Spain
June 1500

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Institute of Historical Research

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G. A. Bergenroth (editor)

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1862

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220-238

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'Spain: June 1500', Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 1: 1485-1509 (1862), pp. 220-238. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=93401 Date accessed: 30 September 2014.


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Contents

June 1500

3 June.
S. E. T. c. I. L. 2.
265. Thomas, Bishop Of London, to Ferdinand and Isabella.
De Puebla has given him a letter from them.
Thanks them for the honour. Promises to be always grateful, and to render them any service he can.
Princess Katharine.
The marriage between the Prince and Princess of Wales is now concluded, and there remains nothing to be done but that the Princess should come to England. It is impossible to describe how much he and the whole nation desire to see her. In all parts of the kingdom preparations are making for her festive reception. Is persuaded that the consequences of the marriage will be most beneficial to both countries.
Alliance.
The treaty of alliance is concluded, signed, and sealed. He and De Puebla have done all in their power to have the clause relating to the exception of the Princes (of the King of the Romans and of the Archduke) more clearly expressed. But it was impossible to prevail on such of the other privy counsellors, as were of a different opinion. De Puebla cannot be reproached with remissness. Nor does he think that anything is lost, because the exception is already contained in the general tenor of the treaty, although not so positively expressed.—Calais, 3rd of June 1500.
Addressed : "Altissimis et potentissimis principus dominis dominis Regi et Reginœ Hispaniarum, dominis meis observandissimis."
Latin. pp. 3.
6 June.
S. E. T. c. I. L. 2.
Treaty of marriage between Princess Katharine and the Prince of Wales.
266. Ferdinand and Isabella to De Puebla.
He has told them in all his letters that the conditions of the treaty, which he has now concluded with Henry, are much more favourable to them than the conditions of the treaty which was concluded some years ago on the same subject. Have believed that he told the truth. Their Secretary of State has been unable to judge of the alleged improvements, because he had never seen the first treaty. They had, therefore, signed the second treaty. But when beginning to execute its stipulations, they sent for a copy of the first treaty ; and then, on comparison, found that the second treaty does not only not contain any improvement, but, on the contrary, is much less favourable to them than the first.
Ornaments, jewels, &c.
The first treaty settles that the fourth part of the marriage portion of the Princess of Wales may be paid in dresses, ornaments, &c. of her person and of her house, and that the three other parts of it may be paid in gold, silver, and precious stones. Thus, it is clear that, according to this clause at least, the ornaments, the gold, and the silver which the Princess is to take with her were to be received as part of the first instalment of her marriage portion. The second treaty, which he called "improved," says that the above-mentioned ornaments, &c. are to be discounted from the last instalment only, of the marriage portion. Thus, the second treaty is more unfavourable to them, because the Princess of Wales would take those things herself, and a portion of the payment would thereby be made long before it could be accounted for.
Time of payment of the marriage portion.
The second treaty settles that the first instalment of the marriage portion should be paid ten days before, or after, the solemnization of the marriage. This clause must be altered. It must be said, instead of "ten days after the solemnization," "ten days after the consummation of the marriage," for some time might still intervene between the solemnization and the consummation of the said marriage. At all events one half of the first instalment must be made payable only after the consummation of the marriage.
Ornaments.
According to the first treaty, the ornaments, &c. of the Princess, which were to be discounted from her marriage portion, were to remain in her possession. The second treaty leaves this point doubtful, for it is said in it that Henry is to receive the ornaments, &c.
Jointure.
In the first treaty Henry binds himself to give to the Princess of Wales one-third of the revenues of Wales, Cornwall, and Chester in good towns and manors, &c., which third part must amount to 25,000, or, at least, to 23,000 scudos. The second treaty fixes no sum whatever, and it might be that the towns, manors, and rents assigned to her were worth much less. She would thereby suffer great losses.
Wedding.
The first treaty states that the wedding of the Princess of Wales must take place within one month after her arrival in England. The second treaty fixes no time at all for the wedding.
Valuation of the ornaments, &c.
In the first treaty it is agreed that the ornaments, jewels, &c. of the Princess of Wales shall be accepted according to their just value. The second treaty, however, fixes that they are to be taxed by sworn jewellers in London, according to the price current in England, or according to what the said valuers, or other persons, might be prepared to give for them. It is not probable that either these valuers would offer as much as the ornaments and jewels are worth, or that other persons could be found who would be willing and able to pay their just value. Therefore it is better to say that the objects in question must be accepted for their real value.
The treaty must be amended.
As he has pretended that he has introduced many improvements into the second treaty, it is expected of him that he will at least repair the errors which he has made. An additional treaty must be concluded. These demands are so just, that no difficulties can be expected from Henry. The Knight Commander of Haro, their new ambassador to England, is instructed to ask the same things from Henry. He must conform his line of conduct to that of the Knight Commander. —Granada, 6th of June 1500.
Addressed : "By the King and Queen, to Doctor De Puebla, of their Council, and their ambassador in England."
Spanish. pp. 4½.
8 June.
S. E. T. c. I. L. 2.
267. Henry VII. to Miguel Perez D'Almazan, First Secretary of State to Ferdinand and Isabella.
Has heard from De Puebla how great services be has rendered him with respect, as well to the alliance, as to the marriage now happily concluded. Thanks him, and begs him to continue his friendship towards him. Promises to show his great esteem by deeds, if any occasion to do so should be offered him.—Calais, 8th of June 1500.
Addressed : "To the honourable Miguel Perez D'Almazan, First Secretary, my most beloved friend."
Latin. p. 1.
16 June.
S. E. T. c. I. L. 5. f. 19. and f. 21.
268. De Puebla to Ferdinand and Isabella.
Has received all their letters and other papers, which they sent him by their servant on Palm-Sunday Eve. Has received the duplicate of the same papers from a servant of Don Pedro de Ayala on the Eve of Whitsunday in Calais.
Is very much rejoiced to hear that they are contented with the conclusion of the marriage. Prefers their good opinion to any advantage in the world. Has deserved it by his disinterested services.
Marriage of Princess Katharine.
Has delivered to Henry the ratification by the Princess of Wales of her marriage. The King and his Council are satisfied with it. Has asked a similar ratification made by the Prince of Wales, but has been told that such a ratification would be superfluous, because the Prince performed the act of marriage in his own person. This observation of the King of England and his Council is right. Has, nevertheless, pursuaded them to give him a ratification made by the Princeof Wales. The King has added letters, written in his own hand, which are enclosed. Thus, all is concluded in a manner than which nothing could be better. The "glorious marriage" will be of great advantage to the whole of Christendom. "In truth, if the Princess come to England, and the business is well managed, your Highnesses can dispose of England as though it belonged to yourselves. There is no longer any reason to fear fraud or cheating, or any other kind of simulation, and the King and the people will have courage to undertake whatever your Highnesses might order."
Alliance.
Contents of the treaty.
Additions to be made to it.
The negotiations respecting the alliances met with the greatest obstacles, and seemed as if they would never come to an end. There are many counsellors in the Privy Council, who have taken no part in the former negotiations, and know nothing of the matter. They discovered a thousand difficulties, and vied with one another who should find out most obstacles, especially as often as the King of France was the subject of their conferences. Has often despaired of the possibility of coming to any conclusion. The Bishop of London alone was on his side ; all the other members of the Council were against him. They said that Spain has been despoiled of none of her dominions, but England has been deprived of her French provinces. The assistance which these two countries are to give to one another must, therefore, as far as Spain is concerned, be restricted to the defence of what she at present possesses ; but with respect to England, it must be extended, and Spain must help her to reconquer what she has lost. On this plea, the Council was unwilling to sanction the treaty as it has been concluded with the Bishop of London, alleging as their excuse that Spain had refused to ratify it in its previous form. The Council also denied that Henry has written anything to Spain regarding the alliances. Assured them that he has received a letter from Henry in which he approved of the second treaty of alliance, as it has been concluded by him with the Bishop of London. Could not show them the letter, because he had sent it to Spain. The Privy Council complained further that the King and Queen of Spain never addressed Henry as "King of England and France." The title given to him in the letters from Spain is not even "King of England" with an "&c." Henry at last told his Council not to continue disputing about words, and to confer only on the material portion of the treaty. The treaty was read. The whole Council and he understood it in the following manner ; viz. that Ferdinand and Isabella and Henry are bound to assist one another in defending the dominions which they at present possess against all and every person who may attack them, without any exception or reservation whatever. But, on the other hand, neither of them is bound to give any aid or assistance to the other in an offensive war. On the contrary, either of them remains at liberty to succour the Prince who is attacked, or the state which is invaded, in such offensive war made by his ally. The Pope, the King of the Romans, the King of France, and the Archduke are, moreover, excepted with respect to all such stipulations of the treaty as do not refer to the defence of the dominions at present possessed. Therefore, the additions to the treaty which they now command him to procure from Henry are in substance nothing more than what he has already obtained from him with so much difficulty. To tell the truth, thinks that the wording of the treaty, as he has concluded it, is clearer than the additions which they now desire to be made. The case is as follows :—They wish to preserve their liberty "to assist the aforesaid Princes in defending their states, but not in other wars." Those are the words of the desired additions. The title of the King of England, however, is "King of England and France ;" and he possesses at all events a very clear right to Guienne and Normandy. As the intended addition to the treaty does not contain the words "in defending the states and dominions which they at present possess," the English might say that they have a right to conquer Guienne and Normandy, and that in such a case Spain is not at liberty to assist France in defending these provinces. The treaty, as it now stands, speaks, on the contrary, very clearly, since it limits the obligation to the defence of the states which the parties at present possess. They are at liberty to succour the King of France, because they have excepted him as a brother, and even more, because they have excepted him (as a son), together with the Archduke. The privy counsellors said that it would be very inconvenient to make a declaration in a public document which so clearly prejudices their claims on France. They even pretend that their honour and authority, as well as that of the King of England, would thereby suffer. For the nation thinks that the King and Queen of Spain are obliged now to assist England against France, and it would produce a very bad impression if it were positively stated that they bind themselves to help France against England. It is quite enough to reserve this liberty to them, without making a display of it. The King and Privy Council know that they do not ask these additions except for the purpose of framing the treaty with England and the other Princes in the clearest manner possible. But this end was already secured by the treaty as it was first concluded. Thinks it, therefore, advisable to leave it unchanged. Sends the treaty, signed by the King and sealed with his seal. Encloses letters from Henry, the Bishop of London, and the Latin Secretary, on the same subject. If, however, in spite of all that has been said, they insist on having the additions incorporated in the treaty, they must write a courteous letter to Henry, and their demands will be acceded to. Those, at any rate, who oppose them must do so in secret. Has made the greatest exertions of which he is capable in arranging this matter. Is ready to undo his own work if he is commanded to do so, and to "suffer martyrdom."
Ratification of the treaty of alliance.
Henry said that, although they had ratified the treaty in presence of only three great personages, he would send them a ratification of it, made in the presence of his whole Court. As he said, so he has done. This treaty of alliance is a most solemn and important thing, as much so as the treaty of marriage. The clauses of it are a master-piece of diplomacy.
King of Portugal.
Confesses to have committed an error in not excepting the King of Portugal. The English wished to do it, and he opposed them because the present King of Portugal had not yet entered into an alliance with Spain. Will now include the King of Portugal.
King of Scots.
Told Henry that they wish to include the King of Scots in their alliance, because the marriage between him and the Princess of England is now concluded. The King of England said that he also regarded the marriage as concluded, "if the Princess Doña Margaret (fn. 1) should not, as she has already done, prove an obstacle to it." The King of Scotland is included.
Henry begs them likewise to include the King of Denmark in their alliance. Entreats them to write a letter to Henry, or to him, on the inclusion of the Kings of Scotland and Denmark. Has written a letter to the King of Scots, by the Doctor now sent from England to Scotland, and informed him that they, as well as the King of England, include him in their alliance like a common son. Told the King of Scots that the Princess Katharine is to come to England towards the end of the summer ; and that great festivities are preparing in the whole kingdom for her reception. Wrote finally that they entirely approve of his decision to marry the Princess Margaret, eldest daughter of Henry, and that they are as much, and more, pleased with it than if he had been going to marry their own daughter. Made this observation because the King of Scots suspected him of opposing the marriage.
If the King of Denmark were included in their alliance, it would not be necessary to negotiate another treaty with him. The friendship of Denmark is of some value to them, since it would prevent their subjects from being pillaged at sea by subjects of the King of Denmark.
The final settlement of this business has been somewhat delayed for various reasons ; as, for instance, because the Prince of Wales has been absent in the most remote portions of the kingdom ; also because the Great Seal is preserved in Westminster ; the King and the Queen have gone to Calais ; the Latin Secretary was suffering from ague ; the third son of the King had died ; and he himself was suffering great pain.
The Turks.
Henry greatly praised their intention of sending a fleet against the Turks, but added that, although he was on very intimate terms with Venice, the Venetians had said nothing to him about their great need. Henry does not seem to be inclined to take part in the expedition against the Turks.
Asked Henry VII. what opinion he had of DCCCLXXXI. (fn. 2) He answered that he disliked his proceedings. All the Princes of Christendom were put to inconvenience by France. As, however, the coming of the Princess of Wales to England is so near at hand, this matter may be settled afterwards.
Coming of the Princess Katharine of England.
Has shown Henry their letter in which they promise soon to send the Princess of Wales to England. The King and the whole nation are delighted at this news. Festivities such as never before were witnessed in England are preparing, not only in England but also in Calais, where a great tournament is announced. The articles for it have been sent to the Kings of France and Scotland. The Cardinal is destined to perform all the marriage ceremony.
Henry begs them to write and say, as soon as the Princess of Wales embarks, what personages of note are to accompany her, and in which port she is to disembark. Southampton seems to be the most suitable for this purpose. They would render a service to Henry if they would send their letters by two couriers, one of whom might travel in the most speedy manner by land, and the other go by sea, in a fastgoing vessel of about twenty tons.
The ladies who are to accompany the Princess must be handsome.
"The King and Queen wish very much that the ladies who are to accompany the Princess of Wales should be of gentle birth and beautiful, or at least that none of them should be ugly."
Servants of the Princess.
Has delivered their letters to Henry and to the Queen, who were much flattered by the manner in which they speak of the servants who are to accompany the Princess of Wales. The King had debated the matter in a Great Council. The answer was, that the King and his Council wished them to send as small a number of servants with the Princess of Wales as possible ; for she will be attended and obeyed and loved by the first noblemen and ladies of the kingdom. They had sent a great number of servants with the Archduchess to Flanders, and the consequences had been of a very unpleasant character. But whatever they decide in this respect will be approved in England. As far as those persons of high rank are concerned, who are only to accompany the Princess on her voyage to England, and afterwards to return to Spain, there cannot be too many of them. The English will spare no expense in treating them with the greatest hospitality.
Meeting between Henry and the Archduke Philip at Calais.
Sentiments of Philip towards Henry.
On Tuesday in Whitsuntide the Archduke had an interview with the King of England at Calais. They met in a church in the fields. The Queen of England also went to see the Archduke. The King and the Archduke had a very long conversation, in which the Queen afterwards joined. The interview was very solemn, and attended with great splendour. Both Princes had great honour shown them. They treated one another like father and son. There could not be a more desirable friendship in the world for both. On his return from the church, Henry promised to communicate very agreeable news to him respecting this meeting. But as the young Prince of England was dead, it might be that these communications would be somewhat delayed. Some French captains had come from the neighbouring towns to Calais, who indulge in all kinds of conjectures about the interview, and the coming of the Princess of Wales to England. Spoke for some time with the Archduke. He is a much more agreeable and discreet Prince than his detractors will allow. The Archduke told him that he considered them as his true father and mother. The King of England had told him to do so. The Archduke said that he loved Henry, and regarded him as his protector. Henry overheard these last words, and, much flattered by them, replied that "he would be for ever the debtor of the Archduke, who had had so much confidence in him as to come to a place where he was in his power.
Embassy sent to Henry at Calais by the King of France.
The internal peace of the kingdom is perfect. It is so great that the King and Queen left England, on Friday the 8th of May, for Calais, and until two days beforehand no one knew of their intended journey. The King and Queen have already stayed thirty-nine days at Calais. It is said that they will return to-morrow to England. "As soon as the King of France heard that the King of England was in Calais, he sent an honourable embassy to him. The ambassadors brought 50,000 francs as the first instalment of this year, and besides these the other pensions which France pays to certain Englishmen. I can assure your Highness that I write the truth. It was not a merely simulated payment."
Letters sent from the Archduchess to King Henry.
The Archduchess had sent the Bishop of Malaga with courteous letters to Henry before the interview at Calais took place. Received the enclosed letter from the Bishop before he came to the town. (fn. 3) Showed the letter to Henry who sent the Prior of St. John and other personages of authority to receive the Bishop of Malaga. Went with them. The Bishop of Malaga remained four days in the town, and was at liberty to see the King and Queen as often and when ever he liked. Encloses copies of the letters which the Bishop of Malaga took back to the Archduchess, and other letters.
King of Navarre.
It is said in England that the King of Navarre is staying with them. Would be sorry if any of the fortresses which they now possess in Navarre were to be given back to the King of Navarre. "These will be places of great importance, as I have "already written more in detail, if your Highnesses can conclude the CCCCXXIII (marriage) of Spain." (fn. 4)
Henry is very glad to hear that the King of Portugal has come to Spain, in order to marry the Infanta Doña Maria.
Has given their letters which have arrived, addressed in blank, to the Duke of Buckingham, the Earl of Suffolk, the Earl of Surrey, the Earl of Essex, and the Prior of St. John. The English esteem such letters from them more than the pensions from the King of France. Begs them to send ten or twelve more letters of the same kind. But they must also send him credentials to great personages in England, in order that he may treat with them in their name.
De Puebla's reasons for not accepting the match offered to him.
Thanks them for not having answered the letter of Henry respecting their consent to the marriage which the Queen of England had offered to him. The King will write again on the same subject. Begs them to put off the answer again. Does not like to accept the match, because he fears they would not have so much confidence in him if he were married by the Queen of England to a rich English lady.
Has already asked them to give him a certain power of jurisdiction over Spanish subjects in England. The necessity for such a power will be even greater, as many Spaniards are to come to England in consequence of the marriage of the Princess of Wales.
Begs that at least the third part of his salary may be paid to him in London. In payment of the two other parts of his salary he would be satisfied with some situation for life. Letters of exchange on London can be had from Pantaleon or his brother Agostin, or from Martin Centurion and others.— Calais, 16th June 1500, at the moment of sailing to England.
Marriage of the King of Scots.
P. S. (fn. 5) — The Doctor who was sent as ambassador to Scotland has just returned, and, before he saw the King, told him that the marriage of the King of Scots with the Princess of England is concluded without any condition, and exactly in the manner in which Henry had desired. Has been told by the ambassador that this result is due, in great part, to his advice and to his letter to the King of Scots. Cannot go and see Henry, because he has already taken leave of the King and Queen.
Addressed : "To the very high and very powerful Princes the King and Queen ... (fn. 6) Lords."
Spanish. pp. 23.
16 June.
S. E. T. c. I. L. 5. f. 26.
The treaty of alliance.
269. De Puebla.
A paper containing two columns, one placed opposite the other. The first column is headed, "This is the clause as I concluded it. If it be read in connexion with the other clauses of the treaty, it will be found that it is even better than what your Highnesses now desire." The text of this column is a literal copy of clause 3 of the treaty of the 10th of July 1499, by which the Pope, the Kings of the Romans and of France, and the Archduke, are excepted.
The second column is headed, "This is what your Highnesses desire. If you compare the one column with the other, you will find that they are identical." The text of this column is the same as that of the first column, except that the words are added, "and each of the contracting parties is at liberty to assist the said Princes in defending their kingdoms and dominions."—No date. No signature.
This paper is now enclosed in the letter of De Puebla of the 11th of August 1505. But it has no relation whatever to that letter. On the contrary it seems to be evident that it belongs to the letter of De Puebla of the 16th of June 1500.
Latin. pp. 2.
S. E. T. c. I. L. 1. 270. De Puebla to Henry VII.
Sends him an exact copy of two clauses of the treaty of alliance which he has concluded with Ferdinand and Isabella (on the 10th of July 1499), and ratified (on the 10th of May 1500). The copied clauses are clause 4 and clause 9, which settle that free intercourse and commerce are to be allowed between England and Spain, and that the treaty shall be promulgated in all towns and seaports within six months from its date. Signed "De Puebla."—No date.
Latin. pp. 2.
S. E. T. c. I. L. 5. f. 22. Requests made by De Puebla.
271. De Puebla to Ferdinand and Isabella.
What he begs the King and Queen of Spain to do is :—
1. To send the Princess of Wales to England as soon as possible, accompanied by a great many persons of high station and dignity.
2. To do what he has requested concerning Don Pedro de Ayala.
3. To write a letter approving the inclusion of the Kings of Scotland and Denmark in the alliance.
4. To send him a commission to decide the disputes between Spanish subjects in England.
5. To pay him his salary.
Indorsed : "Memoir of what I ask from the King and Queen."
Inclosed in the letter of De Puebla to Ferdinand and Isabella of the 16th of June 1500.
Spanish. Holograph. p. 1.
S. E. T. c. I. L. 5. f. 20. 272. The Bishop of Malaga to De Puebla.
Will be in the town at six o'clock in the evening. (fn. 7) Informs him of his coming in order not to appear unpolite, and not with the intention that the King should be acquainted of it. His servant will wait in the inn.—Dunkirch, 1500.
Addressed : "To the illustrious Doctor de Puebla, ambassador of the King and Queen our Lords."
The note is written in a very strange jargon made up of Spanish and corrupt Latin. It is included in the letter of De Puebla to Ferdinand and Isabella, of the 16th of June 1500.
Holograph. 10 lines.
June (?)
S. E. T. c. I. L. 2.
The Spaniards who live in England ; their conduct.
273. De Puebla to Ferdinand and Isabella.
The Spaniards who reside in England, and those who come and go, live without law, like people in a castle on the borders of two kingdoms. They acknowledge no authority whatever. His interference in their disputes with one another is therefore of little avail. But their internal disunions would be of no great importance, if they only did their duty in forwarding despatches and messengers, and in other things which it is better not to mention. Henry has asked him to write to them on this subject. Begs them, therefore, to issue a commission to him as their ambassador, intrusting him with criminal and civil jurisdiction over the Spaniards in England. Incloses a draft of the desired commission. Signed "Doctor De Puebla."—No date.
Indorsed : "To their Highnesses."
Spanish. p. 1.
S. E. T. c. I. L. 2. De Puebla endowed with jurisdiction over the Spaniards.
274. Ferdinand and Isabella to De Puebla.
Give to De Puebla, their trustworthy and truthful ambassador in England, power to compound or decide according to law, all civil and criminal causes concerning Spanish subjects residing, or staying, in the dominions of King Henry, with all the rights and emoluments that belong to civil and criminal jurisdictions. All Spanish subjects are ordered to obey his orders and decisions under heavy penalties.
Draft written by the Secretary of De Puebla, and inclosed in his letter to Ferdinand and Isabella. No date.
Spanish. p. 1.
S. E. T. c. I. L. 2. 275. Ferdinand and Isabella to Henry VII.
Have learnt how much he wishes that De Puebla should be entrusted with civil and criminal jurisdiction over Spanish subjects residing in, or coming to, and going from England. Have, therefore, issued such commission to their said ambassador.
Draft written by the Secretary of De Puebla. Inclosed in the same letter.
Latin. p. 1.
S. E. T. c. I. L. 2. 276. Ferdinand and Isabella to Henry VII.
Have been informed by De Puebla of the inconveniences which arise from the circumstance that he has no jurisdiction over the Spanish merchants and other Spaniards residing in England. Have entrusted to him such jurisdiction, because they believe they shall be rendering thereby a service to King Henry.—No date. No signature. No address.
Draft. Spanish. p. 1.
16 June.
S. E. T. c. I. L. 2.
277. De Puebla to Miguel Perez Almazan.
Has received three letters, and two short letters in cipher, from Ferdinand and Isabella, a letter from him to the King of England, a separate copy of the last letter, thirteen letters from Ferdinand and Isabella to English Lords, a power of the Princess of Wales, a ratification by her, approved by Ferdinand and Isabella, two ratifications of the treaty of alliance, and all the other papers mentioned in the letters, except the duplicate of which he speaks in his letter. Has written a long letter to him a few days ago.
Has written a long letter to Ferdinand and Isabella, and has given an account in it of all that has happened during the last few days. The same servant who takes this letter carries the letter to Ferdinand and Isabella, in which are enclosed the treaties of alliance, signed by the King of England and sealed with the Great Seal of the kingdom, together with all the other papers which are necessary for the definite conclusion of the whole business. It has been very difficult to carry on the negociations, because the King and Queen were occupied with preparations for their journey to Calais, and the Prince of Wales was in Wales. He will easily imagine all the delay that has been caused by it, if he consider that it is often impossible to cross the channel for twenty and sometimes for thirty consecutive days.
Preparations making for the reception of the Princess of Wales.
There remains nothing to be done now except that the Princess of Wales should come to England. Great preparations are being made to receive her.
Has seen the articles for the tournament which a French King-at-arms took to the King of France. They are written in the French language. Encloses a copy of them. The same articles written in English have been sent to the King of Scots, and given to the Archduke. They are solemnly proclaimed at Calais. Cannot get copies at Calais of the programme of the other festivities. That of the city of London is in the press.
Has told Henry who he is, how much Ferdinand and Isabella confide in him, and what a prominent part he has taken in the last negotiations. Henry has written a letter to him. If he should answer, Henry will be glad to see the letter.
Personal affairs of De Puebla.
Has seen with great pleasure that Ferdinand and Isabella have ordered the Treasurer Morales to send him a bill of exchange for the sum of 200,000 maravedis (fn. 8) as a portion of the salary due to him. But neither that nor the other bill of exchange for 200,000 maravedis, ordered in Madrid, has come to his hands. Is in great pecuniary difficulties. Begs that his salary may be paid. "When I was corregidor I was always offered what I had no right to accept, and asked to do what was forbidden, but I could never obtain what was due to me by right. The same thing has happened to me in England. You know already how much the King of England urged me to accept a bishopric, offering to procure for me all such dispensations from the Pope as might be necessary. I could not prevail on myself to accept it. When the King saw that all his persuasions were in vain, he and the Queen spoke to me for a long time on Twelfth-tide Eve about my personal affairs. They asked me to accept a rich match from them. If I had accepted either of these offers, it would have placed me in a different condition from that in which I am at present." Has not thought it right to accept the rich match without the permission of Ferdinand and Isabella. The King of England has written twice to Spain on this subject, but no answer has been sent back to England. Has taken the protracted silence for an answer, and is satisfied with it. For a marriage with an English lady would, to a certain amount, have denaturalized him, and the King and Queen of Spain would no longer have had the same confidence in him. Other Spanish ambassadors have acquired riches ; he has been forced to sell his little inheritance. Has been obliged to write to his son Fernan Rodriguez to sell his property for two-thirds of its value. Has had to write to Punthallon to lend him money at any amount of interest. Asks him to speak to Ferdinand and Isabella in his behalf, and to beg that at least one-third of the salary due to him should be paid. This third part amounts to 1,100 ducats. (fn. 9) Instead of the remaining two-thirds he would fain accept a rent for life.
It would be convenient to send two couriers to England as soon as the Princess of Wales embarks.
Hopes that he will be treated as he has deserved by his industry and fidelity.—Calais, 16th June 1500.
Indorsed by Almazan : "To me, from Doctor De Puebla, 16th June 1500."
Spanish. pp. 7.
June.
S. E. T. c. I. L. 2.
278. Earl Of Suffolk, Earl Of Essex, Lord Harington, Lord William Devonshire, Sir John Peche, and William De La Pencre. (fn. 10)
Beg of Henry VII. permission to hold royal jousts and tournaments, and to perform other feats of arms at Westminster, in honour of the marriage between the Prince of Wales and the Princess Katharine of Spain, which is expected to take place towards the end of August next. Challenge all gentlemen, of whatever nation they may be, and whatever weapon they may use, to answer them in the lists on the fifth day after the solemnization of the said glorious marriage. Only the great coat of mail and buckler are prohibited.
Twenty-three articles containing the regulations of the jousts follow.
No date. No signature.
Indorsed : "These two papers are to be given to the Secretary Almazan."
French. Copy. pp. 11.
20 June.
B. M. MS. Eg. 616. f. 13.
Coming of the Princess Katharine to England.
279. Henry VII. to Ferdinand and Isabella.
De Puebla has delivered to him their letters, from which he has learnt how welcome to them had been the intelligence that the nuptials per verba de prœsenti had been concluded between their children. Has also learnt from De Puebla that they have resolved to send the Lady Katharine to England at the end of the summer, which tidings have been very pleasant to him. Would not conceal that not only would the marriage be a happy thing in itself, but that it would be productive of no ambiguous advantage to his subjects. Has also received the instrument signed by their hands and sealed with their seals, confirming the treaty of peace and amity between him and them. On his part has also given the like confirmatory letters for them to De Puebla in presence of the Cardinal of Canterbury and others of his nobles. Desires to be commended to the Lady Katharine and their Highnesses.—Canterbury, 20th June 1500.
Addressed : "To the Serene and Mighty Princes Ferdinand and Isabella, by the grace of God, King and Queen of Castile, &c. &c."
Latin. p. 1.
Printed in Gairdner's Letters and Papers, I. 119.
27 June.
S. E. T. c. I. L. 2.
280. De Puebla to Ferdinand and Isabella.
The Latin Secretary has never been visible since Henry has returned from Calais to England. It has, therefore, been necessary to despatch all the letters which are enclosed here during the sittings of the Council. They ought to preserve them together with the treaty of alliance. Has concerted the enclosed letter with the Bishop of London. He is the president of the commission for negotiating the treaty.
Letters of the Prince of Wales.
Has opened the letters of the Prince of Wales. Wished to see whether he had written concerning the ratification as he ought to write. Thinks the letter will be found satisfactory. Expects hourly other letters from the Prince of Wales. Begs they will forgive the opening of the letters, because he had done it with the best intentions.
Interview between King Henry and the Archduke.
Henry told him that the interview with the Archduke had no other object than to show to the world their paternal and filial love, and to give something to guess at to their evilwishers.
King Henry's intentions respecting the Prince and Princess of Wales.
Henry has intimated to him further that his intention is to keep the Prince and Princess of Wales, during the first year of their marriage, about his person and at his court. The number of persons who are to accompany the Princess may be determined accordingly. The King had spoken once more on this subject just when the courier was ready to leave. The reason why he did so was because the almoner of the Princess had written saying that she would be accompanied by an incredibly large number of servants.
They may order the treaty of alliance to be proclaimed in Spain as soon as they like. Its proclamation will take place in England within six months, or earlier if they like. —Canterbury, 27th June 1500.
Addressed : "To the very high and very powerful Princes, the King and Queen our Lords."
Spanish. pp. 2½.
S. E. T. c. I. L. 2. King of the Romans ; his plans.
De Puebla's conduct in respect to the marriage of the Princess of Wales to be strictly watched.
King of Scots.

281. Ferdinand and Isabella, Instructions to their Ambassador. (fn. 11)
Do not doubt that Henry, in accordance with his virtues, and especially his faithfulness, will fulfill his promises respecting the marriage between the Prince and Princess of Wales. But it may be that the King of the Romans is endeavouring to undo the marriage in order to conclude another marriage for the Prince of Wales ; and it is not impossible that the King of England, from certain considerations, might enter into the plans of the King of the Romans. There is nothing positively known on this subject. The King of England has said nothing which could justify the suspicion that he intends to break off the marriage which has been already agreed upon, and the ceremonies of which have been actually performed. Nevertheless it is necessary to warn him. Neither Doctor De Puebla, nor any other person in the world, must know anything about their suspicions or about these instructions. He must be continually on the watch. As soon as he hears anything to justify what they suspect, or as soon as he observes that negotiations contrary to the marriage of their daughter with the Prince of Wales are being carried on, he must write to them, and do all in his power to frustrate the negotiations. Are satisfied with what De Puebla has hitherto concluded with Henry. But as De Puebla is said to be entirely under the influence of Henry, and to do nothing but what he wishes, he must watch him also every day during his stay in England, and see whether he does his duty. He must, in all his conversations with the King, with De Puebla, and with all other persons, speak of the marriage as a business perfectly concluded and sure, and say that preparations for the journey of the Princess to England are already making. He must always call her Princess of Wales. If he hear anything implying a doubtful intention on their part to marry their daughter to the Prince of Wales, he must most decidedly contradict it. In a secret letter he must inform them whether there is anything said in England about another marriage, and whether De Puebla be a faithful servant of theirs. He is expected to write the whole truth, without, however, letting De Puebla suspect that he is writing about him. He must, whilst he remains in England, inform himself what kind of person the King of Scots is, to how much his revenues amount, and acquaint himself with all he can about Scotland.
Neither date nor signature seems to be written in the hand of the Knight Commander of Haro.
Spanish. pp. 2.
29 June.
S. E. T. c. I. L. 2.
Meeting between King Henry and the Archduke.
Report of a marriage between the Prince of Wales and Princess Margaret.
282. Fuensalida, Knight Commander of Haro, (fn. 12) to Ferdinand and Isabella.
Has been told by Frenchmen, when only two journeys from Paris, that Henry and the Archduke had met at Calais. Travelled therefore as fast as possible in order to overtake the King in that town. Has been by no means easy in his mind ; for, whenever he asked the people, whether they knew for what purpose the meeting of Henry and the Archduke had taken place, the unanimous answer had been, "to concert the marriage between the Prince of Wales and the Princess Margaret." Each time that this distasteful news was told him he made greater haste on his journey. Reached a town which is called Boulogne. It is the last town in the dominions of the King of France, and only ten leagues from Calais. Was there told that the King of England had already crossed the channel, and that the Archduke was staying in a town which they called St. Omer. The Bastard of Cardona is captain of Boulogne, and some Spaniards live with him. Asked them the news. They answered that, according to common report, the marriage between the Prince of Wales and the Princess Margaret was already concluded. Went to St. Omer, which place was one day's journey out of his way, in order to ask the Archduke whether the said rumours were true. Found, on his arrival at St. Omer, that the Archduke had gone to Bruges. Neither the Castilians whom he met at St. Omer, nor the inhabitants of that town, knew anything of what the Frenchmen had told him. Was, on the contrary, asked by one of them, whether the Princess of Wales would come to England during the course of the summer. The person who asked this question had been in Calais when Henry was staying there, and had heard talk of nothing except of the great festivities and rejoicings which the English were preparing for the reception of the Princess of Wales. The English were exceedingly desirous to see her in their country.
Proceeded, somewhat more at ease, to Calais, where he arrived on the 20th of June. Crossed the channel next day to Dover. Was told there that Henry was staying at a town which the English pronounce Conturbel. (fn. 13) Went there ; but heard, on entering the gate of the town, that the King was just leaving it by the opposite gate in the direction of London. Sent to ask whether the Spanish ambassador was with the King. They told him that he was not with the King, but had already gone to London. Continued his journey to London next day in the expectation of finding the King already there. But Henry had not gone the direct way, because he wanted to visit another town near the sea.
Arrived in London on the 25th of June. Pedro de Ayala had gone to Flanders. Went therefore to see De Puebla. Henry, being immediately informed of his arrival, sent word that he would be at Greenwich (fn. 14) , four miles from London, on Friday, the 3rd of July, and would like to hear the message from his beloved brother and sister in Spain.
"That is all that has happened to me to day. I will write to your Highness respecting whatever I may think worthy of notice hereafter."
Conversations with De Puebla.
Spanish servants of the Princess of Wales.
Has seen De Puebla, who is very suspicious, and has tried in different ways to discover the real object of his mission. Told him that he had come, while on his way to Flanders, to visit the King and Queen of England and the Prince of Wales, in order to tell them, in the name of his sovereigns, what had happened in Granada. De Puebla was not satisfied with this answer, but made a most searching inquiry into his secrets (fn. 15) , and asked him directly whether anything touching the marriage was to be transacted. Not wishing to increase the distrust of De Puebla, told him that he was to speak to Henry about the arrangements for the household of the Princess of Wales, because it was desirable to know his wishes concerning the number and quality of the servants who were to remain with the Princess in England. The English had made great difficulties, especially with respect to the male servants. They had even refused to hear mentioned the office of a Lord High Steward, of a Lord High Gentleman-in-Waiting, of a Lord Treasurer, and of many other lower officers of the Princess of Wales. They wished to have as small a number of Spanish servants with the Princess as possible.
De Puebla told him at different times that the English especially abhorred a Lord High Steward (mayor-domo mayor), oftentimes repeating the word "High Steward." He had said, in the course of their conversations, "For God's sake do not mention anything that looks like delay or change in what has been concluded."
Answered that such was not the intention of the King and Queen of Spain, for their will was to fulfil all that had been concerted when the proper time for its fulfilment should have come.
Begged De Puebla to explain why nothing was to be mentioned that looked like a change in the conditions consented to? Some changes may be reasonable. Had the English changed their mind, or was any such thing likely to happen?
Princess of Wales.
Her coming to England.
De Puebla said, he did not know whether the English had already changed their mind ; but, judging by their national character, such a thing might easily happen. They doubt whether the Princess of Wales will ever come to England. If any new arrangements were proposed to them they would think that it had been done in order to put off the voyage of the Princess to England. The treaties are very well concluded, and all the clauses of them are advantageous to Spain. They must remain as they are, especially as Henry is persuaded that the Princess of Wales will land in England in the course of the summer. Great preparations are making for her reception. But, on account of the slowness with which the preparations for her voyage are made in Spain, it is more probable that she will arrive in November than in the course of the summer. No vessels are as yet retained for her voyage.
Has appeased De Puebla in as far as it was reasonable to appease him. Said that they had always intended to fulfil the treaty. His remarks concerning the vessels were unfounded. It is not necessary to retain the fleet which goes to Flanders, because Spain possesses enough vessels to send the Princess of Wales to England without disturbing the commerce of her subjects, especially as they are not obliged to send the Princess before the Prince of Wales has completed the fourteenth year of his age. It is not even known in Spain when that will be the case. Supposed that the Prince of Wales completes the fourteenth year of his age towards the end of September. The orders for the departure of the Princess will be given at that time. There would be nothing in the matter to cause surprise, if the Princess did not arrive in England before the end of November. She is not an ambassador or a courier, who must go in full haste.
De Puebla seemed, after this conversation, somewhat, and even much more reasonable, than before ; but it is still a difficult thing to do what they want to have done.
Strange behaviour of King Henry.
Asked De Puebla whether he had observed any change of mind in Henry, or whether the King of England suspected them. De Puebla said that he was not aware of it ; only on one occasion had the behaviour of the King seemed strange to him. When the marriage was contracted perverba de presenti, the King had kept the document relating to it back, and when asked to send it to Spain had always given evasive answers. He did not like to speak out his real meaning. That was when he went to Calais, and during his stay in that town.
De Puebla asked whether they would like Henry to send ambassadors to Spain, in order to accompany the Princess. Answered that they would be pleased with whatever the King of England thought it right to do. De Puebla asked them further, whether they would not be angry if he went together with the English ambassadors. He could best explain the whole matter. Did not like to give him any advice on this subject. De Puebla said that he would go, if the King of England asked him to do so.
Preparations making for the reception of the Princess.
Has spoken with a great many Spanish merchants in London. All say that great preparations are making for the reception of the Princess. The English generally are desirous to see her in England, although there are many who doubt whether she will come so soon. Asked them from what source these doubts sprang. They said because it was believed delay was advantageous to Spain.
As for the interview of Henry and the Archduke at Calais, nobody can tell the subject of it, or what conclusions were arrived at. De Puebla gave only vague answers, saying that both Princes were very well satisfied with one another, and entirely reconciled.—London, 29th June 1500.
Pestilence in London.
P.S.—Many persons are dying in London from a pestilence which has just begun its ravages. The disease is not very severe yet, but it is expected that the mortality will increase. The pestilence might, perhaps, be a good pretext.
Indorsed : "To their Highnesses."
Spanish. pp. 9½.

Footnotes

1 Princess Doña Margaret is Margaret of Austria, daughter of the King of the Romans. The marriage projected between her and the King of the Romans is occasionally mentioned in this Correspondence, as, for instance, in the letter of De Puebla of the 11th of January 1500.
2 This cipher is left undeciphered in the original despatch. It signifies the King of France.
3 Of Calais.
4 This paragraph is not clear. The cipher CCCCXXIII, which is left undeciphered in the original, signifies "marriages between Princes and Princesses of Spain, Portugal, Naples, England, Flanders, &c." Spain is not directly mentioned in the original letter, the words of which are "el CCCXXIII de alli." "Alli" occurs on almost every page of the Spanish correspondence, and means there, where the receiver of the letter or the person which forms the subject of it stays ; "de alli" is therefore of there, that is to say, in this case, either of Spain or of Navarre.
5 On a loose paper enclosed in the letter.
6 Paper gone.
7 Seems to be Calais.
8 About 102l. sterling.
9 About 220l. sterling.
10 Sic in the original.
11 The name of the ambassador is not mentioned. From the contents of the instruction it is, however, clear that it is directed to Fuensalida, Knight Commander of Haro, who was in England in the year 1500.
12 Haro is a small town in the province of Logroño.
13 Canterbury.
14 "Granuche" in the original letter.
15 No cesó de fazer inquisicion de mis entrañas.


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