S. E. T. c. I.
Entry of Henry VII.
into the league.
158. Queen Isabella to De Puebla.
Has received his letters of the 13th of June and 11th of
Approves of the manner in which he carries on his business
in England, especially so far as the entry of Henry into
the league is concerned. Has received letters from Rome
stating that Henry has become a member of the league,
but does not yet know the conditions. The entry of the King
into the league must be proclaimed in England without loss
of time, but the conditions kept secret, as they are probably
|Marriage of the
Has received a letter from Henry concerning the marriage
of the Princess Katharine with the Prince of Wales.
Is pleased that Henry so much desires the conclusion of
that marriage. Has a high opinion of him as a "Prince of
great virtue, firmness, and constancy." Loves him very much,
and hopes that after the marriage of their children a much
more intimate friendship will take place between them than
between any other princes. The marriage and alliance are
to be concluded at the same time, and on the following
|Articles of the
The marriage treaty agreed upon with the English ambassadors
at Medina del Campo must be renewed, but with the
following additions and alterations :—
1. The fourth part of the marriage portion must be payable
in ornaments, &c. of the Princess.
2. The scudo, which was calculated at 4s. 2d., must be
calculated at no more than 350 maravedis.
3. The conclusion of the marriage must be kept most secret,
in order that the King of Scotland may not hear of it.
4. The time when the marriage is to be contracted per verba
de futuro is to be postponed.
5. The Princess must be at liberty to bring 150 persons
with her, who are to remain in England.
|Treaty of alliance.
The treaty of alliance must also, in all clauses, be conformable
to the treaty of Medina del Campo, except that the clause concerning
the King of France must be left out. It is not necessary
to mention the King of France at all in this treaty.
The clause respecting the Duchess of Brittany has likewise
The King of the Romans, the Archduke, and the members
of the league must be excepted.
The clause respecting Spanish commerce in England must
be altered. If Henry cannot be persuaded to take off
the extra burdens from the Spanish merchants, it must be
stipulated in a separate instrument before a public notary,
that it shall not be regarded as an infringement of this treaty
if English merchants and merchandize in Spain should be
obliged to pay as high customs as Spaniards pay in England.
The conclusion of the treaties must not, however, be delayed
on account of this difference.
|War with France.
Since Henry delares it to be utterly impossible for him
to begin war with France, he is to be no further pressed on
that subject. But he must assist Spanish vessels at sea.
De Puebla must bide his time, and by degrees obtain further
advantages from Henry. The more preparations for war are
made in England, the greater will be the offers which the King
of France will make to Henry. If war between England and
France should be declared, Henry will force the King of
France to accept his conditions.
for the son of
Thinks that a marriage of the son of Henry with the
daughter of the Duke of Bourbon would be a misfortune.
The English would not like a French woman, and the French
would not keep their promises.
Intends nothing else in Scotland but to separate the King
of the Scots from France, and to render good service to Henry.
Henry must marry one of his daughters to the King of Scots.
|King of the
Is very sorry that the King of the Romans should cause so
much trouble to Henry. He has some friends of the Princess
Margaret about his person, but their designs will be frustrated.
If Henry wish something more to be done by him in this
matter, he must say so.
The Archduchess (Juana) sailed from Laredo on the 22d
of August. The admiral who commands her fleet, and who is
to bring back the Princess (Margaret of Austria), has orders
to request the assistance of England in case of need.
The Archduchess (Juana) goes to Flanders with the best
intentions of favouring the interests of Henry. Besides
the instructions given to her, she has a particular reason for
doing so, as she has been brought up in company with her
sister, who is to be married in England, and likes to live
in friendship with her. Henry VII. has henceforth a daughter
The King of France knows it, and has made great preparations
to intercept the Archduchess. It is expected that
Henry will do all in his power to prevent the execution of
A letter for Henry is enclosed. (fn. 1)
Has had no news of the Archduchess since she sailed. If
he hear anything about her, he must directly write by an
Does not think it advisable to ask the Pope to declare the
marriage between Katharine and Arthur binding from the
beginning, because the King of Scots would hear something
of it. After ten or twelve months the Pope might be asked
to make such a declaration.—No date. No address.
Written by Fernand Alvarez, Secretary of State.
Spanish. pp. 11½. Draft.
|S. E. T. c. I.
L. 4. f. 1.
159. Ferdinand and Isabella to De Puebla.
Power to conclude, with the commissioners of Henry, a
the marriage between Princess Katharine and Prince Arthur,
to settle her marriage portion and dower, and to stipulate
for the restitution of the marriage portion if the marriage
should be dissolved by death or otherwise.—Without date or
E. T. c. I.
160. Queen Isabella to De Puebla.
Although this letter is a duplicate of that of the 12th of
September, conveyed to you by Salvador Duarte, you will
have to decipher and read it all, since it contains some
Doctor de Puebla, I received a letter of yours, dated the
13th of last June, and which was sent me by Don Diego
Lopez de Ayala.—(See despatch of the 12th of September.)
[The remainder is put in cipher from the letter written by
the hand of our Lady the Queen.]
You will perceive by my former letters, and by the contents
of the present despatch, what is the conduct which you have
to pursue, as well in the affair of the treaty of amity as in
that of the marriage. I desire that you should, with much
diligence, hasten to conclude everything, and that you
should have it done in the manner the most advantageous
for us. If you see that such a proceeding be politic, make
very strong representations to the King of England respecting
the King of France.
to be made to
To this end you shall say to him that he must already be
aware that the intention of the King of France is nothing
less than that of making himself Lord of Italy. It is for that
reason he is holding Milan and Genoa ; for he calculates that
if he keep those places in his possession the rest of Italy
will not be able to defend itself, and that he shall then be
able to turn the Pope into his sacristan.
|Intentions of the
King of France.
You shall therefore endeavour to induce the King of
England to prevent him from carrying out this his intention,
which, of a truth, rests upon slight foundation, but is nothing
less than that of making himself King of Italy. You must
also try to make the King of England understand the reasons
[that actuate the King of France], so that he may conclude
the treaty, which would be of the greatest advantage just
at present. For if the King of France see that the King of
England does not hold a neutral position, but that he has
resolved to support the league, and to cross the Channel, and
if he find that he has already entered into the league, and
will make war immediately upon France, or at any rate command
his subjects to make war (as we hear from other sources
he will), then the King of France will entirely lose the hope
by which perchance he is still inspired.
It is certain that there is nothing which would sooner
put a stop to his avarice, abate his pride, compel him to
desire peace, and to be content with his own, leaving to
others what is not his, than such a conviction as this.
|Good results that
would follow from
a war between
By acting thus the King of England, in addition to his
being the cause of restoring peace to Christendom, and of
doing such great service to God by delivering his Vicar upon
Earth from vexation, would also be the means of preventing
the patrimony of the Church from being exposed to tyranny,
and its affairs abused. These would indeed be acts worthy
of any Catholic Prince whatsoever, and would place the
Pope and all the members of the league under such great
obligations to him that they would thenceforth do whatever
he might desire of them.
It is indeed true that in all the enterprises which he has
formerly undertaken against France he has ever reaped honour
and advantage. But it is also very certain that, supported
as he then would be, he would be able more easily to oblige
the King of France to yield to all that it might be deemed
right to demand, than he would by remaining on the same
footing with him as he has hitherto done, and showing him
that he does not wish to do him any injury.
|Answers to be
made to Henry
should he excuse
If, however, the King of England should alledge as an
excuse for not making war the occurrences that are taking
place in Scotland, which is what he always has done, then
you can tell him that we quite perceive there is some show of
reason in what he says. But you shall say that he can remedy
that by hastening and concluding the marriage of his daughter
with the King of Scotland. In order to aid the progress of
that business, and of all that is connected with it, as also of
the negotiations he is carrying on, we have sent our ambassador,
as you are aware, with special instructions to do
all that he can to bring about the said marriage in the way
which the King of England may deem most fitting.
If any difficulty should, however, arise, we desire that our
ambassador should, at any rate, obtain an extension of the
truce, in order that during that time the King of England
there, and ourselves here, may find some suitable expedient to
obviate the difficulty. To this matter we will apply our
minds with as much affection and good will as though it
If it should chance that the King of England excuse himself
from undertaking the enterprise on account of being
under some obligations to the King of France, then you shall
say to him that to be aware of, and permit the acts of the King
of France is tantamount to his taking upon himself the responsibility
of them. To such a course of proceeding might
be applied the old saying, which is very much to the purpose
here, namely, that he who compels his friend to cease from
wrong doing, and hinders him from going along the road to
ruin, does more for him than if he were to sacrifice his life
in his behalf.
says she entertains
towards the King
If we ourselves might venture to speak to the King of
France, sure it is that we could tell him we were and still are
in a position to do him the greatest damage, as is very evident.
But our Lord knows that we do not desire injury to his
person, and much less do we wish to gain anything from him.
For even though we were to gain the half of his kingdom, yet
the instant that he, returning to reason, should desire peace,
we would restore everything into his hands. Thus as regards
this point of not desiring to do him harm, our feelings are in
conformity with those of the King of England.
|Her reasons for
to make war.
There is no doubt whatever that the war, as it is now
carried on, is waged with such moderation that nothing is
done but what is necessary to prevent the King of France
from setting the whole of Christendom on fire. If he, on the
other hand, were to make war with the same moderation
that we do, there would of a certainty be no war at all. But
if the King of France will continue to carry things with a
high hand, putting reason entirely out of sight, then it would
of a certainty be doing him a good office to prevent him from
further following the road to ruin which he is taking. To do
this more effectually it should be our endeavour to seek such
expedients as would produce so desirable a result. One of
these is to prevent him from carrying out his intentions. In
order to do this, there does not appear to us to be a better
course to take, or one calculated to be more advantageous at
present, than that the King of England should make war upon
him. For if he were to decide to do this (we of the league
doing all that it is our intention to perform), it is very certain
that we should then be able both speedily and easily to
bring him to such a pass, that, for mercy's sake, he would be
forced to see what hitherte he has not liked to comprehend.
Thus, by means of the acts of the King of England and the
members of the league, the evil would cease, and peace be
restored to Christendom without prejudice to any one ; in
addition to which it would benefit greatly the said King of
England our cousin.
Therefore, by means of these and other reasons, upon
which you will strongly insist, and which you will well know
how to bring forward, you will show the King of England
that by declaring war he will put the finishing stroke to a
thing of immense and universal good.
[What follows is a copy of a portion of a letter written at
Laredo in the Queen our lady's cipher, dated the 18th of
August last. You must decipher it all.]
from France to
Spain, and from
Spain to France.
In addition to the cause about which I wrote to you, you
shall also say to the King of England that in return for both
times that the King of France sent his ambassadors to us,
we have once more granted the sending of an embassy to
him, and already two envoys are despatched. The cause
whereof is this : he sent his ambassadors twice to us, as
abovesaid, and although they came about things of little
importance and less effect, and in fact to cast dust in our
eyes by their fooleries, yet, in order that he may have no
grounds for saying it is he who has obtained peace, attributing
to himself what we have desired and procured, we have
sent him these messengers. Also, in order that neither by
word nor in deed should he take advantage of it, nor have
any colour for saying so, we have sent the abovesaid ambassadors
to bring everything to a conclusion for the service
of God and the welfare of the world. For this is an affair
which will be of much estimation as regards the service of
God and the welfare of the world. Moreover, if it were
possible to avoid all the many evils and calamities which
follow upon war, not only would we send one and more
than one embassy, but if requisite even we would go to him
in our own person, sparing ourselves no trouble or pains
You shall likewise say to the King of England that, in
addition to the other embassies which we have sent to him,
we have granted the sending of a new one at this present time
for the aforesaid reasons, and to exhort him to demand peace,
either by way of arbitration, or by any other like means for
establishing concord which may be desired, so that he may
but be content with his own possessions, and leave to others
theirs. For if he do not do this, all the wars, evils, and
calamities which have been committed, are committing, and
shall be committed, will be laid at his door, as they have been
Times enough we have sent to say this to him, and to
persuade him to reason, and we speak thus to the King of
England, in order that if any one should make him a contrary
statement, he may know that this is the truth.—Written at
Oña, the 15th September 1496.
I, the Queen.
By command of the Queen,
Johan de Coloma.
Addressed : "By the Queen. To Doctor De Puebla, her
ambassador in England, and of her Council."
Written in two different keys of cipher, intermixed with
one another. The key of the Latin numbers is preserved
in the archives at Simancas. The other key
is not extant. The deciphering is by the editor.
S. E. T. c. I.
L. 3. f. 9.
161. Henry VII. to Thomas, Bishop Of London.
Empowers Thomas, Bishop of London, to conclude with
the ambassador of Ferdinand and Isabella a strict alliance
and a treaty of marriage between Princess Katharine and
Prince Arthur. The Pope and the King of Denmark are to
be excepted in the treaty of alliance.—Windsor, 22nd September
Latin, pp. 2, in print.
Printed in Rymer.
12 Hen. VII.
m. 13. (18.)
162. Henry VII.