making war in Hungary, would be ineffective as regards Sweden, and perilous in Germany, as it might disturb the Council. It would be better to create a diversion in Denmark itself, a country subject to revolutions, and in which there are still partizans of King Christian and the exiles, who have some considerable influence. In this way the King might be baulked in both his enterprises, if the Duke of Lorraine were older and of more experience. He is a Prince of the Empire, and the only one whom the Pope has ignored in this legation to the Princes of the Empire. I know not if his Holiness would deem it expedient that I should visit him on my return by way of Flanders to Italy, in which case it would be well that I should be furnished with separate briefs for his mother, wife and sister.
4 September, 1561. Lübeck. Italian. Copy.
|101. [Sebastian Gualtieri,] Bishop of Viterbo, Nuncio in France to [Charles] Borromeo, Cardinal [Archbishop of Milan].|
The Edict (fn. 9) has been sent to Rouen, where, on its publication by the Catholics, the other party so insulted them that a fight ensued, in which injuries were sustained on both sides.
4 September, 1561. [Saint Cloud.] Decipher. Italian.
5798 (lxii. 58).
|102. John Francis Commendone, [Nuncio in Lower Germany] to the Same.|
“I learn from the Court of Denmark that the King has got a suspicion that the match with the Queen of Scotland, which he designs for himself, is to be concluded with one of the sons of his Imperial Majesty, in regard to which, I would respectfully suggest to you that perchance it would be most expedient to hinder the one and promote the other, for that besides the kingdom of Scotland the Queen of that country has perhaps a better title to the kingdom of England than Queen Elizabeth herself, so that, in the event of the match with the King of Denmark coming about, not only would Scotland be quite lost to the Catholic Church, but some day one of her bitterest enemies might gain a signal accession of strength. On the other hand, if the match were made with a son of the Emperor, not only would Scotland be retained by the Church, but there would be hope of yet more, Queen Elizabeth being in ill odour with the grandees by reason of the extraordinary favours conferred on Milord Robert [Dudley]; and the people beyond the Trent [?] being all still Catholics, as also in Ireland, the condition of which island I learned from Irishmen in Flanders to be such that, were there such a King in Scotland, a great revulsion might be expected to the service of God; and were there no other result either in Ireland or in England, there would at least be a curb set upon Queen Elizabeth, that she should no longer coerce her people into heresy, and these Princes would be deprived of much of the boldness and confidence which they owe to the adhesion of so great a realm, which would be of no little importance in regard to French and Danish affairs alike. Nor only so: the Pope might, if occasion should serve, confer upon such a King of Scotland the investiture of Ireland, which fief the present Queen of England has forfeited, whereby the Pope would maintain his feudal overlordship; and in like manner, should occasion serve, he might grant the King the investiture of England itself, thus recovering the rights acquired by the Apostolic See in the times of Kings John and Henry II, doing God great service, and no less augmenting the power of the Apostolic See, as well in temporals as in spirituals, succouring three realms and curing in great measure the disorders and disquietude of Germany, whence as from the prime and original root of the present poison the other provinces have derived and still derive their infection.”
5 September, 1561. [Lübeck.] Italian. Copy. (fn. 10)
5798 (lxii. 58).
|103. John Francis Commendone, [Nuncio in Lower Germany] to [Charles] Borromeo, Cardinal [Archbishop of Milan].|
… “I understand that the consul of the King of Sweden in England writes that a Swedish ship had arrived at Margate, in England, and the master reported that on 28 August the King put out from the port of Vestrogosia [West Gothland], and on the 5th instant encountered a great tempest, whereby the ships were parted one from another, and that it was supposed that the wind had carried them to Norway, and that with the first fair weather they would make the passage to England.
“By other letters from London we learn that the Earl of Hertford, who married Mylady Catherine [Grey], that was afterwards taken and clapt in the Tower, returned of his own accord from France to England, and forthwith was made prisoner, and that it is thought his life is in peril, as also his wife's; which perchance may give occasion for more consideration of what I wrote on the 4th [sic, read 5th] touching the Queen of Scotland, because this Mylady Catherine is of the house of Suffolk, and stands next to the Queen of Scotland in succession to the throne.”
26 September, 1561. Antwerp. Italian. Copy. (fn. 11)
5798 (lxii. 58).
|104. John Francis Commendone, [Nuncio in Lower Germany] to [Hercules Gonzaga,] Cardinal of Mantua.|
…“As to the King of Sweden's resolve I wrote to you and to Mgr. Borromeo on the 1st instant, and sent a copy of the King's letter. Before my departure from Lübeck it was known that he had quitted Nilos. (fn. 12)
“Here I have found intelligence from England of his setting sail on 28 Aug., and how that on the 5th instant he met with a great tempest, so that he was compelled to make for Norway with the greater part of his ships. One ship only that served as the King's escort arrived at Margate, in England, on the 14th, and it is from the master of that ship that we have this advice. The fair weather that has followed gives his people hope that in a few days' time the King will arrive with the rest of the fleet. …
“I have little else to write, save that the Earl of Harfort, who married Mylady Catherine, sister of the late Mylady Joan [Grey], that was proclaimed Queen of England in opposition to Queen Mary, has returned from France to England, and has forthwith been put in prison, and that both the Countess's own life and her husband's are in jeopardy.”
27 September, 1561. Antwerp. Italian. Copy.
|105. The Same to the Same.|
“Last week I wrote you two letters from Antwerp, and sent you a duplicate of that of the 1st of September from Lübeck with the King of Sweden's answer. Since then we have no certain intelligence as to the King's journey. It was said that he had disembarked at Emden in Friesland, but this is not verified. A few days ago a gentleman came here to crave of Madam [Margaret of Austria] a safe-conduct for the King and 500 horse, but he is the bearer of two letters dated two months before the King embarked.
“We have advices from London of the 28th of last month, but to what I wrote in my last letter but one from Antwerp they add nothing more than that the Swedish ships that reached England had put out again for Norway in search of the King, and to join the other ships.
“I am informed by some English Catholic gentlemen whom I knew some years ago in England that their Queen's ambassador resident in France had written, à propos of the first proceedings of the Assembly, that the King of Navarre was compelled for reasons of policy to make a show of favouring the Catholics, but that not only he but many other Princes were of another mind. This ambassador is that Throgmorton who, in the last Scottish war, being apprised by the Prince of Condé of the secret designs of France against England, went post-haste to inform the Queen, and put Berwick, where the French designed to land, in a state of defence. From the same source I understand that the Queen proposes to send some one privily to Trent to report to her what goes on there, and that in Antwerp there was an Englishman named William Bregandin (sic) (fn. 13) who had been sent by the Queen to Leipzig and Denmark, and was then on his way from Hesse to Breda, the residence of the Prince of Orange, with a new commission to discover the position taken by the Prince's consort, the Duchess of Saxony, in regard to religion. The Prince and his lady were expected there yesterday. They travelled by way of Franconia, in order that they might pass through Hesse, and make their peace with the Landgrave; but it is said that the Landgrave would see neither of them.”
5 Oct., 1561. Brussels. Italian. Copy. (fn. 14)
5798 (lxii. 58).
ff. 122, 125.
|106. John Francis Commendone, [Nuncio in Lower Germany] to [Charles] Borromeo Cardinal [Archbishop of Milan].|
“The latest letters from England bring no sure intelligence as to the King of Sweden. They report only the arrival of another of his ships and a rumour that, not being able to endure the sea, he had returned to his kingdom, and had sent to crave a passport of the King of Denmark to make the journey by land, having already in like manner procured a passport from Madam [Margaret of Austria] for these countries. I am very anxiously expecting your commands in regard to the King of Sweden's resolve to invite me to England. …
“In the decree of the Queen of England touching the admission of Mgr. Martinengo is a clause, of which I send a copy, in order that, in case the King of Sweden should obtain the safe-conduct for me, which, however, I do not expect, and this safe-conduct should be accompanied with the like impertinent demands, I may know expressly what answer I ought to make, so as to comply with the will of His Holiness.”
12 Oct., 1561. Brussels. Italian. Copy.
|107. The Same to [Hercules Gonzaga,] Cardinal of Mantua.|
TO the same effect as the preceding letter in regard to the King of Sweden.
12 Oct., 1561. Brussels. Italian. Copy.
|108. David Wolf, S.J., to [John,] Cardinal Moroni.|
“A few days ago I despatched by Mr. William Neon a letter for you on the condition of the Irish church in this part of Munster; and now, as the bearer of this letter, Mr. Donald Machgonigayll, has accompanied me in all my travels in Ireland, I have deemed it expedient to authorise him to give you account of all matters by word of mouth, as he is a judicious person and well acquainted with the country.
“In Connaught we have together seen, but not visited, the Archbishop of Tuam and the Bishop of Clonfert, worthy men according to the standard of the world. Both are adherents of of the Queen, as, I have already informed you, are all the rest in Munster. This Archbishop of Tuam, Christopher Botteghin by name, got his archbishopric, according to common report, by force of arms and the royal authority. He would not tell me how he got it, save that by means of Cardinal Pole a composition was made between him and one Arthur O'Frehir, the true and lawful archbishop, who is still living and was ousted from the see by the said Christopher, who holds also the sees of Kilmacduagh, Enaghdune and Mayo, which sees, he says, were many years ago united with that of Tuam, which others deny, alleging that it was he himself by means of the royal authority that first united Kilmacduagh and the other sees with the archbishopric. He told me that he had the archbishopric by Arthur's resignation; and indeed if that were accepted by the Supreme Pontiff, I should deem him much fitter for the place than Arthur, because he is a man that knows how to govern, and is in good repute with the magnates of the country. The church has been for three centuries garrisoned as a fortress, Mass and other divine offices utterly disused. He has now recovered it by force and at great personal risk, and rededicated it to its proper uses; and where of yore there were but horses and other beasts now Mass is sung and said, and he himself is daily in the choir, though in Tuam there are not more than twenty or thirty houses. He is in good repute with all, even with his enemies, the former possessors of the church.
“Malachias O'Moloney, canon of Kilmacduagh, has given false dispensations, as you will see by the copy which I send, and has inculpated Christopher in the practice, saying that he had seen and approved the rescript; but Christopher has sworn in my presence upon the Gospel that he never saw or approved any such Apostolic rescript; and I find many reasons for holding that he would not have seen it, though it had been a true Apostolic rescript; and this Malachias I hold to be a forger of Apostolic letters; nor has he dared to present himself before the archbishop when summoned. Therefore I desire to know how we should deal with this Malachias, rebel as he is, and unable to produce any original rescript, to which we can give credit.
“Bernard O'Huyghin, Bishop of Elphin, has resigned his see to a Dominican, Andrew [O']Crean, prior of Slighiach, a devout man enough, and of good repute, more especially with the seculars, by reason rather of his virtuous life and kindliness than of his doctrine. Bernard O'Huyghin has the character of a worthy and devout man, but he was not acceptable to the people, and having by reason of their ill will lost great part of his temporalities, he has selected this Andrew, who is much in the good graces of all, to recover what he has lost. Andrew is now by order of his Vicar Provincial on his way to Rome to get the see upon Bernard's resignation; and for that purpose he craved a testimonial from me, which, though I know little of him personally, I gave him because of the good repute in which he is held throughout the country. He is accompanied by one Owen or Eugene O'Hart, also a Dominican, a great preacher and a man of good life, and zealous for the honour of God. Owen has been for eight years or thereabouts in Paris; and I deem (though he goes not for that purpose or gives it a thought) that he would make a good bishop; and in the event (which is common to all) of the said Andrew's death, he might well replace him, notwithstanding that the resignation was not made in his name. And assuming the said Andrew to live and be made Bishop of Elphin, Eugene might be made Bishop of Achonry, which see is now void by the death of the Dominican Cormac O'Coyn, of good memory. The church of Achonry is at present garrisoned as a fortress and entirely secularized; and I think that by the influence of Eugene's goodness seconded by his friends it might be restored to its proper uses as the church of Tuam has been by Archbishop Christopher.
“The bearer of this letter, Donald Magonigail, was my companion in Connaught, and is as able as any man in Ireland to give account of all matters. I send him for two reasons: (1) that he may give account of myself and the prelates, (2) because the death of the Bishop of Raphoe creates a vacancy which none can fill better than he. He is learned, as learning goes in this country, has the good will of everybody, and was in Rome last year.
“Fourteen persons have left Ireland for Rome without letters from me; one of them is the Dean of Raphoe, his purpose being to solicit that bishopric. He is, as I am informed by persons worthy of credit, a very rude, coarse man, fitter to be a soldier than a churchman, and his appointment to the see would be the very ruin of that church. And being informed that for going to Rome he needed a testimonial from me, he said that he would leave my testimonial out of account, and so he went. Believe him not if he say that he knew not of my visit to Ireland, for there is no one either heretic or Catholic that knows it not, seeing that I caused it to be published in every part of the country. The ship is now ready to sail; so I will say no more save to recommend to you these three persons, as also to Mr. William Neon whom I have already despatched.”
12 Oct., 1561. Limerick. Italian.
|109. David Wolf, S.J., to [John,] Cardinal Moroni.|
Introducing the priest Donat Magongail and two others, to wit, Andrew O'Creayn and Owen O'Hart. The Cardinal is requested to require of Magongail, in virtute obedientiae, information as to the conduct of Donat [O'Taige], Archbishop of Armagh, and the rest of the Irish prelates.
13 Oct., 1561. Kylchuan [Kilquane]. Italian.
5798 (lxii. 58).
|110. John Francis Commendone, [Nuncio in Lower Germany] to [Hercules Gonzaga,] Cardinal of Mantua.|
“For the advices you send me I return as usual infinite thanks, more especially for those which relate to the progress of the Council; and glad indeed I am to know that Mgr. of St. Asaph is there, having lately heard that the Queen of England has asked if he were at Trent. Doubtless it will vex her not a little that a prelate of her kingdom should be at the Council, the more so as this prelate is a person of exemplary life and of other good qualities, and most steadfast in his adhesion to the Catholic religion.
“Shortly before my return to Flanders the Queen's Council published the decree made touching the admission of Mgr. Martinengo, and it is said that they have had it printed. They are not content with devising and administering such a rebuff, upon which they mightily plume themselves, but it would seem that many of these princes and counsellors vie with one another, who may show himself the most brutal and the most hostile to the truth and the Apostolic See. Nevertheless I would fain hope ut etiam mala cooperentur in bonum.”
18 Oct., 1561. Brussels. Italian. Copy.
|111. The Same to the Same.|
… “I have intelligence from Germany that the King of Denmark has come to Celle in the Duchy of Lüneburg, as I sent you word from Lübeck that he designed to do. Neither here nor in England is there any fear of the King of Sweden's not coming, or that on that score an outcry can fail to be raised against the Queen's Mylord Robert [Dudley], whose ill odour with the grandees of the realm grows daily more apparent. She is now particularly embarrassed by Mylady Catherine of Suffolk's accouchement, it being understood that many gentlemen were cognizant of the marriage, (fn. 15) among others, it is said, Cecil, though he is now seeking a reconciliation with the said Mylord Robert. Already the Queen is bent on having the child declared a bastard by Parliament. She has also had it baptised secretly and by a lady, dispensing, though there was no need, with the offices of a priest. And indeed it is not incongruous that in a country where the Pontificate is held by a lady, the sacraments should also be administered by women. The Queen has also—so I am informed by Mgr. de Granvelle—given fresh orders for strengthening the defences of the Scottish border, being apprehensive lest the Queen of Scotland should marry. By advices from London received yesterday it appears that the Queen was then indisposed, that the Irish will allow no innovation in religion, and that they defend themselves with spirit.”
19 Oct., 1561. Brussels. Italian. Copy.
5798 (lxii. 58).
|112. John Francis Commendone, [Nuncio in Lower Germany] to [Charles] Borromeo, Cardinal [Archbishop of Milan].|
“I hope before the end of this month to have an answer from you to my letter of 1 Sept. from Lübeck, and therewith the Pope's commission in regard to the King of Sweden, of whom there is still no news; rather it begins to be doubted whether he will come at all this winter. Of this we must be certified in the course of a few days by the recall or other order that he must needs give to his ships, which, with his agents and his other belongings, have reached England. The Queen, I understand, fears that he will come, since he has here craved a passport of Madam [of Austria]; and she would gladly conclude as soon as possible the match with her Mylord Robert [Dudley], if she could do so with the approval, or at least without the opposition, of the grandees of the realm. She suspects that the presence of the King may give occasion for some agitation for Robert's exclusion, and she is particularly embarrassed by the accouchement of Mylady Catherine of Suffolk, having discovered that she has many supporters, among them, it is said, even Cecil, the Queen's first secretary, who governs all the state. However, he is seeking a reconciliation with the said Robert, while the Queen is taking steps to have Mylady Catherine's son declared a bastard by Parliament, and has caused him to be baptised secretly and by a woman, dispensing with the offices of a priest—in such esteem are the sacraments there held—and indeed it is no wonder that, where a lady holds the Pontificate, ladies should also administer the sacraments. The Queen has also, in dread of the Queen of Scotland remarrying, as I am informed by Mgr. de Granvelle, given orders for strengthening the defences of the Scottish border; and the advices from London of the 11th instant are to the effect that the Irish were very steadfast in their religion and were making a spirited resistance. I have now news from Germany that the King of Denmark has gone to Celle, whither I wrote you from Lübeck that he was to go at the end of last month.”
20 Oct., 1561. Brussels. Italian. Copy. (fn. 16)
|113. [Charles] Borromeo, Cardinal [Archbishop of Milan] to [John Francis] Commendone, Nuncio in Antwerp.|
Conveying the Pope's approval of his diligence in reporting current events, and extolling the penetration and sagacity evinced in his comments upon them.
“As to the letter of the King of Sweden, his Holiness after mature consideration is disposed to think that he has little inclination to listen to you. You should therefore not run after him, unless with the absolute certitude of turning your journey to England to account, not only with the King, but also with the Queen of England, which seems impossible: and so, if on the receipt of this letter, you are not superabundantly assured in regard to this matter, his Holiness bids you tarry no longer in expectation, but return at once towards Italy. Of course, were it possible to believe that you could do any good, there is nothing his Holiness would have more at heart than this; but considering how the King has put you off, and the form and circumstances in which he wrote you the letter, we can aver pretty positively that he is minded to carry you thither rather in triumph, and by way of bringing discredit upon this Holy See, than for any other reason. It is therefore without doubt the safer course that you return hitherward.
“The briefs that you crave for Lorraine are sent herewith, as also copies of them, that you may see the contents. You will therefore not fail to visit that Prince, who in any case is not far out of your way, and you will do your office by him in all that concerns this matter of the Council.
“His Holiness bids you return by way of Trent, and tarry there, reporting your arrival, nor depart thence until you receive fresh orders from here: this because his Holiness may perhaps be minded to avail himself of your services in some other matters.”
25 Oct., 1561. Rome. Italian.
798 (lxii. 58).
|114. John Francis Commendone, [Nuncio in Lower Germany] to [Charles] Borromeo, Cardinal [Archbishop of Milan].|
“From merchants, and by the report of a captain from Denmark, we gather that the King of Sweden has got his passport from the King of Denmark, and made ready to travel by land. This is borne out by advices from England of the 18th inst., to the effect that on the 15th another of the King of Denmark's ships arrived there with intelligence that he would shortly begin the journey.
“M. Gaspar received yesterday a letter from the Emperor dated Prague, 28 Sept., which contains a clause of which I send you a copy.
“Our news as to the Queen of England is that by means of Throgmorton, her ambassador in France, she stirs up and foments to the best of her power the prevalent turmoil, and even offers to send some English across to the aid of the heretics; and perchance her reason for strengthening the defences of the Scottish border is that in the event of such an expedition she may be able to repel an attack by the Queen of Scotland, who is not only a Catholic but a niece of the House of Guise. Her uncle the Grand Prior of France and some other French lords were expected at London.”
Decipher.—“Mgr. de Granvelle has said that, should the Prince of Condé enter, as it is reported he will, upon his command on this frontier, he fears that war may break out between these States and France, and I think that in this regard he is also apprehensive of some move on the part of the Queen of England and Germany.
“From a letter of his Imperial Majesty to Gaspar Schenich, dated Prague, 28 Sept. ‘Whereas among other matters of which you write you ask whether you are to accompany the nuncio of the Apostolic See to England, We, seeing that you have already completed the greater part of the journey with the said nuncio, graciously command and enjoin you to undertake this further duty and attend him even to the end of that journey and legation.’”
26 Oct., 1561. Brussels. Italian. Copy. (fn. 17)
5798 (lxii. 58).
|115. John Francis Commendone, [Nuncio in Lower Germany] to [Hercules Gonzaga,] Cardinal of Mantua.|
… “I am here in suspense and continual expectation of letters from Mgr. Borromeo and of certain intelligence as to the coming of the King of Sweden. Last week another of his ships reached England with goods, money and men, and they say that he is soon to follow, but without specifying whether he will come by sea or by land. The Queen, they say, is much inclined to think he may come, and is ill at ease at the prospect. Here too we have a captain come from the King of Denmark, who affirms, by what I learn, that the King of Sweden had already got the passport for Denmark, and that he was to travel by land towards these countries.
“You will already have heard what happened this month at Paris, when the heretics on their return from one of their preachments outside the walls essayed to force one of the city gates, and to occupy a church within the walls, and how from stone-throwing it came to a hand-to-hand combat, and being repulsed they threatened to possess themselves of the church of Notre Dame; whereupon the Provost and the magistrates of the city informed the Queen that in that event they would not be able to restrain the people, but that there must needs ensue some great tumult. And now not in Paris alone but throughout France we have reason to expect similar disturbances: already in many places they are turning the brethren out of the monasteries, and despoiling the abbeys and the houses of the bishops, following, as it were, in the footsteps of the heretics of Bohemia. Daily even in Paris their numbers increase, and within earshot of the legate himself they make bold, as I am informed by Mgr. de Granvelle, to sing their hymns and preach their doctrines.
“Throgmorton, the English ambassador, of whom I wrote to you, is, as in other respects a very bad minister, so also in this, that he foments and stirs up the heretics; and therefore I suspect that the reason why his Queen has recently set about strengthening the defences of the Scottish border is that she may be able at her ease, should occasion serve, to send troops into France with the less apprehension of a diversion on the side of Scotland.”
26 Oct., 1561. Brussels. Italian. Copy.
|116. [Charles] Borromeo, Cardinal [Archbishop of Milan] to [John Francis] Commendone, Nuncio [in Lower Germany].|
Recapitulating his letter of the 25th Oct., by way of answer to Commendone's letter of the 12th Oct., and enclosing a Memorial submitted to the Pope by the Cardinal of Augsburg, “in accordance with which his Holiness bids you do as you shall think fit, so, however, that you lose not much time, and go not much out of your way.”
Enclosing no other letters, as in regard to all matters Commendone is to use his discretion.
1 Nov., 1561. Rome. Italian.
5798 (lxii. 58).
|117. John Francis Commendone, [Nuncio in Lower Germany] to [Charles] Borromeo, Cardinal [Archbishop of Milan].|
… “The day before yesterday there arrived here a German gentleman from Sweden who at the beginning of September was in Elfsborg, where the King, being driven back for the third time by the contrary wind, disembarked. He reports that the King, conversing with him about this journey, told him that he was minded to send another envoy to the Queen of England, to wit, John Hubert (Uberti), an Englishman, who had been for some months in Sweden, and that he, the German, having taken leave of the King, saw this Englishman on his way to England as he was passing through Lübeck on 9 October. The King of Sweden had already got his passport from the King of Denmark, but for a smaller retinue than he had named, and, by what the gentleman says he has heard, it is expected in Denmark that there will be war between the two kingdoms.
“From England we have intelligence that the Queen of Scotland continues to have Mass celebrated, and that the number of the lords that attend it grows daily. The principal cause of the departure of the Duke of Sciatelerau [Châtelherault] and his son the Earl of Arran from that Court was a particular dispute which they have with the Bastard of Scotland, and not a question of religion. The Queen has not yet signed the capitulations with England, alleging that she must first know the sense of the country. Very wroth in consequence is the Queen of England with Throgmorton, her ambassador in France, who before the departure of the Queen of Scotland from France treated the business as settled; which assurance the Queen of England now says was the reason why she did not prevent the Queen of Scotland's passage to her country, as she pretends she might have done; and she is minded to recall Throgmorton and replace him by another ambassador who is deemed a yet worse and more obstinate heretic than he.”
9 Nov., 1561. Brussels. Italian. Copy. (fn. 18)
5798 (lxii. 58).
|118. John Francis Commendone, [Nuncio in Lower Germany] to [Hercules Gonzaga,] Cardinal of Mantua.|
… To the same effect as the preceding letter. 9 Nov., 1561. Brussels. Italian. Copy.
1039. f. 309d.
|119. News Letter.|
“Abbot Martinengo has arrived here from England, his mission having proved quite fruitless.”
15 Nov., 1561. Rome. Italian. Copy.
5798 (lxii. 58).
|120. John Francis Commendone, [Nuncio in Lower Germany] to [Charles] Borromeo, Cardinal [Archbishop of Milan].|
“Yesterday, being the 15th inst., I received your letter of the 25th October and therewith the three briefs for Lorraine and the commission for my return, pursuant to which I will set forth as soon as may be, and will advise you as soon as I arrive at Trent, where I will remain as long as you are pleased to require my presence there. Verily in regard to this King of Sweden the Pope has indulged his fatherly charity enough, and in any event his Holiness' decision that I am to return is, as usual, most wise, for if the King should not come, as most people expect, I should be here to no purpose, and should he come, there can be no doubt whatever of the result of a negotiation with one who, as I wrote you last August, goes to England to win the favour of a Queen whose feeling towards the Apostolic See is well known not only to the King himself but to all the world.”
16 Nov., 1561. Brussels. Italian. Copy.
|121. Charles Borromeo, Cardinal [Archbishop of Milan], to [John Francis] Commendone, Nuncio in Lower Germany.|
… “To-morrow Cardinal Simonetta will depart for Trent, where, upon his arrival, the Mass of the Holy Spirit will be celebrated, which done, the Council will forthwith enter upon its work for the glory of God, his Holiness being minded that this holy celebration should be no longer deferred, because abundance of time and opportunity has already been allowed to everyone to make his appearance. His Holiness has created Cardinal d'Altaemps fifth legate in place of Cardinal du Puy, who is unable to be present; and it was his Holiness' original intention to send five legates; besides which Cardinal d'Altaemps, being his Holiness' nephew, acceptable to the German nation, and closely allied and most acceptable to the Madruccio family, cannot but be of great service in the conduct of the business.”
19 Nov., 1561. Delayed until the 26th. Rome. Italian.
cxxxiii. f. 18.
|122. [Prospero Publicola Santacroce, Bishop of Chissamos], Nuncio in France to [Charles] Borromeo, Cardinal [Archbishop of Milan].|
“I wrote to you on the 15th instant, sending the letters in duplicate. Two days later there arrived at this Court from Scotland the Grand Prior of France and M. Danville, son of the Constable, with intelligence that the Queen of Scotland is still faithful to the Catholic religion, and is doing the best she can to improve the state of the kingdom. In particular it is reported that, during the procession to Mass one day, the candles having been twice or thrice extinguished by some of the heretics, the Queen, on entering her chapel, being apprised thereof, called one of the Barons, the greatest and most Lutheran of all that were there, and bade him go himself and light the candles and bear them to the altar, and he instantly obeyed.
“It is said, moreover, that in one place three newly elected burgomasters having of a sudden issued a proclamation banishing thence all priests, the Queen summoned the burgomasters, threatened to have them hanged, and banished them her kingdom. In this way she daily gains authority and power to restore the ancient religion in the realm.”
24 Nov., 1561. Poissi. Italian. Copy. (fn. 19)
5798 (lxii. 58).
|123. John Francis Commendone, [Nuncio in Lower Germany] to [Charles] Borromeo, Cardinal [Archbishop of Milan].|
“In my letter of 4 Sept. I wrote you of the negotiation pending between the King of Navarre and the King of Denmark, and particularly that I suspected them of some design against these, his Catholic Majesty's countries; but that it seemed more likely that the King of Denmark would not let slip the opportunity of recovering Sweden afforded by the King of Sweden's absence from his kingdom. This opportunity he has now lost by the King of Sweden's return, and yet it seems that the negotiation with Navarre continues. The Rhinegrave (a dependant, as I said, of the House of Vendôme) is still in Denmark, though the Lüneburg wedding, which was his pretext for tarrying with the King of Denmark, is solemnized. There is likewise a suspicion that the Queen of England has a secret understanding with both these kings, and there is no doubt that if on the one hand England and France were to take the field against these countries, and on the other hand the King of Denmark were to invade Friesland, which is almost on our borders, we should have cause enough for apprehension, the more so as the invaders would make religion their pretext among these peoples, already in great measure corrupted.
“When I first came into Germany I found suspicion and fear prevalent among the churchmen, and their alarm has since then steadily increased, more especially since the recent occurrences in France, inasmuch as it is no longer the League of Protestants alone that they dread, but another and greater League consisting of the said Protestants and England, Denmark and the King of Navarre.
“Enclosed in the said letter of the 4th Sept. there was a separate sheet (fn. 20) touching the Queen of Scotland. We have since received intelligence that the principal lords in that kingdom consent to her marrying a foreigner, not indeed that this has been proposed or resolved in public Council, but that the mind of the majority has been otherwise ascertained. Advices from France are now to hand, to the effect that the Queen Mother was to send an ambassador to Scotland, which may perhaps raise a suspicion that the King of Navarre has contrived this in order to gratify the King of Denmark with the means of negotiating his marriage with the Queen of Scotland. Likewise the arrival at Brussels of M. de Vademon (sic), (fn. 21) of Lorraine, suggests that the Guises, the said Queen's uncles, have some thought of giving her to the Prince of Spain; but as yet nothing certain is known here. Perchance the Guises are watching the course of affairs in France, to turn the match to good account in due time, but the delay is attended with the risk, that it may not be in their power by and by to do as they would, and as religion requires, more especially if it be true that in Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland, the heretics have begun preaching again in the Queen's despite, as an English Catholic gentleman tells me he has tidings. I would fain hope it be not true, as the Catholic King's ambassador in England (fn. 22) reports nothing of the kind, nay, writes that in Scotland many, following the Queen's example, give proof of their Catholicism, and that the Queen maintains her authority well, and has already compelled the Duke of Sciatelerau [Châtelherault] to restore a fortress that was in his hands, the said Duke being one of the leaders of the heretics. However, be the news as to the Edinburgh preachers true or false, it would be very expedient that the Queen should speedily make up her mind to marry some one that could extirpate heresy from the kingdom, and lend aid to the neighbouring kingdoms, whereas on the contrary, the Queen of England is endeavouring to corrupt Scotland, and has already accomplished so much that, despite the natural and perpetual enmity between the Scots and the English, many Scots are better affected to the crown of England than to that of Scotland. The Bastard of Scotland, (fn. 23) a churchman, greatly favours the heretics, being desirous to appropriate the benefices that he possesses, and usurp others, and marry. He does much harm to religion and would do yet more were he but at one with the Duke of Châtelherault. However, the heretics increase in numbers so much that the Catholics fear not merely the loss of the true religion but the gain by the English of a footing in Scotland, and already the Queen has been expressly warned thereof by a memorial presented to her by one of the Catholic lords [Huntly].”
26 Nov., 1561. Louvain. Italian. Copy. (fn. 24)
5798 (lxii. 58).
|124. John Francis Commendone, [Nuncio in Lower Germany] to [Charles] Borromeo, Cardinal [Arcbishop of Milan].|
… “We have tidings of the arrival in England, separately but on the same day, of M. [Paul] de Foix, representing the Queen Mother of France, and M. di Moretta, representing the Duke of Savoy: both bound, likewise separately, for Scotland. We also learn that from the English university of Oxford six scholars have been brought to London by reason of the discovery of a crucifix in one of their rooms, that they bore the examination with firmness, and showed themselves ready not only to defend the Catholic religion in disputation, but also to brave death in witness thereof. God grant them constancy, and to the rest light. I have seen not a few of these Englishmen in Louvain, and still they come daily, some with passports, and others that have made their escape by stealth and in complete destitution: all alike have besought me to crave for them his Holiness' benediction. Above all the mother of the Countess of Feria (fn. 25) humbly kisses his Holiness' feet for the many favours that he has shown her. With her was a gentlewoman lately come from England, who at the mere mention of his Holiness' name bowed herself to the ground in tears and boundless devotion. Verily it excites one's compassion to the uttermost to see these poor English so afflicted, and nevertheless with that compassion there mingles no less consolation, in that one finds so many servants of God so well established in His grace, and in obedience to the Apostolic See, that, regardless alike of profit and penalty they have ever refused to make oath to the Queen and bow the knee before Baal.
“The King of Sweden's agent at the English Court has at last got an answer as to the match, to the effect that the Queen is not at present disposed to marry, but that she might alter her mind. So the said agent has begun selling his goods and horses, and will soon depart, some say to France, others to Scotland, to propose a match with the other Queen.”
30 Nov., 1561. Brussels. Italian. Copy.
|125. The Same to [Hercules Gonzaga,] Cardinal of Mantua.|
To the same effect as the preceding letter. 30 Nov., 1561. Brussels. Italian. Copy. (fn. 26)
2125 (xxxi. 10).
|126. Pope Pius IV to Mary, Queen of Scotland.|
Congratulating her upon her return to Scotland, commending her conspicuous constancy in the Catholic faith, and exhorting her to persevere therein undeterred by any danger from protecting the Church and churchmen. Let her take for her model Mary, Queen of England, of pious memory, and she will receive all the support that the Pope and the Catholic Princes can render her, as well by the temporal as by the spiritual arm. From Nicolas Gaudan [Nicholas de Gouda] of Flanders, S.J., (fn. 27) she will receive the Pope's invitation to send envoys and bishops to the Œcumenical Council already assembled at Trent, with which she is earnestly entreated to comply without delay.
3 Dec., 1561. Rome. Latin. Copy. (fn. 28)
|127. Maurice Clenoch to [John,] Cardinal Moroni.|
A somewhat lengthy argument for intervention by the King of Spain to re-establish Catholicism in England by dethroning Elizabeth and setting in her place the Queen of Scots, whose title is represented as acknowledged on all hands and virtually admitted by Elizabeth herself when she designated her as her successor in the event of her death without issue. It is also alleged that the vast majority of Englishmen are utterly opposed to the innovations in religion, and not so patriotic but that they would reconcile themselves to foreign intervention in such a case.
6 Dec., 1561. Louvain. Latin.
2125 (xxxi. 10)
|128. Pope Pius IV to [John Hamilton,] Archbishop of St. Andrews.|
Apprising him of the mission of Nicholas de Gouda, S.J., who has full powers to declare to him as to the Queen the Pope's paternal mind. Exhorting him to persevere in the defence of the Catholic faith.
16 Dec., 1561. Rome. Latin. Copy.
|Ibid.||129. The Same to Nicholas de Gouda, S.J.|
Apprising him of his appointment as nuncio to the Queen of Scotland, enclosing the letter to the Queen and letters to bishops and some of the Queen's councillors, and referring him to Cardinal Amulio for further instructions, which he will receive by letter.
16 Dec., 1561. Rome. Latin. Copy.
ii. vol. 67.
|130. [Sir Richard Shelley, Prior of England,] to the Pope.|
Dilating with great prolixity on the ancient loyalty of England to the Catholic faith, denying that the nation at large is even now in sympathy with the policy of the Government, deprecating recourse to arms for the re-establishment of Catholicism in the country, and commending the communities of English Catholics settled at Louvain under Sir Francis Inghilfild [Englefield] and at Rome under [Thomas Goldwell,] Bishop of St. Asaph, to the Pope's especial patronage.
[1561. Rome. (fn. 29) ] Latin. Copy.
vol. 28. ff.
|131. Of the Manner in which Bishops and the Clergy at large have acquitted themselves on behalf of the Catholic Faith in England. (fn. 30) By Nicholas Sander.|
Containing: I. Encomia on the courage and constancy displayed by the Bishops on the accession of Queen Elizabeth, as exemplified in the sermons preached by the Bishops of Chester and Lichfield on the unity of the Church, the Holy Eucharist, and the primacy of the Roman Pontiff, the sermon preached by the Bishop of Winchester against Calvinism, and the personal appeal made by the Archbishop of York, as Chancellor, to the Queen to beware of meddling with the mysteries of religion.
II. Account of the Conference held in Westminster Abbey, March–April, 1559 (the Lord Keeper, Sir Nicholas Bacon, presiding), on religion, and in particular on the lawfulness of the use of an unknown tongue in the services of the church, the speech of Dr. Cole, Dean of St. Paul's, being reported at some length.
III. Account of the anointing of the Queen by the Bishop of Carlisle at her coronation.
IV. Report of the proceedings in the House of Lords when the four articles of faith sent thither by the Synod, to wit, transubstantiation, the sacrificial character of the Mass, the primacy of the Pope, and the exclusive authority of the clergy in matters spiritual were ruled out of order by the Lord Keeper.
V. Calendar of Sufferers for the Faith arranged under the following categories:—
i. Bishops understood to have died in prison.
1. John Christopherson, Bishop of Chichester. Died of a fever caught while attending Cardinal Pole's funeral, and not in prison, but is commemorated with those who died in prison because he lacked not the will so to testify for the faith.
2. [Owen] Oglethorpe, Bishop of Carlisle. Persisted in celebrating Mass with the elevation of the Host despite the Queen's prohibition in the royal chapel on Christmas day, and, notwithstanding that he officiated at the coronation, was deprived and committed to prison, where his death was hastened by remorse.
3. Ralph Bayne, Bishop of Lichfield. A quondam Professor of Hebrew at Paris, and author of learned commentaries on Solomon's Proverbs: released soon after deprivation, but only to die of retention of urine.
4. Cuthbert Tunstall, Bishop of Durham. Author of two excellent treatises; one, written in his youth, on Arithmetic, the other, the fruit of his old age, on the Real Presence. On his way to Westminster to attend Parliament, he preached against the Queen's interdict, and exhorted the people to be steadfast in the Catholic faith: brought into the presence chamber, he severely chid the Queen for taking religious matters into her own hands, and dispensing with the advice of bishops the like of whom were hardly to be found in Christendom. Admonished by the Senate to adopt the innovations in religion, he refused to accept the rule of faith from laymen and his juniors, and to take the oath of the Queen's primacy. Deprived and committed to the custody of the pseudo-bishop of Canterbury. Died in custody.
5. John White, Bishop of Winchester. A wit and a prolific epigrammatist, and author of a work entitled Διακοσιομαρτυριον, containing two hundred testimonies of the Fathers to the Real Presence. Imprisoned for the faith in the time of Edward VI, imprisoned and deprived by Queen Elizabeth, but released on bail, being assigned a fixed place of abode: died of a quartan fever.
ii. Deans understood to have died in prison.
1. [Thomas] Reynold, Dean of Exeter. Courting martyrdom, he distributed all his money and effects among his kinsfolk and the poor, and of his own accord came to London to confess the faith, be deprived and die in prison.
2. [Edmund] Stuard, Dean of Winchester: in his youth a confessor under Edward VI, showed no less constancy in old age, and forfeited an earthly to gain an heavenly dignity.
3. Seth Holland, Dean of Worcester. Had sojourned in Rome during the reign of Edward VI and was making ready to flee thither again, when he was caught and cast into prison, which proved to be his port of passage not to Rome but to Heaven.
4. Henry Cole, Dean of London: numbered among confessors (see infra) but in truth a martyr having died in prison. (fn. 31)
iii. Bishops yet in prison.
1. [Nicholas] Heath, Archbishop of York: Chancellor of the Realm at Queen Mary's death, and held in such veneration by Elizabeth that she professed reluctance to receive the seal from him; nor has any been since appointed to that office, but in place of the Chancellor there is a Keeper of the Seal, a new man with a new title.
To the Count of Feria asking what was to be done in such a state of affairs, “there is nought to do,” replied the archbishop, “but all to bear that God shall ordain.” He refused to crown the Queen, or take the oath of a woman's primacy, was deprived, and after passing a year and a few months now at large, now in bonds, being offered by the Queen and Senate liberty to reside where he would if he would promise to be present at church offices, he would on no account consent thereto for reasons which, he said, the Senate had often heard him set forth, which reasons might be summarized as follows: Whatever is contrary to the Catholic faith is heresy; whatever is contrary to the unity of the Church is schism. To the objection of the Visitors that he would be at liberty to take the communion or not as he pleased, he replied that in principle it is the same to be schismatic in one point as to be schismatic in all, and therefore he was minded to countenance none of their doings either by word or by deed, nor to suffer his back to be seen where none could read his heart. He craved, however, of the Queen, that he might be suffered to reside with a friend or be confined in the Tower: this lest he should be committed to the custody of some pseudo-bishop.
2. [Thomas] Thirlby, Bishop of Ely. Being on a legation in France (fn. 32) he surprised everybody by returning as soon as he learned how ill-affected the Queen was towards religion, and falsified the expectation of the Lutherans in every particular by not only making a complete defence of the faith in Parliament but also purging himself of his occasional apparent dissent from the Catholics, saying that he had resolved to beware of walking in ways unauthorized and to preserve the faith of Mother Church and his forefathers in all its purity. Offered his release from prison, if he would but consent to be present at public prayers, he refused, saying that he could not do so without dissembling.
3. [Edmund] Bonner, Bishop of London. During five consecutive years spent in the time of Edward VI in a most miserable dungeon, being by way of extortion threatened by the Warden with harsher treatment and in the first instance with the removal of his bed: “In that case” quoth this stoutest of confessors, “right well I know what to do.” “What?” quoth the Warden, expecting that he would say that he would complain to one of the Council. But he only said: “I will lie on the floor.” And so indeed he did, for the Warden removed his bed; nor did he ever make complaint to any of his ill treatment. And now, since the accession of Elizabeth, he has been unable to go out of doors save at the peril of his life, so much is he held in abhorrence by the Lutherans. Russell, Earl of Bedford, having, to display his wit, moved in the Senate a vote of thanks to Bonner for having so zealously laboured to advance the Queen's proposals, the Bishop turned the irony against him, saying: “I am not so greedy of praise as to be disposed to purchase it at the cost of infamy. But if any religion save the Catholic should be proposed in my diocese it will be not only without my knowledge, but against my will.
Whenever death shall be inflicted on any of the bishops, it is certain that this man is destined to be the first victim. He is therefore nighest to martyrdom.
4. [Thomas] Watson, Bishop of Lincoln. Has not his equal for knowledge of doctrine. Offered his liberty if he would be present at the offices, refused, saying that if his conscience would permit him to countenance them, it would also permit him to preach and communicate. Would give no further reason unless he were informed by whom he was to be judged.
5. [Cuthbert] Scott, Bishop of Chester. Inferior to none in constancy, the superior of all in eloquence; was never offered his release on any terms, presumably because, having heard what the others said, they deemed he would be of the same mind.
6. [Gilbert] Bourne, Bishop of Bath. Asked after deprivation whether he would purchase his liberty by attendance at public prayers, refused, since it might be taken to imply assent to the whole system of religion.
7. [Richard] Pate, Bishop of Worcester. Admonished after deprivation to attend public prayers, replied that his conscience would not suffer it. Bidden to give his reason: “I dare not,” quoth he, “lest I incur the penalties of the law that prohibits disputation.”
8. [James] Troblefield (Turberville), Bishop of Exeter. Upon deprivation refused to hear schismatic offices, alleging the gravest scruples of conscience.
9. [David] Pole, Bishop of Peterborough. Owing to protracted illness but lately deprived, nor asked to be present at the accursed schismatical hours of the heretics.
10. [Thomas] Goldwell, Bishop of St. Asaph. Deemed it his duty to present his faith and that of his brother bishops to the Apostolic See, the mother of all churches, which has never failed to welcome those that flee to her.
11. [Anthony Kitchin,] Bishop of Llandaff. Whether he is to be accounted a bishop doubted by Catholics, seeing that on the reconciliation of the kingdom under Mary he alone is said not to have sought confirmation from the Apostolic See. No wonder, therefore, if he yield to schism and consecrate pseudo-bishops outside the church; nor does his defection tarnish the glory of that holy company of bishops, inasmuch as he was never a lawful bishop. (fn. 33)
iv. Deans that are understood to be yet in prison.
1. Henry Cole, Dean of St. Paul's, London. Most learned in both laws, in philosophy and theology, and also so sparing of meat, drink and sleep that for felicity of private life there is none that can be set above him. Opposed the heretics on the first question, (fn. 34) and thereby incurred a heavy fine. As in the time of Edward VI so now, deprived of his benefices, he confesses the faith in its integrity.
2. John Boxall, Dean of Windsor Castle. As secretary to Queen Mary he won singular commendation by his blameless conduct. Nor was there any whom Queen Elizabeth had more gladly have attached to her interest, nor any in whom, where religion was concerned, she found a more redoubtable opponent. While he was very sick in the Tower the Senate offered him quarters with either of the pseudo-bishops of Canterbury or London, but he said that he preferred a prison, albeit he besought in vain that he might be removed to the house of some private person. The stipulation, that he should attend public prayers, he utterly rejected.
3. John Harpsfield, Dean of Norwich. Offered his liberty on payment of one hundred and twenty gold pieces by way of fine for disputations with heretics, he remained in prison. For being required by the Senate to find a surety for his good behaviour, he rightly refused, knowing well that the construction to be put on good behaviour rested with the schismatic Senate. He is a man worthy of all honour for the rectitude of his life and teaching.
v. Archdeacons who are understood to be yet in prison.
1. Nicholas Harpsfield, Archdeacon of Canterbury. Arrested as he was taking ship to quit the country, and cast into a most miserable dungeon, he defends the faith with signal constancy. He is learned in languages, in the civil law, and in theology.
2. [Alban] Langdale, Archdeacon of Chichester. Wrote against the heretic Ridley; and now defends by deprivation the same faith which he formerly championed with his pen.
3. [William] Chedsey, Archdeacon of Middlesex. Confuter of the Zwinglian Peter Martyr in public disputation at Oxford in the time of Edward VI, and now, as then, imprisoned.
4. [Edmund] Marvin, Archdeacon of Surrey. A confessor who has suffered the loss alike of honour and of liberty for the faith.
5. [Anthony] Draycott, Archdeacon of Lincoln (sic Huntingdon). Committed to custody at the beginning of the reign of Elizabeth for refusing to induct a heretic into a benefice.
6. [John] Fiiam (sic FitzJames), Archdeacon of Taunton. Left his house and fled; nor is it yet known where he is.
7. Three archdeacons are in divers parts over seas, obscure persons all.
vi. Canons and other eminent priests yet in prison.
1. Thomas Harding, Precentor (sic Treasurer) of Salisbury, and Canon of Winchester. Lapsed somewhat from the faith in the time of Edward VI, but was converted under Mary, and delivered a notable discourse at Oxford in which he explained how he had come to err, to wit, by reading for his improvement in Hebrew, certain German commentaries, and how it was the miracle wrought by God in effecting through Mary the restoration of the Catholic faith in England that caused his conversion. Asked by the Visitors, who fully counted on his compliance, to subscribe their dogmas. “I had rather,” quoth he, “lose my hand.” And so he remains in custody, a faithful confessor, and a man for blamelessness of life, for intellect, sound doctrine and tried faith, most worthy of all honour.
2. [John] Seton, D.D., Canon of Winchester. An excellent poet, a good preacher, and a venerable confessor.
3. [Robert] Hill, Canon of Winchester. A sweet preacher, late pastor at Calais, whence, on its capture by the enemy, he made his escape to England, there to be deprived by Elizabeth.
4. Thomas Hide, Canon of Winchester. Having preached after the interdict, nobly confesses the faith in prison.
5. [Thomas] Darbisher, Chancellor of the Bishop of London, and Canon of St. Paul's. Deprived of office and benefice for the faith.
6. Thomas Wood, (fn. 35) late chaplain to Queen Mary. Deprived, and while being deprived adjured the people to beware of schism.
7. Morgan [Philipps], B.D. Perceiving that he was to be deprived: “Well,” quoth he, “there are some that will pay dearly for this.” Whereby the Visitors supposed that there must be some plot to discover. At length, however, they found out that he only meant that he would resume his former practice of medicine.
8. Deprived and in custody: [John] Moroen, (sic Morwen, Bonner's secretary), [Clement] Burdett, and many other priests.
9. Other sufferers: [Thomas] Hopkins (sic Heskyns), the learned Chancellor of Salisbury; [Humphrey] Cratford, Canon of Wells; [William] Tresham, D.D., Canon of Christ Church, Oxford, as in the time of Edward VI, so now, an illustrious confessor.
10. [Thomas] Atkinson[, Fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford]. In custody for preaching in defiance of the Queen's interdict.
11. Dr. [John] Rambrige (sic Ramridge or Ramrich, Dean of Lichfield), and Olif, and many other priests lately committed to the Tower of London for saying Mass in defiance of the Queen's interdict and the authority of Parliament.
vii. Religious who have suffered for the faith.
1. [John de] Feckenham, Abbot of Westminster. Turned with all his monks out of his house he was committed to the Tower of London, where, being offered pardon and liberty, and that too without obligation to communicate, if he would but hear public prayers in church: “When I am of your congregation,” replied he, “I will come to your prayers.”
Following his example, all the Benedictine Order was ejected; nor would the Queen grant them leave to go overseas.
2. The Carthusians, under that eminent man Chase (sic Maurice Chauncey) have by the Queen's favour gone to Flanders.
3. The Franciscans have also gone overseas, and were singularly lucky in the passage; for, whereas it normally takes three or at the least two days to cross from London to Antwerp, they accomplished it in twenty-four hours, and that though hindered in the way.
4. The monks and nuns of the Order of St. Bridget, being turned out of their house, have been received into that of another order in Flanders.
5. The nuns of the Order of St. Dominic, under the excellent Dominican Father Richard, have gone overseas, though some of them were eighty years old, among whom is the sister of the venerable Bishop of Rochester [Fisher], herself a venerable woman. All these had passports procured by the Count of Feria, King Philip's ambassador in England.
6. The Benedictine Langton has lately escaped to Flanders.
viii. The University of Oxford: what it has suffered for the faith.
1. The Heads of six great colleges have been ejected, to wit: Rainold[s], President of Merton, dead in custody; Belsher (Belsire), President of St. John's; Slitherest (Slythurst), President of Trinity, dead in prison; Chedsey, President of Corpus Christi; Henshaw (Heronshaw), President of Lincoln: Wright, President of Balliol.
2. The Visitors having demanded confirmation by the University of their visitation, the Proctor Edward Brunbrog (Bromborow) frankly said that he could not allow schismatical proceedings to be confirmed. In this concurred [George] Simson, [Robert] Daux [Dawkes], Smith, and [David] Delahide, an Irishman; and so all five were put in prison. So much concerning the University in general. As to the several colleges: when the Visitors presented themselves, there was not one in twenty of the fellows from whom they could get either oath or subscription. I will relate what passed in one of the colleges, that of which I was myself a fellow, so that the circumstances are well known to me; and thereby you may form some idea of the course that matters took in the rest. The college is St. Mary's, commonly known as New College.
First of all ten chaplains quitted the College. In the next place six senior fellows made so frank a confession of the faith that they were taken into custody. These were Brunbrough, Rastell, Fox, Giblet, Dirrham and Davis: learned men all and very good.
The Visitors would not summon any others because they had heard that in fifty more they would meet with the same constancy. They therefore had recourse to milder measures, and besought them at least to come to church, and thereby they should be relieved of the oath, of subscription, and of all penalties. Fourteen quitted the College and went overseas; and many others departed, who either could not or would not go overseas. In fine, of the hundred that have stalls in the choir never as yet have even ten in Easter week been induced to receive schismatical communion.
ix. The University of Cambridge: what it has suffered for the faith.
1. Four Heads of Colleges have been ejected, to wit: Bullock, President of St. John's; Taylor, President of Christ's; Pecock, President of Queen's.
2. Dr. Young, President of Pembroke Hall, who frequently disputed with Bucer in the time of Edward VI, has been ejected.
3. Sixteen priests have quitted Trinity College, of whom some have gone overseas, others to their friends.
And many learned men have quitted divers colleges.
In short, such was the constancy exhibited by students of all degrees that it was necessary to propitiate them by smooth words and concessions, insomuch that statutes were passed, that whereas for others the use of the vulgar tongue in ecclesiastical offices was prescribed, they were at liberty to retain the Latin language.
x. Schoolmasters: their sufferings for the faith.
1. Thomas Hide, Master of Winchester School, ejected.
2. Freeman, Master of London School, was admonished by the Visitors to take the oath for his own and his wife's sake; whereupon: “Husband,” quoth the wife, “sooner will I beg for us both.”
3. Harris, sometime secretary to Thomas More, now Master of Bristol School: deprived of office and means of subsistence.
4. Benedict, Master of Salisbury School, despite extreme poverty, preferred ejectment to abjuration of the faith.
5. Sebastian, Organist at St. Paul's, London, did not shrink from ejectment; but Elizabeth was so loath to part with him, that, without in any way complying with schism, he keeps his place in that church.
I have mentioned only the principal schools, but by them you may judge of many others.
xi. Laymen: their sufferings for the sake of religion.
1. All the judges that exercise criminal jurisdiction with one accord craved of the Queen to be relieved from the obligation to abjure the primacy of the Roman Pontiff, as otherwise, that oath being contrary to their conscience, they could not continue in office; and the Queen, not being able to find among her Lutherans men equal to the duties of this most important order, was fain of necessity to remit the oath.
One Dyer refused the office of Lord Chancellor, saying that he could not execute it in schism.
2. Other sufferers: Anthony Browne, Viscount [Montague]; Edward Wal[d]grave, sometime of Queen Mary's Council; Thomas White and Robert Throgmorton, Masters of Requests; Rastell and Roper, barristers.
3. Deprived of office or imprisoned: [John] Frier, physician; [John] Story, D.C.L., who made an admirable speech in Parliament in defence of the primacy of the Roman Pontiff; [George] Etherige, deprived of the chair of Greek at Oxford; Lord Hastings [of Loughborough]; Sir Thomas Wharton, Sir Thomas (sic) Mordaunt, Sir Thomas Stradling, and many others, imprisoned for hearing Mass; [Thomas] Martin, D.C.L., in custody for the faith.
4. Refugees in Spain or Flanders: Sir John Lee, [Sir Richard] Shelley, and Harvey, besides many others.
xii. Women: their sufferings for the faith.
In exile: Lady Jane Dormer [Countess of Feria], at Louvain; Mrs. Clements, (fn. 36) at Antwerp; Mrs. Clarentia, (fn. 37) Queen Mary's nurse, in Spain.
In prison for hearing Mass: Lady Wal[d]grave, Lady Argall, Lady Wharton, Lady Hublethorne, Lady Rich, besides many others, whose names are not recorded by reason of their low degree.
xiii. The Common People of England: their attachment to the faith.
The common people of England consist of husbandmen, shepherds and mechanics, of which classes the two first are all Catholic; nor are the mechanics as a whole tainted with schism, but only those of sedentary occupations, such as weavers and cobblers and some lazy aulici. The most remote parts of the kingdom are the least inclined to heresy, such as Wales, Devon, Westmorland, Cumberland and Northumberland. Now, since in England the towns are small and few, and heresy has no hold either on the countryside or on the most distant cities, it is the settled opinion of the wise that not one hundredth part of the population is tainted; which is the reason why the Lutherans too speak of their flock as small.
xiv. Boys: their sufferings for the faith.
The Master of Winchester School being in gaol, the President of the College bade the boys to hear a schismatical sermon; but they were so far from obeying that they would not even go to public prayers, but shut themselves up in their dormitories; and when the Master took them to task for their disobedience, they retorted by asking whether he was minded to ruin their innocent souls. To overcome their resistance the President summoned to his aid a military man from the nearest port: whereupon nearly twelve of the boys made their escape from the College; the rest in a panic betook them most reluctantly to church. Thus out of the mouths of babes and sucklings God has perfected His praise; for there is neither rank, nor sex, nor age but has nobly defended the Catholic faith in this persecution.
xv. Bishops Designate: their sufferings for the faith.
1. It is meet that John Danister, (fn. 38) priest, be first mentioned, because he is almost the only confessor among those who fled the realm. For, purposing to go overseas, he was taken, and confessed the faith in a most miserable dungeon; and there being about the same time brought into the same dungeon another priest, who by the influence of friends got his discharge, it so chanced that the Governor, going his rounds of the prison, mistook Danister for him and so gave Danister a pass; but this most just man would not avail himself of the opportunity, but pointed out him for whom the discharge was intended. Which guilelessness the Governor so admired that he ceased not to use his interest with the Council until he had procured Danister's liberation.
As a boy at Winchester School, as a youth at Oxford, Danister distanced all his contemporaries, at the one place in verse-making and all the art of poetry, at the other place in rhetoric and civil law; and now, in his early manhood, he has distanced them all in theology, having given proof of his powers at Louvain, where he preached with great applause last Lent. By reason of his habitual gravity he has got the sobriquet of Cato.
2. Maurice Clenok. Deprived of all his benefices in England, though licensed to go abroad. He is a man of the highest integrity, and his great exertions in the cause of the faith must be known to all. He was designated for the see of Bangor by Queen Mary and Cardinal Pole. He is D.C.L.
3. Gilbert Burford, Canon of Wells. Studied theology at Oxford. Excells Danister in the learning of the schools, but is excelled by him in eloquence and knowledge of law. He is a weighty man, and excellently well fitted for business.
4. William Taylor. Became very proficient in theology at Cambridge, where he was President of Christ's College. He is a high-minded man, though perchance ambition may master him.
5. Giles Capell, Canon of Wells. Is more to be honoured for his amazing modesty and probity than for his learning, albeit he is learned enough in theology; and, as Pope Innocent says, perfect charity may make good the lack of perfect knowledge.
6. Henry Joliffe, Dean of Bristol. Is not without learning, but is most to be commended for his zeal for the Catholic faith, which, however, is common to all.
Addressed to Cardinal Moroni as Protector of England. Latin. Printed in extenso in Catholic Record Society's Miscellanea, i.