Venice
July 1614, 16-31

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Institute of Historical Research

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Allen B. Hinds (editor)

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1907

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151-165

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'Venice: July 1614, 16-31', Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 13: 1613-1615 (1907), pp. 151-165. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=95883 Date accessed: 01 October 2014.


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July 1614, 16–31

July 16. Collegio, Secreta. Esposizioni Principi. Venetian Archives.313. The Ambassador of England being sent for to the Cabinet, the deliberation of the Council was read to him, and he said:
My duty is a very pleasant one because I shall have an opportunity to serve as a mean in the reconciliation of two powers friendly to my king. I understand that your Excellencies have resolved to hear the Senator, but I should like to know when, and I thank your Serenity for recognising my efforts in your service.
In the absence of the doge, the senior councillor, Viaro, replied:
Your Excellency will have gathered from our decision how little we took into consideration the matters which you so ably presented the day before yesterday. The republic is always the same in her operations and will not allow herself to be moved except for a right end. The Senator Piscina may come when he pleases, and all the negotiations of your Excellency will be esteemed with the regard which they merit.
Some of the Savii said that the Senator could not have an audience before Friday, because to-morrow is the feast of St. Marina. (fn. 1)
The ambassador added, though my action in this affair has not been taken by the express orders of his Majesty, yet I can assure you that every favour which you give me will be considered as rendered to the king, as I know that your kindness to me proceeds from respect for him.
After the Councillor Viaro had replied, the ambassador took leave.
[Italian.]
July 16. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Milano. Venetian Archives.314. Agostino Dolci, Venetian Resident at Milan, to the Doge and Senate.
In an audience which I had with the governor yesterday he enquired very pressingly about what the Senator Pessina had done at Venice. They are much concerned here about his negotiations, and it is impossible to get it out of the heads of most of the council of State and even of the governor, that by means of Pessina your Serenity has concluded an alliance with other princes in aid of the duke if any attempt is made to force him to the marriage. They publish this as certain, though I cannot say what they purpose. On Monday last the governor said that he had the absolute confirmation of this from Venice, and that your Serenity had got hold of the idea that the Catholic king intended to take possession of the state of his Highness. This declaration, made with so much certainty, induced the council to decree the raising of levies, as it would not be prudent to leave the state unarmed while the royal army was in Piedmont. Some of the council said that the governor should assure your Serenity that the royal forces should not be employed to enter the duke's state except in the interests of peace, for which this marriage is the best guarantee.
The Prince of Castiglione confirmed these proceedings of the Council of State, the governor having had an interview with him about it, I told his Excellency that, with regard to Pessina, I had only heard the news of his being in Venice from him, and I believed that he had never seen your Serenity's face. He said he knew quite well that he had not been in the Cabinet, but that by means of the English ambassador his affairs were being brought before senators, deputies and the ambassador's friends. After this the prince told me that he had gone to Rome with instructions to the Cardinal Aldobrandino, and it seems to me that they are afraid of the pope also. I told his Excellency that such methods of negotiation were not adopted by your Serenity, and that I believed that he had been informed by ill-affected persons. The governor replied that he was willing to believe what I said and he did not think that the republic would give occasion for offence. I have written at other times of this suspicion of the Spaniards about Pessina's visit to our city, as I have received no information from you about it. In all this matter I have acted to the best of my abilities.
Milan, the 16 July, 1614.
[Italian.]
July 18. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.315. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The affairs of the parliament being ended, the marriage negotiations are being taken up again. For these, his Majesty's ambassadors in France and Spain stay on here. With regard to the French marriage two points have been added to those of which I wrote, one for the king, which is to confirm the marriage here; the other for France, for a consecrated place for the burial of those of the princess's court. Negotiations are proceeding upon these. I am informed that the prince of Condé would like it to be with the elder princess, who is destined for Spain, in order to break off that marriage. This would please his Majesty and M. de la Grange has spoken about it.
On Saturday morning the ambassador Edmonds met the ambassador of France. Two days later the latter had a fairly long audience of the king, in which he informed his Majesty of the obstinacy of Vendome, of two offers of the prince to force him, of his subsequent disgust and journey to Poitiers, the resolution of the queen, and above all he showed at great length that M. de Bocise, the ambassador extraordinary, had been suspended for this. He concluded by assuring his Majesty of the esteem of the Most Catholic queen for him.
The king made a fairly favourable reply, expressing his desire for the peace and prosperity of France. I know on good authority that his Majesty is ready to intervene in order to settle the disputes of that realm peacefully. He thinks that such dissensions are advantageous to Spain, and that tranquillity in France is therefore desirable. But that the government must be better, as I have written before.
I have been told, and it is quite likely, that the ambassador had some discussion with the king on the question of intervention, and the day before yesterday Edmonds and the secretary of State had a long conference with him. Owing to the short space of time I have not yet been able to discover the particulars.
Bouillon and Rohan write very frequently to the king. They are about some business, which is well received. The ambassador is aware of this as well as of what passed with the secretary of Condé. This may possibly arouse some suspicion in him, although he does not show it.
London, the 18 July, 1614.
[Italian.]
July 18. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.316. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The ambassador of the archduke has told me that things are not going well in Flanders, and that in the diet of Wesel every proposition of the ambassadors of the States has been broken off. They have been told that Juliers must be restored before it is possible to speak of anything else. They have accordingly departed, and the infantry and cavalry of the States on the frontiers have been greatly reinforced. They speak and act too precipitately. That he had audience of the king on Tuesday upon this and told him of the archduke's fixed resolution. He found his Majesty of the same disposition as at first. He impressed upon me that Cologne is the cousin of Neuburg and is ready and determined to help him. He can collect a force of 20,000 combatants. That the principality of Liège can collect 15,000. He has had experience of that country and knows it very well. That the archduke will certainly foment matters and he can put 30,000 veteran soldiers into the field; and the forces of his Highness may be augmented from Cologne and Liège as before. In conclusion he said that the States provided the principal support that Brandenburg could rely upon.
From other parts also I hear much the same about the States, the diet of Wesel and the action of the ambassador. The reply of His Majesty was substantially the same as he made at other times, and which I have reported.
The ambassador of the States was indisposed some days ago, but nevertheless the king has sent him information of what took place with the representative of the archduke.
The king's ambassador who was in Germany (fn. 2) has arrived here on his return. He went straight to His Majesty, who is in London to-day. He informed the king of all his negotiations and of the affairs of the empire. I will get information of the particulars and forward them.
Letters from Holland inform me of the desire of the States to have the elector of Brandenburg as a neighbour in possession of Cleves. They have published the confirmation of their ambassador in Constantinople and have assigned to him a salary of 500 crowns a month, leaving to his disposition all the consulships except that of Aleppo, which is reserved by the city of Amsterdam for the one who is now there, a son of the old consul of that place. In the same city two very rich ships have arrived from Syria, and others are expected from the East Indies. They have taken some pirate ships, mostly English.
London, the 18 July, 1614.
[Italian.]
July 18. Senato. Secreta. Dispacci, Mantova. Venetian Archives.317. Antonio Maria Vincenti, Venetian Resident at Mantua, to the Doge and Senate.
I have received the letters of your Serenity of the 15th inst. about the request of the ambassador of England that the Senator Pescina, sent by the duke of Savoy, may be heard, and of the decision of your Excellencies to hear him, and I will fulfil the order to inform the Cardinal Duke of this, when an opportunity occurs.
From Mantua, the 18 July, 1614.
[Italian.]
July 18. Collegio, Secreta. Esposizioni Principi. Venetian Archives.318. The Senator Piscina, sent by the duke of Savoy, came into the Cabinet, accompanied as far as the hall of the Pregadi by the Secretary of England, who asked an audience for him. He presented his credentials. After the doge had caused him to be seated and covered, he said:
It is several weeks since I was sent by his Highness to this city, to represent his intentions to your Serenity. I should have been introduced by the ambassador of England, as the ministers of that king who are now at Turin, recognising the upright intentions of his Highness, have always urged him to a reconciliation with the republic by means of the ambassador here. But he, thinking that he ought to learn the mind of his king, sent an express courier to England, in order that this negotiation might be carried on with greater reputation and dignity. But owing to the action of the governor of Milan, his Highness pressed me to visit your Serenity without delay. The duke desires to renew friendly relations with the republic, and if you respond to his advances, he will send an ambassador.
The governor of Milan is collecting troops; it remains to be seen whether this is to force His Highness to lay down his arms. But this step must be taken freely. The governor of Milan esteems this republic, and your interposition would prove effective. The duke desires to follow your prudent counsels.
[Italian.]
July 19 Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Roma. Venetian Archives.319. Tomaso Contarini, Venetian Ambassador at Rome, to the Doge and Senate.
The ambassador of France in speaking to me about the agent of Savoy who had arrived in Venice, said that he was lodged in the house of the English ambassador, and that negotiations were being carried on by means of Father Paul.
From Rome the 19 July, 1614.
[Italian.]
July 19. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Milano. Venetian Archives.320. Domenico Dominici, Venetian Resident at Florence, to the Doge and Senate.
News comes from Livorno that M. de Montis, a pirate of Marseilles, had four excellent armed vessels at Malta and had taken to the port of Tunis an English ship which was coming from Algiers with a great quantity of ryals. (fn. 3) He has also taken a ship of Buonavia and a Petacchio (fn. 4) of Charles of Lorenze with much merchandise. He is said to be arming all the vessels which he takes and he thinks it to his advantage, as in the case of the English ship, that they should have 22 pieces of artillery; and that he intends to procure the abandonment of the affairs of Barbary.
The English earl of Arundel is here with his wife, lodged and entertained by his Highness in the Palazzo Vecchio. He was received with a very warm welcome.
From Florence, the 19 July, 1614.
[Italian.]
July 21. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Germania Venetian Archives.321. Zorzi Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in Germany, to the Doge and Senate.
Yesterday a herald left here to take the emperor's decree to the duke of Savoy, which has been obtained by the Catholic ambassador. It commands the duke to disarm and to behave in a reasonable manner. The ambassador desired that the duke should be placed under the imperial ban if he refused to disarm, but the council did not think it right that the emperor should proceed with such rigour against so bold and resolute a prince. Copy.
From Linz, the 21 July, 1614.
[Italian.]
July 21. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci. Costant. Venetian Archives.322. Cristoforo Valier, Venetian Ambassador in Constantinople, to the Doge and Senate.
The Cadi of Pera, continuing his usual practices, has caused a dragoman of the ambassador of France to be beaten without reasonable cause, when he went before him upon some matter concerning the church of San Antonio. His master, feeling that he could not allow such an outrage to pass unnoticed, asked one and the other ambassadors here to go to the Grand Vizier to make a complaint suitable to the offence. I was very ready to oblige because since the Cadi's appointment he has continually harassed the merchants. We all went together to the Vizier and told him our story. He at first seemed inclined to defend the Cadi, but assured us that the servants of the ministers should be respected. We also complained of the general behaviour of the Cadi, and at length he promised to remove him from his charge. This, however, has not yet been done, but it will be one of these days. The ambassador of France subsequently came to thank me, attributing the favourable result to the influence of the republic here.
Dalle Vigne di Pera, 21 July, 1614.
[Italian; deciphered.]
July 21. Secreta. Dispacci, Costant. Venetian Archives.323. Cristoforo Valier, Venetian Ambassador in Constantinople, to the Doge and Senate.
The Grand Vizier has been very dissatisfied lately with my action in the name of your Serenity. The republic had sent a present unworthy of themselves and of him, and he was much disappointed that there had been no recognition of his complacency in exempting from customs the property sent out, and said that he had sent many things to Poland, England and Flanders and no prince had ever refused him this little toll. These particulars were communicated to me by Mehemet, who also gave me to understand that he expected some present for the custom of silk.
Dalle Vigne di Pera, 21 July, 1614.
[Italian; deciphered.]
July 22. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives.324. Piero Contarini, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
When their Majesties left Paris they took with them the king's eldest sister, destined to be the wife of the prince of Spain. Although this aroused little attention at the time, yet the hastening of the work on liveries, clothes and carriages has since excited the suspicion that the journey was expressly taken for her marriage and thus to take everyone by surprise, including the Huguenots, through whose country it was necessary to pass, so that even if they wanted to offer opposition, they should not have the means.
It is thought, however, that the court will not pass Tours, as they would probably stir up the whole of the district, which is mostly inhabited by Huguenots, But there are various opinions, and some are persuaded that this journey has been undertaken in order to prevent the meeting of the Estates. Some desire his Majesty to postpone them until his majority, when they will say that they are no longer necessary, and to make the king say that he wishes the marriage to take place.
The duke of Condé cannot be persuaded to go to the queen, and has returned to Chateauroux (Sciatereo).
From Paris, the 22 July, 1614.
[Italian.]
July 22. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Francia. Venetian Archives.325. Pietro Contarini, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
Spain continues to assure the queen of the firm resolve of the Catholic king to disarm Savoy, and that definite orders have been given to the governor of Milan. Here they pretend that the Spaniards have at length adopted this attitude owing to the continual causes for suspicion which the duke of Savoy affords, by his practices now with England, now with the States of Holland and with all those who are thought to be mistrustful of that crown.
From Paris, the 22 July, 1614.
[Italian.]
July 22. Senato. Deliberazioni, Secreta. Venetian Archives.326. That the Senator Piscina be summoned to the Cabinet and the following read to him:
The republic is always ready to do anything towards the welfare, liberty and peacefulness of this province. We thus assisted the Cardinal Duke of Mantua in the defence of his state, and we should have been ready to do the same for the duke of Savoy in a similar emergency. Our desire for peace is not prejudicial but most beneficial to His Highness. We desire that every pretext for disturbance may cease in this province, and that the duke may be disposed to lay down his arms and seek peace so that every one may remain in his former free and peaceful state. To this end we shall devote all our efforts.
Ayes152.
Noes1.
Neutral31.
[Italian.]
July 22. Senato, Deliberazioni, Secreta. Venetian Archives.327. That the Ambassador of England be summoned to the Cabinet and the following read to him:
We have been glad to show our esteem for the friendship of His Majesty in the matter of the Senator Pescina, sent by the duke of Savoy. We have instructed our ambassador at the court to inform His Majesty of what takes place in this matter and thank him, expressing our satisfaction with the services of your Excellency, not omitting to say that we have understood from the exposition of that Senator the most filial disposition of his master towards the republic and his great desire for a reconciliation. As we cherish a paternal benevolence towards the duke and his house, we replied that we should rejoice to see the duke lay down his arms, and all difficulties terminated, for the general peace of this province. We impart this information from the esteem that we have for your Excellency.
Ayes176.
Noes0.
Neutral1.
[Italian.]
July 22. Senato, Deliberazioni, Secreta. Venetian Archives.328. To the Ambassador in England.
From the exposition of the ambassador of His Majesty, which we enclose, you will understand the matter dealt with by him for admitting the Senato Pescina to an audience. As we highly value the prudent negotiations of this minister, who worthily fulfils his office and the intentions of his master, we wish you to thank His Majesty for what his ambassador has done in this matter, assuring him of the great desire of the republic to respond at every opportunity.
We enclose the reply made to the Senator for your instruction, together with a copy of his exposition. From these you will learn the duke's desire for a reconciliation, and from our reply you will see our readiness to meet him in a friendly way. You will inform the king of all this as a sign of confidence.
Ayes176.
Noes0.
Neutral1.
[Italian.]
July 22. Senato, Deliberazioni, Secreta. Venetian Archives.329. To the Secretary at Mantua.
The Senator Pescina has had audience and has declared his master's good disposition towards the republic and his desire for our advice in present affairs. To the first point we have replied in conformity with our sincere intentions, and to the second we have taken occasion to say how advantageous to free princes is the peace of this province and how necessary it is to lay down arms and remove offences. We endeavoured to persuade him that every one should remain in his former free and peaceful state. In informing the duke of this assure him that the republic remains firm in her attitude towards him, as we have informed the Senator, and we shall keep him informed of what takes place.
Ayes175.
Noes0.
Neutral1.
[Italian.]
July 22. Senato, Deliberazioni, Secreta. Venetian Archives.330. That the Catholic Ambassador be summoned to the Cabinet and the following be read to him:
Notification of the office of the Senator Pescina, who has come from the Duke of Savoy to ask for a reconciliation. The reply given was that the republic desired the laying down of arms and the peace of the province, so that every one may remain in his former state, and occasions for strife may be removed.
Ayes159.
Noes2.
Neutral8.
[Italian.]
July 22. Senato, Deliberazioni. Secreta. Venetian Archives.331. To the Secretary at Milan.
Send a copy of the reply given to the Catholic ambassador in the matter of the Senator Pescina, to be communicated to the governor of Milan. Should the governor desire to enter into the matter, represent to him our good intentions and our desire for the peace of this province.
Ayes159.
Noes2.
Neutral8.
[Italian.]
July 22. Senato, Deliberazioni, Secreta. Venetian Archives.332. To the Ambassador in France.
Send a copy of the exposition of the ambassador of England asking that the Senator Pescina may have audience to desire a reconciliation on behalf of his master, the Duke of Savoy, together with the reply made thereto.
The like to the ambassadors in Germany,
Spain,
Switzerland.
Ayes176.
Noes0.
Neutral1.
[Italian.]
July 23. Collegio, Secreta. Esposizioni Principi. Venetian Archives.333. The ambassador of England being summoned to the Cabinet, the decision of the Council was read to him. He said, I remember reading an Italian author who says that the whole duty of an ambassador is to use his skill to institute and maintain friendly relations between the prince whom he serves and the one to whom he is accredited. But perceiving that no skill of mine is needed to maintain friendship between my master and the republic, whose excellent relations are universally known, and in order that I may not remain completely idle, I have endeavoured to revive the ancient friendship between the republic and the duke of Savoy. I rejoice to see the promise of success in the reply of your Serenity, as I greatly desire that amicus meus sit amicus amici mei. I rejoice that this negotiation is proceeding so auspiciously that a prosperous issue may be expected, as the honour of my king is concerned. I will always endeavour to do my duty. While we recognise the prudence of your Serenity, we must also recognise a Supreme Authority. This appears by your Serenity having protected one friendly prince by arms and by receiving back into favour another who submits to you, and by such means your Serenity will attain your ends by seeing the conclusion of these warlike movements. For though to speak frankly, the duke of Savoy appears in this to be acting mainly for his own purposes, yet these troubles are not lost sight of from other and more distant parts. I hope for a happy issue of those affairs, and that I shall receive the fruits of my labours, which will gratify the king my master.
In the absence of the doge, the senior councillor Viaro replied:
It has always been most gratifying to us that your actions are constantly supported by the friendship of His Majesty towards the republic. The Senator Pescina has been welcomed and has performed his office as you have heard from the deliberation of the senate. He will have been able to see our friendly disposition towards his Highness.
The ambassador requested that the deliberation might be read to him to aid his weak memory, and in the other chamber it was read to him by a secretary.
[Italian.]
July 23. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci. Mantova. Venetian Archives.334. Antonio Maria Vincenti, Venetian Resident in Mantua, to the Doge and Senate.
The Resident Sordi has reported the audience given by your Excellencies to the Senator Pescina. So far as I have been able to discover he rather excused the actions of his Highness, especially of the Ambassador Gussoni, and asked your Excellencies to arrange an accommodation between him and Mantua. The Catholic ambassador is very suspicious of this mission and went by night to see Sordi and urged him to keep a close watch upon the negotiations of Pescina, although as they were afterwards communicated to the French and English ambassadors he had the means to satisfy himself about them. He added that the same Catholic ambassador had treated with your Serenity to the end that the republic should not foment the designs of Savoy. Here they are awaiting the reply to be given to Pescina.
From Mantua, the 23 July, 1614.
[Italian.]
July 24. Senato, Deliberazioni. Secreta. Venetian Archives.335. To the Secretary at Milan.
The Senator Pescina, beyond his first office in the Cabinet, has promised the laying down of arms in the name of His Highness, as you will see by his exposition. We have resolved to approach the Catholic ambassador in the way that you will see by the copy. We desire you to perform a like office with the governor, making use of the exposition simply as an instrument, without giving particulars. We desire you to obtain audience of his Excellency, representing to him that as the duke is ready to lay down his arms if the neighbouring powers have any intention of doing the same; as much as possible having been done by Mantua, the pacification of the province rests in the hands of his Excellency.
Ayes164.
Noes0.
Neutral22.
[Italian.]
July 24. Senato, Deliberazioni, Secreta. Venetian Archives.336. The proposition of the 22nd made in this Council to read to the Catholic ambassador the representation made in this Cabinet by the Senator sent by the Duke of Savoy, having been suspended, that the said ambassador be summoned to the Cabinet and the following be read to him:
At the last audience we informed you of the mission of the Senator Pescina. That Senator has now confirmed the laying down of arms in the duke's name. But the duke's disarmament must be regulated by the disposition of the neighbouring forces. The duke of Mantua has done his part, and the matter now rests with His Majesty. We ask you to unite your representations to those of the governor of Milan to persuade His Majesty to act for the common service of Italy and her princes who expect to enjoy their former security and tranquillity from his authority and from the prudence of his ministers.
Ayes164.
Noes0.
Neutral22.
[Italian.]
July 25. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci. Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.337. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
I wrote that the ambassador of France might possibly have conceived some jealousy on account of the offices performed here on behalf of the prince of Conde and others. I now perceive it clearly from his own speech, which confirms the impression. I pointed out to him the good intentions of His Majesty. He agreed and added a few words, expressed freely and confidently, disclosing a possible doubt about someone who might have advised the king. He told me that the marriages with Spain have been put off for a while, that the difficulties on the confines of Bearn have not been settled, that as no council has been formed for the Estates it will be difficult for them to meet, and consequently war might be feared in France. He said that the queen would not make use of foreign troops, but only of those of the kingdom. It is a fortnight since he received letters from Villeroi, which seems a bad sign.
The ambassador of Spain, in referring to the affairs of France, said with some temper that he hoped the queen would withdraw the two regiments of infantry and the cornets of horse, which she maintains and pays in the Low Countries; that in Spain they no longer speak of the marriages with France.
It is thought here that the consignment made by the duke of Vendome into the hands of the Marquis of Coure and the letters of Condé to the queen, especially those of the 6th, have produced a great impression. But the ambassador suspects that something is concealed beneath that consignment.
It is said that the king has received word that the Most Christian queen insists upon two points, one, that she desires the marriages with Spain to take place in any case, and the other that the meeting of the Estates may not take place, although she pretends to wish for it. She is led to the first by the resolve to marry her children to advantage, and to the second by the advice of those who would like to be considered the arbiters of the whole government. It is thought here that if the Estates meet matters may pass off quietly, but not otherwise.
Gabaleone, who is resident here for the duke of Savoy, says that he has leave for two months and he will shortly depart for Turin. To my informant he confided that His Highness, recognising the danger of stirring up the Spaniards in the affairs of Montferrat, now aspires to free himself from them. I also hear that the duke has sent to Venice a man of his called Paoli, upon the pretext of special affairs, but possibly in order to communicate something secretly to your Excellencies. I also hear that the king has written to his ambassador, to do what he can to reconcile your Serenity and the Duke, so far as he finds it pleasing to you that he should do so.
London, the 25 July, 1614.
[Italian.]
July 25. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci. Inghilterra. Venetian Archives.338. Antonio Foscarini, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The Marquis of Spinola has already begun to bring his men into the field, and the Archduke Albert is levying Walloon infantry and cavalry. Forty Spanish companies are also expected, so that they reckon upon having a powerful army very soon. The elector of Cologne and the duke of Neuburg are also enlisting infantry and cavalry. The States have sent orders to their officers here to return immediately to their charges, as they are doing. Prince Maurice is filling up his companies with great diligence and content, reviewing them and sending them to the frontiers. He is also enlisting and equipping others. The Marquis of Brandenburg is also making ready and little hope remains from the meeting at Wesel, although its breaking up has not yet been announced.
The ambassador of the archduke has of late been twice to see the king. He has informed His Majesty of all this, begging him to intervene, and to declare his intentions to the States. His Majesty is sending Sir [Henry] Wootton as his ambassador extra-ordinary to Holland. He will leave next week. His commission is to urge the States to put Juliers into the hands of a neutral prince, as they seem inclined to do. If they agree to this, he will return without going further. But if they do not, he will go to the princes, though it has not yet been quite decided what he shall propose to them. It is thought that even if the States agree verbally to put Juliers in the hands of a third party, it will be very difficult to fix upon the person.
The ambassador of Spain, in discussing these affairs with me, expressed very clearly the resolution of his king in favour of Neuburg, and in telling me of the enormous quantity of troops, said that he would send Italians as well as the forty companies of Spaniards. That in Italy his king has 26,000 soldiers in his pay, a good portion of which are in Sicily. They were intended to serve in the fleet against the Turks, but there is no reason why they should, and they can easily be sent to Flanders, where they would be of more use.
The ambassador of the States, on the other hand, has informed me that his masters are quite capable of looking after their own interests and dignity. It is not their custom to say Fiat voluntas tua except to God in the Lord's Prayer, and certainly not to Spain. As for the king, he seems in favour of peace, but if matters come to a crisis he will be bound by the confederation to help Brandenburg with 5,000 soldiers.
The ambassador who has returned from Germany has confirmed an ancient confederation made between the houses of Brandenburg, Saxony and Hesse. It was first arranged for twenty years, which have passed, and it is now established for thirty by the interposition of His Majesty, to begin from the present time. The king is sending some one to the duke of Neuburg, who will set out very soon.
London, the 25 July 1614.
[Italian.]
July 26. Senato, Deliberazioni. Secreta. Venetian Archives.339. To the Secretary in Mantua.
The Senator from Savoy has shown the difficulty of disarming while the state of Milan remains armed. Upon this we resolved to take the Catholic ambassador into our confidence in the matter. He expressed his readiness to forward our representations to Spain and Milan and said that his Majesty would not act deceitfully with the Duke in the matter of disarming. We enclose a copy of the communication made by us to the Senator Pescina, with instructions to communicate the whole to the duke, so that he may recognise our continued confidence. You will thank his Highness for the information transmitted by his representatives at Milan, which have been communicated to our Council of Ten.
Ayes172.
Noes1.
Neutral1.
[Italian.]
July 26. Senato, Deliberazioni, Secreta. Venetian Archives.340. That the following be read to the Senator Pescina in the Cabinet:
We have approached the Catholic Ambassador resident here, asking him to make urgent representation in the proper quarter. He replied with thanks and protests of the good intentions of His Catholic Majesty, who wished for nothing more than peace. Throughout his discourse he was at great pains to give satisfaction and to demonstrate the perfect sincerity not only of his Majesty but of all his ministers in this affair. We think it right that his Highness should know of this favourable reply. Delays increase difficulties and may hinder the agreement to the detriment of all especially of those most interested. He should apply his mind to disarmament and to such means whereby he may best acquire the goodwill of the princes of Italy and of all Christendom.
Ayes172.
Noes1.
Neutral1.
[Italian.]
July 26. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Roma. Venetian Archives.341. Tomaso Contarini, Venetian Ambassador at Rome, to the Doge and Senate.
Cardinal Borghese told me that he knew that the Senator Pescina had had audience of your Serenity. I did not deny it. He afterwards said that this mission had been arranged by Abbot Aldobrandino who is studying at Padua, his uncle the Cardinal had confirmed this to the pope. It seemed to me that he was jealous of Aldobrandino.
From Rome, the 26 July, 1614.
[Italian.]
July 26. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Roma. Venetian Archives.342. Tomaso Contarini, Venetian Ambassador at Rome, to the Doge and Senate.
Cardinal Aldobrandino sent for me and told me that the abbot, his nephew, had approached the Podestà of Padua to bring about a reconciliation, between the duke of Savoy and your Excellencies. The negotiations had been stopped, he did not know why, and had afterwards been taken up by others, resulting finally in the mission of the Senator Pescina to Venice. According to his information from Turin, it was for the affairs of Count Francesco Martinengo, but he believed that it was to bring about this reconciliation, which he expressed a great desire to see. He said that he knew the good will of the duke, and the esteem of His Highness and his house for the republic. He had acted in the interests of Italy and he had urged the pope to interest himself in these matters. The pope had thanked him, and he thought that his action had pleased His Holiness.
From Rome, the 26 July, 1614.
[Italian.]
July 26. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Firenze. Venetian Archives343. Domenico Dominici, Venetian Resident in Florence, to the Doge and Senate.
I am informed that the Spaniards are much put out about the Senator Pescina, sent by the duke of Savoy, who was introduced into the Cabinet by the secretary of the ambassador of England. They suspect him of negotiating an alliance with the republic.
News has come from France that the Jesuits are in some danger of a popular rising against them, the parliament having prohibited the book of Suarez and caused it to be burned by the common hangman on the steps of the palace.
From Florence, the 26 July, 1614.
[Italian.]
July 27. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Milano. Venetian Archives.344. Agostino Dolci, Venetian Resident at Milan, to the Doge and Senate.
In conformity with the instructions contained in your Serenity's letter of the 24th inst., I have had audience of the governor to-day. He first asked whether the Senator Pessina had gone to the Cabinet alone the first time or whether he had been introduced by the English ambassador. I replied that the particulars had not been sent to me, but I said that there were three main points which I had to lay before him. One was that Pessina had declared the great esteem of his duke for the republic, the second that he earnestly desired a reconciliation, and the third that his master was ready to disarm, but that he must do so with a due regard to the neighbouring forces. Your Serenity had replied that the attitude of the republic to the house of Savoy was what it always had been.
His Excellency replied: The duke of Savoy says that he wishes to disarm; he has said the same to me, and that he will do so if I pledge my word to disarm also. He further promised not to attack the duke of Mantua. But he will not make the marriage. I will put no difficulty in the way of his disarming, but this will not secure peace in Italy, because Mantua will not pardon his rebels and Savoy cannot abandon them. The proximity of these two States compels the king to interest himself in these affairs.
Milan, the 27 July, 1614.
[Italian.]
July 27. Senato, Secreta. Dispacci, Germania. Venetian Archives.345. Zorzi Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in Germany, to the Doge and Senate.
The Emperor asks me to thank your Excellencies for the consignment of musical instruments which have given great pleasure to him and the Empress. With regard to the reports about the understanding between your Serenity and the Protestant princes to the prejudice of the house of Austria, I have been able to disabuse the emperor's mind, and he told me that he did not believe them. M. Gliselio told me the same; and said the suspicion had arisen not only from rumours but from the knowledge that a minister of the republic was present at the first meeting of the Princes of the Union five years ago. I said that the report was not true, at which M. Gliselio expressed astonishment, but accepted the truth of my statement. Copy.
From Linz, the 28 July, 1614.
[Italian.]

Footnotes

1 On the day of Sta Marina, the 17 July, 1609, Taddeo Volpi and the Proveditore Andrea Gritti succeeded in bringing off the Venetian troops in safety from the opposing forces of the League of Cambrai. Subsequently a sumptuous monument was erected to Taddeo in the church of Santa Marina in Venice, and by public decree the doge and senate visited this church in state every year on the feast day of the saint. Tassini, Curiosità Veneziana, ii. p. 34.
2 Sir Stephen Lesieur.
3 We hear of an English ship, the Tiger, taken at Tunis by two Marsilians. sent out against pirates. Carleton to Chamberlain, 15 July, O.S. State Papers, Foreign, Venice.
4 A light vessel, used for scouting.