Venice
September 1527

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Institute of Historical Research

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Rawdon Brown (editor)

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1871

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88-96

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'Venice: September 1527', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 4: 1527-1533 (1871), pp. 88-96. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=94574 Date accessed: 18 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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September 1527

Sept. 2. Sanuto Diaries, v. xlvi. p. 2.160. Audience in the Venetian College Hall.
The Pope's Legate came into the College with a Papal brief conceding benefices in the Venetian territory, to the amount of 2,000 ducats annual revenue, to the English ambassador, Prothonotary Casal.
[Italian.]
Sent. 3. Sanuto Diaries, v. xlvi. p. 5.161. Audience in the Venetian College Hall.
In the morning the English ambassador came into College, and urged the Signory to give him possession of the benefices, in accordance with the Papal brief, most especially those of persons deceased. He said he was the good servant of the State.
[Italian.]
Sept. 5. Snnuto Diaries, v. xlvi. p. 11.162. Audience in the Venetian College Hall.
The English ambassador came into College on account of letters from England, and besought the Signory to give him possession of those abbacies for which he petitioned heretofore.
[Italian.]
Sept. 7–13. Sanuto Diaries, v. xlvi. p. 83.163. Sebastian Giustinian to the Doge and Signory.
Cardinal Wolsey will depart in four days on his way back to England, being thoroughly agreed with the King of France. Has spoken with his Majesty and the Council complaining of this new league as too onerous for the Signory. The King said he only wanted what was possible, and would make no agreement without including Venice; and that the Imperial ambassador had told him the Emperor purposed sending a great personage, namely, Mons. de Lamsao (sic) [Nassau or La Chau?] to his Majesty. The King said this was useless, and that the Emperor did so merely to render the King of England and the Signory suspicious; and that if he wished for peace, there were French and English and Venetian ambassadors in Spain, where it might be made; nor would he give the Imperial ambassador a safeconduct. He said he chose the Milanese to belong to the Duke of Milan. The King also said that by the Venetian news-letters he was better informed about the capture of Genoa, which pleased him much; that he wished the army to march into Tuscany against the Imperialists instead of attacking Alessandria; that he will at any rate invade the kingdom of Naples, and appoint Andrea Doria general of the Genoese fleet; that he has sent him the order of St. Michael, and also 5,000 infantry to be embarked on board the fleet; and that the Signor Renzo [Da Ceri] is quitting the Court.
Compiegne, 7th, 8th, 11th, and 13th September. Registered by Sanuto, 27th September.
[Italian.]
Sept. 9. Sanuto Diaries, v. xlvi. p. 24.164. Letter to Cardinal Wolsey.
Proposal made in the Senate by the Sages of the Council and for the main land, for a letter to the Venetian ambassador in England.
Similar proposal for a Latin letter composed by the secretary Nicolò Sagudino, for transmission to Cardinal Wolsey. It was to the following effect:—
The expressions contained in his Lordship's letter delivered by the Prothonotary Casal, and the information received from their ambassador in France respecting the peace and perpetual alliance, signed through his Lordship's care and counsel, between the Kings of France and England, proved most satisfactory to the Doge and Signory and Senate; they being aware an affair of this importance could not have been brought to pass, save through the ability and counsel of the Cardinal. Therefore address this congratulatory letter to him.
The Signory hopes a general peace between the Christian powers will form the sequel of this auspicious commencement.
Entreat him not to cease protecting their Republic.
Dated in our Ducal Palace, 9th September 1527.
[Copy, Latin.]
Sept. 9. Deliberazioni Senato (Secreta), File 7.165. The Doge and Senate to Marc' Antonio Venier, Venetian Ambassador in England.
From time to time their ambassador in France will have acquainted him with the events of that Court. In date of the 25th ult., their said ambassador announces a fresh reformation of the articles of the League proposed by Cardinal Wolsey. It seems to have been suggested by some one with a view to his own personal benefit rather than from any other cause. Enclose copy of the articles sent to them and their reply, so that in case the King or others speak to him on the subject, he may be able to reply on good foundation. To take care not to say a word which could offend or censure Cardinal Wolsey, he being in such esteem and supreme favour as well known.
After the capture of Genoa, and the entry into that city of Theodoro Triultio, in the name of the most Christian King; the citadel in which was Antonioto Adorno having also surrendered; Mons. de Lautrec determined to lay siege to Alexandria, which he is cannonading; having with him the 1,200 Venetian infantry who distinguished themselves at the taking of Genoa. Have remitted the money for the Switzers, the artillery, the pioneers, and everything else demanded of them, although not bound to do so. Are sorry to find that notwithstanding this zealous good will, malignants say that at Marignano out of ten Venetian foot soldiers, seven are invalided, and especially the commanders; so that although the Signory alone disbursed the money for their contingent of infantry, yet the stipulated number was not underarms. For this they are not accountable, as it proceeded from the sickly season, which has been general all over Italy. They did not fail to send re-enforcements in lieu of the troops in hospital, but took into their service the Count of Gioso with 1,000 foot and 150 light cavalry, and the Marquis Palavicino with 500. Trust that when the epidemic ceases, things will return to their former state. In the Venetian camp in Tuscany, there has likewise been much sickness and mortality, to remedy which everything possible has been done. It is marvellous how the State can bear such a burden, but they endeavour to do so, with the firm hope that the King of England will not fail to aid the completion of this undertaking.
In the direction of Rome, the enemy has not moved beyond Terni and Narni.
To congratulate the King in the Signory's name on the fresh conclusion of peace and perpetual confederacy between his Majesty and the most Christian King, through the address and mediation of Cardinal Wolsey; and to tell the King, moreover, that the Signory is in great hopes, that from this auspicious commencement, there will speedily ensue a general peace between the Christian powers.
Ayes, 173. Noes, 3. Neutrals, 1.
[Italian.]
Sept. 9. Deliberazioni Senato (Secreta,) File 7.166. Doge Andrea Gritti to Cardinal Wolsey.
Original draft. Registered as above, by Sanuto.
[Latin.]
Sept. 10. Sanuto Diaries, v. xlvi. p. 38.167. Piero DA Pesaro, Procurator, etc., Ambassador in the camp under Alessandria, to the Doge and Signory.
The mines were within three yards of the walls of the town. Expect the artillery and powder. The Lansquenets had arrived, 1,000 or 1,200 in number. Sir Gregory Casal, the English ambassador, had arrived in the camp.
Dated 10th September. Registered by Sanuto, 13th September.
[Italian.]
Sept. 18. Sanuto Diaries, v. xlvi. p. 116.168. Sebastian Giustinian to the Doge and Signory.
Cardinal Wolsey returned yesterday to England, well pleased, and agreed with the most Christian King, who made him great presents; most beautiful tapestries, worth 30,000 ducats or crowns; a handsome chalice and paten, both of gold; an image of the Virgin, and an altar service, containing 88 marks of gold; besides other cloths of silk. To the Cardinal's gentlemen the King gave cloths of gold and of silk to the amount of 3,000 ducats. The Cardinal was accompanied a considerable distance, with great honour.
Compiegne, 18th September. Registered by Sanuto, 3rd October.
[Italian.]
Sept. 18. Sanuto Diaries, v. xlvi. p. 118.169. Jacomo Baretero to Count Francesco dell a Somaia.
Cardinal Wolsey departed yesterday morning on his return to England. The most Christian King and all the Princes accompanied him one league's distance. The Cardinal of Lorraine will go with him as far as Calais. On the day before yesterday, the Chancellor [Du Prat] received the habit and brief of Cardinal. He declined taking the hat at present, wishing first of all to see the King's sons in France, but his Majesty compelled him to accept it. Cardinal Wolsey received presents from the King to the amount of 30,000 crowns.
The Lord Steward [Anne de Montmorency], will go to England shortly in great state, his retinue numbering upwards of 600 horsemen.
Acciaioli has departed for Italy, after receiving a donation of 1,000 crowns from the King.
On Sunday last his Majesty conferred his order of Knighthood on Mons. De Lumiere (sic). The King has also sent it to Count Guido Rangon and Messer Andrea Doria. The King of England has also accepted it.
The negotiations between the Emperor and France are active. Since the departure of the Legate [Cardinal Wolsey] another post has been despatched to Spain; though some say that the Emperor has referred everything to the King of England, and that they will come to terms.
Compiegne, 18th September. Registered by Sanuto, 4th October.
[Italian.]
Sept. 19. Sanuto Diaries, v. xlvi. p. 59.170. Audience in the Venetian College Hall.
The English ambassador [Prothonotary Casal] communicated advices from the camp, received from his brother Sir Gregory.
[Italian.]
Sept. 19. Parti Comuni, Consiglio X., v. iii. p. 90.171. Importation of Wheat from England.
Motion in the Council of Ten and Junta.
Necessity for procuring supplies of wheat by all possible ways and means.
Put to the ballot, that all importers of wheat or wheaten flour from England or Flanders, from this day forth until the last day of April next, do receive from the Signory a bounty of forty “soldi” per bushel, with permission to export one-third (of the amount).
Importers of wheat from Spain and other places beyond the Gut of Gibraltar, throughout the month of April aforesaid, to receive from the Signory a bounty of thirty “soldi” per bushel, with permission to export one-third; the said wheat and Hour being allowed conveyance in Ragusan and other foreign ships and vessels (nave et navilij), with permission to insure, as if they were Venetian bottoms (navilij). (fn. 1)
Ayes,1813.
Noes,61.
Neutrals,11.
[Italian.]
Sept. 27. Navagero Despatches, Cicogna Copy, in the Correr Museum.172. Andrea Navagero to the Signory.
The plague at Valladolid increasing daily, the Emperor, the Empress, and the Queen of France went to Palencia. The Emperor was accompanied solely by the members of his Council, and by such persons as were required for his service. The rest of the Court are in various places two or three leagues from Palencia; the Councils of Castile, Arragon, and the others, have each a separate site. To the ambassadors they have assigned Paredes de Nava, (fn. 2) three leagues from Palencia. The Nuncio alone chose to have a place to himself, called Husiglios, a league and half from Palencia; having made a request accordingly to the Emperor. His Majesty would not remove to a greater distance from Valladolid, meaning to return thither when the plague ceases, but as yet it increases.
The French and English ambassadors lately received from France the decision which they were expecting. Lodging was immediately given then in Palencia that they might negotiate more conveniently. They have been there for some time; they confer daily with the Council and frequently with his Majesty. They base the peace on the articles stipulated at Madrid between the most Christian King and the Emperor, and discuss them one by one; they have settled many, and many remain undecided. The Emperor consents to give the most Christian King his sons, and to abandon Burgundy, on receiving for himself forthwith 1,200,000 ducats, and 500,000 for the King of England, to whom the Emperor owes that sum. Concerning the other 300,000, the residue of the two millions, they are not yet agreed; nor about the period or the hostages to be given him. Until payment of the money, the Emperor demands such and so many personages of France [as hostages], that the most Christian King would not give them for the two millions. The ambassadors think, nevertheless, that they shall obtain a more favourable decision. There is also difficulty about disbanding the armies on the conclusion of the peace. The Emperor would wish Mons. de Lautrec to be recalled immediately, but does not talk of disbanding his own forces, and the most Christian King will not recall Mons. de Lautrec until after the arrival of his children in France. Concerning his own passage into Italy, the Emperor says there is no occasion to speak about it, as he cares not the least about going, and dispenses entirely with the spears and infantry which were promised him for that purpose according to the treaty of Madrid; and he says that should he choose to go, he would do so in such a form, that everybody would be satisfied. In the event, however, of his wishing to go, he requires the most Christian King to lend him his fleet, and this the ambassadors have hitherto refused to grant.
Nothing has as yet been concluded about the Duke of Milan, which is the most important matter of all, and the most difficult; and it may assuredly be styled the whole. The ambassadors here have no commission about it, save that they are to conclude nothing whatever, (fn. 3) the Emperor not choosing to leave the Duke Francesco in possession of his territory, to which the King of France will not renounce his rights, save to Duke Francesco, and not to the Emperor, who will by no means consent to this. The Emperor seems determined to keep the duchy for himself, saying he will refer to arbitration whether the Duke has erred, but in the meanwhile will retain the territory, and restore it to the Duke if innocent. If the Duke be found guilty, the Emperor does not say to whom he intends to give the duchy, though heretofore he said it was for the Duke of Bourbon, nor does he any longer allude to his previous intention in favour of his brother; so it is evident the Emperor will do his utmost not to abandon the duchy, and that the true way for the Duke to recover it, is by force of arms. The English ambassadors here have always urged the Emperor in the name of their King to reinstate the Duke of Milan, even should he have erred, and that he ought to do so for the sake of his Majesty, from whom, independently of their relationship, the Emperor has undeniably received many benefits, and by whom he has always been assisted in his necessities. The only reply they could ever obtain was that the Emperor would not fail to do justice. They told him further that this restoration would be merely an act of duty, and not a grant of any favour to their King, who asked but this as a reward for all the trouble taken by him, and which he continues to take, for the Emperor. His Majesty has always continued firm in this resolution, and they have not obtained any other decision in this matter.
Had received a message from the English and French ambassadors, desiring him to go to them at Palencia with the Florentine ambassador, as the Emperor refused to include the Venetians and Florentines in the negotiations, save on certain conditions. Had audience of the Emperor, and gave an account of it to the English and French ambassadors. On returning to Paredes de Nava conferred with the Imperial ministers, who read a long note in Spanish, containing great and unreasonable demands. Enquired whether the clause concerning the duchy of Milan, purporting that the Emperor does not intend it for himself, signified that he did not intend it for his brother. They replied that they knew not, and referred him to the words of the writing. Gave an account of this note likewise to the English and French ambassadors, who pronounced the demands unfair (poco honeste), and told him to obtain a second audience of the Emperor, as he did. Assured his Majesty that the grant of his demands was utterly impossible, both by reason of the sum required, amounting to 620,000 ducats, &c., &c. The Emperor replied graciously, saying that this was the commencement of the negotiation and the first demand, and that in the course of the discussion a just conclusion would be arrived at; and that he would prove to the whole world that he wished for peace, and insist on nothing but what was possible and fair.
Since the departure of the Chancellor [Gattinara] nothing is written in Latin, everything being in French or Spanish; even the demands sent to the Signory are in French. Does not understand French. These papers were first read to him, and then given for his second reading in Spanish. They then delivered him the copy in French, saying that everything was clearer in that language than in Spanish; but the demands had been first made in French, and were then translated into Spanish by one who did not thoroughly understand French.
The main point is the Milanese; all the rest would be easily arranged. Knows not what to say, seeing that the Emperor is daily more and more bent on having it for himself; all the demands made by his Majesty seem to tend to this sole end. Is of opinion that the Emperor would accept any arbitration and make what peace they please, provided that territory were conceded him; but to do so would be to grant him that for which the whole of this war has been waged; all that has been done would be in vain, and victory would be given him at the moment when quite the contrary might be expected. Does not know how to rely on the perseverance of the French in the opinion that the Duke must hold his territory. They speak affirmatively, and have shown him (Navagero) letters from their King, desiring them positively to say nothing about peace unless the Emperor leaves the Milanese to Duke Francesco. Notwithstanding this, suspects that were there no other difficulty, the love for his children would make the most Christian King forget everything else. Has also heard many things, to which although he does not give entire credit, yet they disturb him. Has been told that the French have proposed to the Emperor, to give the duchy of Milan to the children born of the most Christian King and of Madame Eleanor, his Imperial Majesty's sister; (fn. 4) and that the King is content that the Milanese shall remain as it were sequestrated in the Emperor's hands until the birth of the son, and his attaining majority. The report is perhaps false, but is apprehensive lest they settle their affairs without mentioning the Signory, and merely reserve place for the Republic to join the peace.
The Emperor has acquainted the Nuncio and the French and English ambassadors, more plainly than before, with the instructions sent by him to Rome for Mons. Migliau and the General of the Franciscians, as follows: the Pope to be left entirely free, and all his territory and fortresses to be restored; so that there may be no doubt whatever of his liberty. The Emperor did not announce this previously, lest the intelligence should reach the Pope through others than those who were charged to communicate it. Mons. Migliau and the General did not quit Barcelona until the 5th instant; and owing to the loss of Genoa, does not know how they will proceed in safety. The Emperor also told the Nuncio, that on the release of the Pope, he should trust in him so entirely, that all his differences with the Signory or other Italian powers would be referred by him entirely to his Holiness.
The Nuncio assures him (Navagero) that the Emperor is much inclined towards peace, most especially with the Signory. The Emperor spoke much about this to the Nuncio, saying he suspected the most Christian King of making the same use of the Signory in Italy as he did in Flanders of the Duke of Guelders; therefore the Emperor did not nominate the Signory as a confederate, but would negotiate a separate peace, to be more safe. The Nuncio likewise said that the Emperor did not place much trust in these negotiations of France, great cause for suspicion being given him by the King of England, who, should the peace be made, will not promise to be the enemy of whosoever breaks it. The Emperor seems to place much trust in the Nuncio, through whose medium he (Navagero) hopes to be constantly made acquainted with many things.
Paredes de Nava, 27th September 1527.
[Italian.]
Sept. 28. Sanuto Diaries, v. xlvi. p. 84.173. Audience in the Venetian College Hall.
The English ambassador [Prothonotary Casal] showed advices received from France, in letters dated the 15th. The Emperor wished to send Mons. de Nassau to France; King Francis refused him a safeconduct, and is more than ever bent on the Italian expedition.
[Italian.]
Sept. 30. Sanuto Diaries, v. xlvi. p. 146.174. Sebastian Giustinian to the Doge and Signory.
Acquainted the most Christian King with the announcement made to him by the Senate, and the surrender of Alexandria to the Duke of Milan. His Majesty waxed wroth, said the Signory placed small trust in him, that he meant to keep his promises, etc.; adding that the infantry which the Republic was bound to maintain fell short of 5,000. He had conferred the order of St. Michael on the King of England, on the son of the Duke of Savoy, on the Count of Angoulême, on the Lord Albert of Carpi, and on the Count Guido Rangoni. The King also said that the Signory ought to appoint the Lord Theodore Triulzi Captain General.
Compiegne, 30th September. Registered by Sanuto, 13th October.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 This shows that as a general rule the validity of maritime insurances effected at Venice depended on the vessels being either Venetian property or of Venetian build.
2 The historian Andrea Morosini, Vol. I., p. 238, writes Pardo.
3 Concerning the marriage of the Duke of Richmond to the daughter of the Queen of Portugal, and the gift of the Duchy of Milan, see Wolsey's letter to Lee and Poyntz dated Compiegne, 11th September 1527. (State Papers, vol. vi., part 5, pp. 605, 606.)
4 In Navarro's report there is a passage concerning the duchy of Milan, to the effect that when Ghinucci returned to the Emperor in October 1527, he proposed the marriage of the bastard son of Henry VIII. to the daughter of Queen Eleanor of Portugal, she to have the duchy of Milan, for which the King was to pay 500,000 ducats. The Emperor offered his niece, the daughter of the King of Denmark, in lieu of the daughter of Queen Eleanor, and to this arrangement Francis I. assented. (See Cicogna, Iscrizioni Veneziane, vol. vi. p. 315.)