616. f. 4.
140. Petrus Carmelianus Brixiensis (fn. 1) to Ferdinand and
Thanks them for the letters he had received from them years
ago, and excuses himself that he has not earlier answered them.
Is of opinion that the marriage (fœdus istud affinitatis), so
long time treated for should soon be concluded.—London,
2nd of July 1496.
Addressed : "To the most serene Princes Ferdinand and
Isabella, King and Queen, &c."
Indorsed by Almazan : "Secretarii Regis Angliœ, 2 Julii,
Printed in Gairdner's Letters, &c., vol. I., p. 100.
S. E. T. c. I.
King of France.
141. Ferdinand and Isabella to De Puebla.
Have been informed that the King of France is assembling
a great army, in order to return to Italy. The Pope is very
much afraid, and has asked them to prevent this expedition.
Ferdinand has therefore gone to the frontiers of Catalonia, and
there assembled a powerful army. Isabella remains near the
frontiers of Navarre, in order there to superintend in person
the preparations for war. She likewise intends to send her
daughter, the Archduchess, (fn. 2) to Flanders.
Now is the right time for Henry to show his devotion to
Henry is asked to give orders that all English vessels
which may meet with the fleet of the Archduchess on the
seas should show her respect, and give her assistance if
necessary.—Almazan, 6th July 1496.
Indorsed : "Draft of what was added to the letter to Doctor
de Puebla, which was sent in two copies ... (fn. 3) by
a messenger who left Almazan on the 6th of July.
It was directed to Diego Lopez de Ayala, to be forwarded
by him in a vessel which he kept ready."
"This letter was sent in two copies, which makes in
all three copies. The third was sent on the 25th of
July by Alvarez by a courier from the baths of
Cervera to Laredo, where his Highness is staying."
Spanish. Draft. pp. 2½.
S. E. T. c. I.
Proceedings of the
King of France.
Entreaties to be
142. Isabella to De Puebla. (fn. 4)
This letter is written to Doctor De Puebla by the Queen,
with her own hand, because the Pope sent ...
that it were written by the Queen with her own hand in
cipher ... I am astonished
that you ... so much write to
us ... in his business ...
most serious as you write ...
is profitable (?) also to the King of England ...
that it can be proposed
to the King of England to ...
the property of the Church with which ...
treat the Pope as his sacristan and ...
we have now heard that the King of France
assembles as great an army as he can ...
and to Genoa, and to Milan ; and, considering the weakness of
Italy, there is no doubt but that he will very soon conquer it
if the King of England, and the King and Queen of Spain, do
not henceforth assist it effectually. We have the intention to
do so, with the help of God. The King of England will see
how much reason he has to do ... and if he is
not able to do it in person, he may be pleased to send his
fleet to ... and give permission to (his subjects
who) are inclined to arm vessels, and make war against
France ... in time. You must, therefore,
very earnestly insist with him ; and, having authority from the
Pope, the King of the Romans, and us, you must request
him, in the name of all of us, to send succour without delay,
and not to permit the Church to be trampled on. You must
speak not only to the King, but also to all Britons, (fn. 5) and instigate
and interest them in this matter, showing how much
they are obliged to do for the Church, and how unbecoming
it is, how derogatory to their honour, and how disgraceful
to them it would be, if, being enemies of France, they
should permit the French to conquer Italy, and devastate and
occupy the States of the Church. If the King of England says
that he cannot oppose the King of France because of the boy
who is now in Scotland, you must say that just because of
that boy he must ... and if he refuse ...
taking the Pope, and we are strong enough effectually to assist
him, and can send so many Princes to his aid, and if we all
press the King of France, as we would do if the King of
England declared himself in favour of the Pope, and for the
league, he (the King of France) whatever pains he might
take, could not assist the so-called Duke of York to do the
least harm to the King of England, because as often as he
wishes ... send as often assistance
as he wants it. If, therefore, he assist the Church, and
defend her from the danger in which she now stands, he will
have it in his power, with the help of God, to do what he
likes with the King of France. He can either make him
concede part, if he do not wish to do him more harm, but
only to prevent him from taking what belongs to others, and
from destroying and setting on fire the whole of Christendom,
as he has hitherto done ... the
conclusion ... of the King of the Romans
and ours, because you have already received the power of the
King of the Romans. You have not written to us that ...
the embassy of the King of England
which went ... because if we had
known it we could have procured it to be done. But if all is
not yet done, and the embassy is not sure to return with an
answer to his taste, let us know it without loss of time, and
send in writing what the King of England wishes. We will
see it done as though it were our own business. Send us a
very long and very clear account of the whole business, and
write us such a despatch as we expect from the Doctor De
Puebla. We do not expect that you will send us a worse
despatch than our other ambassadors, who all send us very
good despatches on all things we wish to know. We expect
more from you, because we know that you have more capacity
Though this business is the business of God and of the
Church, to defend which all we Christian Princes are obliged,
there might be mixed in it something of ...
our own interest ...
and it will be done according to our
will, with the help of God ...
of England according to ...
we have always kept, and we still keep what we have ...
that he might know ...
February (?) we really so with the King of
Scotland during all the time that he kept with him the socalled
Duke of York, as now with the King of Scotland, that
... we have already said that we never
had negotiations with the King of England for the conservation
of his states like our own.—Dated 10th of July 1496.
I, the Queen.
By order of the Queen,
Miguel Perez D'Almazan.
The whole letter is written in Latin numbers used as
cipher. The original key to it is in two copies, and
is preserved in the Archives of Simancas. All the
portions left in blank are utterly illegible.
S. E. T. c. I.
King of the
143. De Puebla to Ferdinand and Isabella.
The ambassador of Henry to the King of the Romans
has returned. He has not observed there the least preparations
for war against France, but has seen a great many of
the party (secta) of him of York, and of the Duchess
Margaret, especially an Italian, who is Latin Secretary to
the King of the Romans, and who has great influence over
him. Don Ladron, whom he met there, has made the same
observation. The King of the Romans still seems very ill
disposed towards Henry, and is keeping up communications
with the King of Scots and him, who is now staying there.
All this Henry himself told to De Puebla, saying he wished
much that the Archduchess (Doña Juana) were already
arrived in Flanders, and that the Princess (Margaret of
Austria) would soon go to Spain. These marriages would be
the only means of bringing the King of the Romans under
the influence of Spain, and of securing peace between him
and Henry, especially as long as the Duchess is living (Margaret
Henry added that France is intriguing more than ever
now, and that any delay would be dangerous.
The proposals of the ambassador of Henry (to the King
of the Romans), and the answers he received, are contained in
the enclosed letter of Fonseca and Albion. Lorenzo Juarez
has written the same things to Spain direct. Has got precisely
the same information from other sources.
|Entry of Henry VII
into the league.
Henry is ready to enter the league, on condition that he
be at present exempted from any obligation to make war
against France, or to contribute money for that purpose. He
is ready to proclaim his entry into the league at Calais and
in England, keeping the conditions secret. That would produce
great effect. Henry will never go to war against
France as long as affairs with Scotland are not satisfactorily
The King of France, when he saw the ill will of Henry
towards him, and the preparations for war in England, had
sent all the money due to Henry.
|King of France ;
his embassy to
(Marginal note.)—He did it during the week in which
the couriers to Flanders were taken prisoners. Henry
said that the King of France had sent an ambassador to
Scotland for no other purpose (no para al, i.e. altro) than to
get him into his power. It will soon be done. The King
of France said, as Henry "did not like the testimonies,
stating who he is, nor wished that his father and mother
should come to England, he (the King of France) will
obtain him to be delivered in person." Besides, the King
of France offered the daughter of the Duke of Bourbon, with
a very great marriage portion, and all her rights to the succession
in France, to the Prince (of Wales). Henry swore
"by the faith of his heart" that he was very sorry for this
French embassy to Scotland. It would not turn out profitably
either to England or Spain. "If that ambassador should go
by way of England, he would retain him a whole year, and
not permit him to go to Scotland." Henry made all these
communications to him in a park twenty-five miles distant
from London, where they resided eight days together. Henry
"opened his whole heart." He said that he could not understand
why Ferdinand and Isabella should spend such great
sums in Flanders, in order to conclude the marriage with
the Archduke, and yet refused to marry the Princess Katharine
in England, except on conditions. Nowhere in Christendom
was she so beloved (as in England). The marriage would
be a hard blow to France, since it would oblige Henry to
follow Spain in all things. He had added other reasons
without end, promising to accept all the conditions of the
alliance as it was formerly concluded, with the exception of
the clauses respecting France, which are no longer necessary,
since the counties of Roussillon and Cerdaña have already
been restored to Spain, and he is impeded by Scotland.
Thinks that there is not the least disposition in England to
make war against France, and that the treaties must be concluded,
either without that condition, or not at all.
Respecting the marriage portion, the condition that the
fourth part should be given in ornaments will be accepted, but
the rest must be paid in ducats, which will certainly be valued
at no more than 350 maravedis, perhaps less. A letter of
Henry on this subject is enclosed, and likewise a letter of the
Bishop of Rochester, who is now Bishop of London.
The negotiations are very difficult. It seems impossible to
conclude all the treaties at the same time. The marriage
would be very advantageous to Spain. Henry wishes not
only that a marriage contract between him and them should
be concluded, but that, with the consent of Katharine and
Arthur, the marriage ceremony should be also performed,
which may be done by a dispensation from the Pope. Quotes
the authority of Antonio and Juan Miles. The marriage
may be concluded publicly or privately, as they prefer.
|Fickleness of the
There were never kings so much praised as they are by
Henry, and by the whole English nation ; and never was an
ambassador so much esteemed and flattered as he is. Nevertheless,
it would not be safe to rely on anything except on what
Henry himself writes. The fickleness of the court (parliament) (fn. 6)
of England before their treaties are signed and
sealed is notorious. They would, therefore, do well soon to
conclude the treaties. Henry does not want any assistance
in England. He only does not like to go to France
during his quarrel with Scotland. "As far as his own kingdom
is concerned, he does not esteem Scotch affairs more
than your Highnesses do those of Portugal."
Has spoken with Henry about the Spanish merchants
as much as on all the other subjects together. Has encountered
great obstinacy on his part. The Archduke in
the last fair at Antwerp, laid a duty of a crown on English
cloth, that is to say, ten times more than there. (fn. 7) Henry is
suspected by his subjects of having consented to this measure,
which has made much noise in England. The kings of
England do not conclude treaties with foreign nations except
with the consent of the nation, which gives them great
Those who are best informed say that even if a duty of
one ducat were laid on each English cloth in Spain, Henry
would demand the same things which he demands now.
"But if they get him of York into their royal hands, the
affair of the merchants will be nothing." Has done his
utmost in this respect.
Thanks for the promised favours, which he deserves by his
industry. Other ambassadors have made money, whilst he,
though he has a daughter, has spent the little he possessed.
Is in great difficulties.
Believes this letter will go by Salvador de Ugarte, who is
a very faithful servant ; and as the route by Bristol is
safe, it is not written in cipher. Salvador is told to throw
the letter into the sea if he should be arrested.—London,
Indorsed : "Copy of the letter of Doctor de Puebla to the
King and Queen, our Lords, of the 11th of July
1496." (fn. 8)
Cipher, deciphered. pp. 10.
S. E. T. c. I.
144. De Puebla to Ferdinand and Isabella.
Has spoken with Henry about the reprisals of Aldenay.
Henry has already written on this subject to them and their
If the obligation given by King Edward be shown in the
original, Henry promises to make reparation, otherwise not.
The English suspect that that document is a forgery.
The English are so badly informed in this matter that "if
one were to read the Bible to them, they would think it
was the Alcoran."—London, 11th July 1496.
Indorsed : "To the most high and most powerful Princes,
the King and Queen of Spain."
Spanish. pp. 2½.
S. E. T. c. I.
145. De Puebla to Ferdinand and Isabella.
After the other letter was written, Richmond (king-at-arms)
returned from France, where he had gone to exhort the
King to desist from the war against Naples and the Pope.
The answer he brings is, that the King of France will send a
great embassy to England (aqui), in order not only to arrange
the business of Italy, but to conclude all the other negotiations
pending. It is to be feared that they will make great progress.
They must write directly what they wish to be done.
Indorsed : "Letter of Doctor De Puebla which he sent by
Salvador de Ugarte, dated the 11th of July 1496.
Received at Medina de Pumar the 30th of August
Spanish. p. 1.
Rym. XII. p. 638.
Entry of Henry VII.
into the league.
146. Henry VII. Treaty with the Pope, the King Of the
Romans, Ferdinand and Isabella Of Spain, and
the Dukes of Venice and Milan.
The ambassador of Henry is Robert Shirbourne.
Henry VII. declares his entry into the league concluded
at Venice on the 31st of March 1495. The old treaty remains
unaltered in all respects, as far as the old members of the
league are concerned. Henry is, however, exempted from
the clauses of the treaty which oblige the confederate
Princes to succour one another with a fixed number of soldiers,
or a fixed sum of money. He is likewise exempted from the
obligation of keeping an army always ready to repel attacks
on the members of the league. But, in all other respects, he
has the same rights and duties as the other confederates.—
Rome, in the palace of St. Peter, 18th of July 1496. Ratified
by Henry VII. at Windsor, 23rd of September 1496.
Latin. pp. 4.